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CATALOGUE 



OP TBK 



BIRDS 



l?r THR 



Biin isir MiJSEU J 



VOMMK XXIV. 



LOMION: 
rUlMKIi ItT <»KI)i;U OF THK TKUSTEES. 

.at ri'ihU rfJirrrftl. ' 



LIBRARY OF THE 
LiLAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY. 



CATALOGUE 



IIP rni 



L I M IC L iE 



I.N IIIK 



COLLECTION 



(Ik iiii: 



H K 1 T I S H MUSEUM. 



K. HOWDLKR SIIARPE. 



LoN 1H>N: 
I'HIMKIi liY uKDKK oF THK TUU8TEES. 

•••LI' h\ 

N»^••M%^H * f o. :.v PArKKN«»HTKIt Row ; 

t ^< A til* II : I'll t A HILLY. Ill LAI' k tV. n? HOflO MjUAKE. W. . 

■ &•*»% TAt L k (•>. I»ATKK!ViihTKH lIOl'rHi:, ClUUlXf CK(>8H KoAl>. 

A»l* &T IHk 

9%:* : '» «(*RIM NAT r HAL HlHT«)RY). CHOMWBLL Hi>AI>. t-W. 



PRINTED BT TATLOR AND FRANCIS, 
BKD LIOK COURT, FLUT ITSIBT. 



PREFACE. 



1 H c r4U»« of the delay in the publication of this, the twenty- 
fourth Tulume of the Catalogue of Birds, are explained in the 
Author's Introduction. 

Id •ucu a irroup an the limic(»la% which have widely extended 
rxng*^ oi distribution, and migrate to almost all parts of the world, 
tLe rrfcreni'M in ornithological literature arc naturally extremely 
c.iffit-rouf, and the collection is also a remarkably extensive one. 

When the Tolume was nearly completed, the great series of 
Waiim^r-liirdii which formed (lartof the collection of the late much- 
*.aai<nt'^i Mr. Ilcory Seebohm came to the Museum by his be<]uest. 
T£i*-w- hid to lie incorporated either into the text in the pnrt still 
uLhri.tbcd, or as Addenda to the earlier portions of the work. 

A* in the cane of the former volunieH, Dr. (iunther has n-vJMMl 
iLe prof*, the greater part of which pjij^ted through the press 
<£unug hit Kt^{ier«hip of the Zoological I>e|iartm«*iit. 

W. H. FLOWER, 

Directs, 

J.:j ivJi i^w 



INTUODUCrriON. 



Tur delay in the publicatidii of the prcMcMit Tolumo has Won 
'I'i*-*! }*\ the fict th.it the libtuir involvi»d in itn preparation has 
fir « \*N'.^lifi my ex|>t»<tatii»n«. The H|H»ciinens arranjfetl and cata- 
ICvi«*J in it an* IM,-I^», exclii^iive of many hundreds of dnplicates. 
Tb** n*f#*renit'H iiuotnl in the Mvnonvmv an» ls,8!»2. With the 
••I'^'pti 'M «»f a f«'W lN>«>k!*, wliieli prov*»<l to Im* inaeotni^ibkN the 
wrj.iir i»i thi« nri*H of lit«'r:ituri* has lM»en artnallv con»*»ilte<l. 

Hi*- i.*.'ll*ctniiiof »|MrinienH i"* a truly wonderful one. Of the l^.V* 
•ji^-'it-j* r*'0«>rd(tl, the Hriti^h Mu'm'UUi Citntains I'.'MJ, and the tyjics 
hTr •"»•» in nuiiiUT. It in in o»nneftioii with tlif di<trihution of 
'•.ri* \,k** t}i«* I.iuiic«>l:e that him* in alili- t<> (estimate the value 
f !:*•••* >:rt',it tloii i?i«ins whi'h h.ivf Iwvn ni;ide to tin- Musi'Um 
•'\ Mr. A. n. Huin**, Maj««r Wanllaw Knin^av, and MtSHp*. Salvin 
•.:- i *fi'iij!i. In ni.my iii^t iinr?» (In* iiitin* ran;;** of a specit*^ i^ 
•:•--. '.•!f.i!«| h\ lh«* •»iTif'» of >kin*« in tin* n»llee!ioii. TIm* \Va<linjc- 
I..: I. vii'ft- iiU.i •!••« j:il lavoiiril»»i with tin* lit** Mr. Hfury S'««lH>hni, 
• ' ... «<<rK "fi t!i' ;;i'4i;:iMphiral di'»tri'Nuiion 'ii ihf Ch irudriithe in 
':.' u*»*? im^K.rtaiit tiruti**** 'in tin* frroiip. 11 1>* untiiui'ly death liist 
'•af d« !«rivi-«i th« M:jH4'uni of i-ni- of it«« l»»st trpMuU; but l»v hin 
!•••.• r».* I'tHj ii-M ihi- rollirti'Ui ot l.iniiiola* li.i-* Im^mi jrrt'atlv 
»••. '.'d, ai ».il \tf MM n l»y tin* h-n;; \\^* of ' Addriidn/ whifh 
•■ •-• •• 'hi«l!} "1 »»]••• iin«ii» pi«*^i-nTid h\ Mr. N**hohni. 

If. tij«- pn-p I'.'itjo'i of ||jf p!i-«*iiit \ohiini' 1 liavf nr* ivril h»'lp 
fr 7ii n*iti\ ti)«>nd*. .iniofi;*«t u i«otn I inii«<t t-.p4 cinU' nuin'M'r tin* 
f -L '«iar. who hav«- coiitrihut«-<l to it^ 4-oniph>tcne<»!o hy dtinationi 



VllI IXTRODUCTIOX. 

or by the loan of specimeDs : — Hon. Walter Eothschild, Sir H. H. 
Johnston, K.C.B., Colonel Irby, Surgeon-Captain K. H. Penton, 
Professor. Robert Collett of Christiania, Dr. Bassett-Smith, Dr. H. 
0. Forbes, and Messrs. St. George Littledale, G. Caton Haigh, 
J. E. Harting, W. E. De Winton, W. T. Blanford, F. W. Styan, 
C. B. Rickett, and C. W. Campbell. 

The same symbols are employed as have been customary in 
previous volumes of the * Catalogue.' ** [P.] " means " Presented 
by " ; " [C] " means " Collected by " ; " [E.] " means " Received in 
exchange." 

R. BOWDLER 8HARPE. 

British Museum (N. H.). 
May 10, 1896. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Order XIL LIMICOL^ 

Faoi. I. (Edicxxmidji. 

1. (lClicn-*inii», Temm. ... 3 
1 (fiicitemiis (L.). .. . 4,721 

2. ivnejal -naifs Stc tins, 10, 721 

3. xrruiicuUtui, Cab, 11,721 
4 bi<riatu« ( H'agi.i. . 12, 721 

6. d iniini-'eii^is, C'^ry . . 14 
tf. • iptfrviiUn«, Tsthudi. . 14 

7. rmtern^i*, Lickt. . . 15, 722 
8 amal^ /^n"/* 17, 722 

a liarhir.u*. 7//iy H 

1. w* A'Uriu« (/.a/A.). . H, 722 

3. E*a.-ii*, i>«*. 20 

I. iviuniw^lri^i (Cur.) 20, 722 

4 (^'.b >rhA uphus ^\tlcaj. . 22 
1 ui yuir.«lrw ( T.) . . 22, 722 

VhtX II. C r R tlO Q I I D JS. 

1 l>rv»ai \*, Pitvk 27 

1 *f.l.-.la. Pitfk 2^,722 

•J fry K'hi*, r 3> 

1 tor !fi^m il') ;i0.722 

J 11.n:.ioi«, I' 32 

I ».'vpti.i«. A.) 32. 72 J 

4 • * jr-'r.ii«. /xifA 34 

I ,;al.r.H (^'m.) .... -U, 723 
1» • ri.aUn*!*, .SA*-//^ 37, 723 

3 rufi.. ^'W// 3**, 723 

4- c-/r #oiand<-licuA ( ^m.) •'()), 

723 
.' t«- ni m I nr k i , Sic<tin$. 4 1 . 7 23 

u h:*;'.- ptilu*, SttickJ. . . . 43 
1 h. ii**-iii«. Temm. .4*3,721 
-.' b «i«rT^tu«. H'irtf ..'i'^T'Jl 

3 bwt.n.'i. .Sk/fr/*f . 4*s 724 

4 ri.rtas //--rtv/ 4<«.724 

ft fr-Uihmi, Shnrfie . .47,724 
♦; c;.*!** •jiCeru-.TVwiiw. 4^, 724 
7 »iU/A*r.atu«..SA4in>^4'), 725 
•• hrmu«tu« (ir^A; 50,72«'> 

4 **t.lii«. A^ 51 

1 uftbrlU'ri 51.725 



7. Qlareola, ^riw 63 

1. prUincoU (L,) ... .53, 72*5 

2. inelanoptera, Snrdm, 57,726 

3. orientals, Z^rA . . 6d, 7it5 

8. (.TalHCtochry.^eay /?/i 62 

1. ocularis (Tirr.).... 02, 726 

2. marehei ( On^t) ... .(W, 726 

3. emini (SkeUey) ... .04. 726 

4. DuchalU {Gray) 64 

5. cinerea {Fraaer). . . .64, 726 

6. lactea {jBmm,) 6£s 727 

Fam. III. Parri DiE. 

1. HydropbasU, Sharpe .... 60 

l.'tbinnxua {-Scop.) . .6;), 727 

2. .Metopi<liu«, WayL 72 

1. imiicuj* (Lath.) 72, 727 

3. Ph yllopezuA, iihatfte .... 76 

1. afncMnus (Gtn.). . . .76, 727 

2. albinucha(/.f#>'^.) 76,727 

4. liydralector, M'ayl 70 

1 . gulUnaci'UA ( Trmm.) 79, 728 

2. no\io ^uiutMb, J{:un$.. . 81 

5. JacanM, Sichaeffer 81 

1. jacirui {L.) S2,728 

2. inelaii >py^ia {Set.) . . 84 

3. nijrra (6'm.) 84 

0. Aaarcia, Hhar/ e 86 

1. variabilU (L.) ... .86, 728 

7. Micropjirra, Cah 88 

1 . capeiwi-s {^mi/h) . . 8S, 728 

Fam. IV. Charadriida 
Siiblain I. .\rrnariin.e. 

1 . ArtTjaria, lin'sM 01 

1. intfipie* {/..).... 02.728 

2. ni«'lHiiiH:«'pliala ( J'fy.) 103, 

729 

Subfaiii. II. Umlxatopovism. 

2. Ilirmatnpii^ L 105 

1. ofitraltyutt, L 107,729 

2. (Hu*ulani». SwinM. . 1 1 1, 730 

h 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



3. longirostris, T. . . 112,7^ 

4. leucopus, Garn.., 113, 7.'}0 
6. pallifttus, Temm. 1 14, 730 

6. gtilapagensis, i^icJE^tr. . 116 

7. ^zari, Brewnt. . . 117,730 

8. durnfordi, Sharpe 117, 731 

0. unicolur, Wagl.. . 118, 731 

10. rooniiini, lip 119,731 

W.m^v, Pall 120,731 

12. ater (ZcM.) 121,731 

Subfam. III. IjOBIVankllinje. 

8. Oreophilus, J. ^ S, 123 

1. riificollis ( Wagl.) 123, 731 

4. Erythrogonys, Gould 124 

1. ciiictus, Gould . . 125,731 

5. Detilippia, Salvad, 126 

1. cra88iro8tri8(2)tfjPt7.) 126,732 

2. leucoptera(i?tficApn.)127,732 

6. Sarciophorus, Gould .... 128 

\. t^ctMB (Bodd,) .. 128,732 
2. latifrons, Beich^n 130 

7. Ubipluvia, Bp 130 

1. malabarica (Bodd.) 131, 732 

8. Microsarcops, Sharpe .... 133 

1. cinereus (Blyth).. . 133, 732 

9. Hoploxyptems, Bp 135 

1 . cayanus llMth.) . . 13/>, 732 

10. Ptiloscelis, Bp 13J 

1. resplendens (Tsdiudi). 137, 

73:3 

11. LobiT-anellus, Stj'ickl 138 

1. lobatuP (ZflM.). . . 139,733 

2. miles (Bodd.) .... 140, 7^3 

3. senegalus (/..)... . 141,733 

4. lateralis (Smith) 144, 733 

Subfam. IV. Chakadriinje. 

12. Xiphidiopterus, iZ^irA^f^. . 146 

1. albiceps (Gould) . .147,734 

2. cucullatu<< (7>mm.) . . 148 

13. SBXcogrKmmuBf Beichenh. . 148 

1. indicus (Bodd.) . . 149, 734 

2. atrinuchalis (Jerd.) 152, 734 

14. Tylibyx, Beichenb 163 

1 . melanocephalu6(i?i//7;>.) 1 53, 

7U 

16. Zonifer, Sharpe 154 

1. tricolor (V.) .... 154, 734 

16. Anomalophr}*8, Sharpe . . 166 

1. siiperciliosus (i?eicA«i.) 156 

17. Hoplopterus, Bp 157 

1. spiuosus (L.) .... 157, 734 

2. veutralis ( Wayl.) 159, 734 

3. spociosus ( W flfi^r/.) 161,735 



18. 

19. 

20. 

21. 
09 



23. 
24. 



25. 
26. 



27, 
28, 
29 

;io 



31. 
32. 



Z I 



Paffe 

BeloDOpterus, Beichenb, . . 163 

1. cayenneDSiH (Gm.) 163, 735 

2. ch'ilensis {Mol.) . . 165, 7^5 
Vanellus, Bn'ss 166 

1. vanellus (L.) .... 160, 736 

EuhyaA, Sharpe .... 171, 736 

1. leuoura (Licht.). . 171,736 

Chaetusia, Bfy 174 

1. gregaria (Pall.) . . 174, 736 
Slephanibyx, Beichenb, . . 177 

1 . coronatus ( Bodd.) 178, 736 

2. melanopterus 

(Cretzschm.) . . . . 180.736 

3. inornatus(5frrtm«.) 181,737 
Squatarola, Leach 182 

1. helvetica (i.).... 182,737 
Charadrius, L 191 

1 . plu>'ialis, L 191, 737 

2. dominicus, P. L. S. 

Mull. 195, 738 

Apbriza, Audub 208 

1. virgata, (6?7/i.) .. 208,739 
Ochthodromus, Beichenb. . 209 

1. obscurus (Gm.),. . 211,739 

2. bicinctus (/. * &) 212,739 

3. wilsoni (Ord) .. 214,739 

4. geoflFrovi ( Wagl.) 217, 740 

5. mongofus ( Pall.) 223, 740 

6. pvrrnothorax 

(Gotild) 226,740 

7. asiaticus (Pall.) . . 230,741 

8. veredus (Gould) . . 232, 741 
Eudromias, Brehm 2.'U 

1. morinellus (Z.) .. 234,741 
Zonibvx, Beichenb 238 

1 . modesta (Licht.) . . 238, 742 
Podasocys, Coues 240 

1. montanus (Towns.) 240, 742 
. Oxvechus, Beichenb 242 

l.Vociferu8(X.).... 242,742 

2. tricolUri8(r.) .. 247,743 

3. bif rontatus. Cab, 249, 743 

4. forbesi (Shelley). . 250, 743 
>^2gialeu8, Beichenb 250 

1 . 8emipalmatu8( Z?p.) 250, 743 
a^^gialitis, Boie 254 

1. hiaticola (L.) .... 256, 743 

2. placida (Gray) . 

3. aubia (Scop.) . . . 

4. peroni (Bp.) . . . 

5. alexandrina (L.) 
0. mar^inata (V.) . 
7. pallida (Stnckl.) 
f*. venusta (Fischer Hf 

Beichen.) 286,747 

9. ruticapilia(7>»/i7n.) 286, 747 



262, 744 
263, 744 
213,745 
275, 746 
282, 747 
284, 747 



STSTBM ATIC IHDKX. 



XI 



10. o^lbim ( r.) 288,7^ 

11. niToM(rw.)-... 290,748 
IJ.m^lodtLiOrd)..., 292,748 
IT .<cia«*nuljii. Cab, 2t^'>,748 
14. fBlibmdiemiLatJk,) 2S»5,748 
1 *>. prcturia ( Trmm,) 297, 749 

l*Mi. tb>«ackm, Hickm 749 

!•>. •Mttcim belene, Hart' 

imn\ 299,749 

1 7 iDeUii.ip« ( r.) .. 900,749 

!*• cMuul]iiu(r.) 902,749 

XX. l'IuTiAS«*lluii, Jacq. <V 

IWMer rWi 

1. MMriM\i»^Jatq,!lrJ\wM€r, :K)3 
^. Thioiimiii, ftrajf 304 

ih'm.) 304,7.50 

1». r«i*Lrr'niy lUXy 

.15 .\narfa\Dchia», (My ^ 

//•ijM 300 

1. fr-DtAliik. Qu0^ Jt 

h'aim 30tJ, 7oO 

^ubfam. V. IV1.T011YATINA. 

■V. |V.t..hTAA. SMarpe 307 

1 Au>trali» (<r<MiA/) 307,7.50 

SubUm. VI. IllllAXTOP<)IiIN.ffS. 

37 Iiiniuiti»|iua. hri$t «*{09 

1 hiniant'ipu* (/p. ). . .SIO, 7*V) 
•J n».-i»nurus V. . . 310. 7.50 

3 IruoM-cpbiiluii, Guuld IM7, 

4*>1 

a ]u'mX\i», KUmnn «tI9, 7.'>1 

4 ni*i:*aiiil4 (7*. /.. .V 

.!/•«/;.» :{L^», 7.51 

.'. k!;.i.i^iji i.sy^>.i 32:<,7r>i 
y/1'7 :wj.7.5i 

^ • 1a<1- rli%nrhuii. tiray. . . . 31'4 
1 ^ u*-<«*.-t>hiiIti.» < J'.) 3-4. 7.51 

5» ll« ur^innitrm, /, .*il**J 

1 •! ^^tu./. 32tJ,7ril 

.' ftrttt-riraim, f$Mi. . . .*J3<», 7*52 

t. .\tt h..:l»n«liir. r.;i:w,7.5-j 

^M^m \I1. ImiKiHIIYNrillN.t.. 

# lUl rh%r>rhu», I5y .TCi 

I ►!futb-r»i, l'#y. . . .Ttt, 7.5;/ 

*».t6un. VIII. ToTA.MX.i:. 

• I \ .nmiu*. /iriM ;M0 

1 «ri(Mtu«(I.) 311, 7o:'. 



42. 
43. 



44. 

4.5. 
44t. 
47. 



48. 



49. 



.50. 



.51. 



.51'. 



.53. 
54. 






.50. 

r^7. 



2. tenuirofltriB, V, . . 348, 7^ 

3. cyanopuA, V. .... SBO, 753 

4. longirustris, HUs. 362, 763 
r>. phfiopuA (Z.) 366, 763 

a, Tariegatus ('Sctp.) . . 301, 

764 

0. biidsonicuff. Lath, 364, 754 

7. tabitienMit ( 6'm.) 307, 754 

8. boradis {Forst). . 368,756 
Meioacolopax, JSharpe .371 

1. mioutui* (Ovuld) . .371,755 
Limoaa, Briu 372 

1. lapponica (Z.) ..37.% 755 
a. nuviB zealanditt, 

Grmf 377, 756 

2. Uiuo«a (Z.) 381,760 

a budsonica {Lath.) 388, 766 

4. f«doa(Z.) 391,756 

MacTorbampbuii, Leach . . 393 

1. griiieus(Gm.).... 394,757 

2. taczanowAkiil r>rr.)400,757 
Micropalama, Baird 401 

1. bimantopuH {Up,) 401, 767 
Svmpbemia, Rafin 405 

1'. flemipaliimta* (Gm.) 40lij 757 
TdtaDiui. Bfchst 409 

1. fu9(*u» (Z.) 409, 758 

2. calidri« (Z.) 414. 758 

3. >t«cnHtili», Bfck^, 422, 759 

4. iufTan()l«'ucufl ( trfii.)426, 759 
.5. Havipefl {Gm.) , , 431,759 
IIelt»dn)maA, Kaup 437 

1. iK^bnipuH ( Temm.) 4.37,759 
l>. fk>litariuH(If'i/M/fi) 444,760 
a. rinnainoiiifUH 

(Bn-trjit.) 760 

IleteractitU, Strjn 449 

1. bre\ipe«, V. 449,761 

1'. incanua {Gm.) . . 4.53, 761 
Trinjfi)ide?», Boi^ 456 

1. bv|Mileu(*U!«(Z.) .. 4.5<K7(J2 

2. luVuUrius (Z.) . . 4<$8, 762 
Trr»*kia, //;> 474 

1. niii*rea(r,M/</r»M/.) 474,763 
pHtMuln^lottis. St^jn 479 

1 . guttifir ( yonim.) 479, 7tW 
(ili.ttiN. KocA 4H0 

1. iifbuUriuj^irri/wfl.) 4^'l,763 
Hbvao<>pbiIii'<, Kaup .... 4(K) 

1 . KUm>la ( fffn. ) . . 491 , 7((4 
ravunc(*llAf I^iif-M 4}'J) 

1. pifniax ( Z.) .... •5(X), 764 
lUrtnunia, Ztm t509 

1. liinfriraiuia (//<*< A/i/.).5<KI,765 
Kr»Miiirt**», lliitftr .514 

1. putilluiCZ.) 514,7<(6 



RrSIIXATIC IHPBX. 



Subfam IX. ScoLoPACiKs. 

8. 6: 

(F 21,766 



72. 



. 670 



1, luar.tiuia ((>"<')' ■ S^f'i^ 



l.Bu .660,71 
87. Tringa, £ 51 

1, canutuR, I. W^'i 71 

2. cruMiroatris, T4 8. LOO, 7i 
68. Pelidna, Cu» * 

l.i.lpmii(L.) *Xli,li 

■au.) 608,71 

09. « 

(T.) 012,71 

.70. i 8 

l.stBnu™(B/>.) 6 

2 . . 0:J4, 7t 
8. «: 

6. 8- 

6. »■ 

7. »^ 

8. andiDa ( Tan.) o- 

9. ■ ■ 8^ 
10. ■■ 6- 



73. Scolopfti.i. ....; 671 

1. rusticiUB, L 671 

2. 678 

74. I'h 079 

1. 071) 

75. Pheroniw, Gray 081 

l.niitchelli {Fi-ater) . . . . 082 

76. HoeiTBlulK, V. 083 

1. cnpenais (£.) 683 

2. aufltrelis, Got^d (90 

3. MmicoUana ( K) 690 

Subfam. X. Pualaropik^. 

77. 693 

etw 

,.)'*!!!! 698 

79. SU-g.tuopu8, V. 706 

l.lricofor, y. 706 

Fam. V. Chiohidida. 

1. ChioniB, Font 710 

l.alb(i(«m.) 710 

2. Chionarchua, Kiddtr Sp 

Coutt 711 

l.ininor{tf«r(/.) 712 

2. crozetleDsia, SAarpe . . 713 



Fam. VI. 

TaiNOCOBSTHID*. 

1. .\ttHgis, Leu. S( It. Geoffr. 714 

1. gari, £«M. 715 

2. chimboraieoBU, Set. . . 716 

3. mulouiniM {Utidd.) 716 

2. Tbioocorus, Eich 717 

1. orbizuiauu.', Geoffr. ^. 
i>«. ..... 718 

2. ^u^udvoru^ i?«^ 719 



CATALOGUE 



or 



BIRDS 



Order XII. LIMICOLiE. 



Pftlat^ fohixognathouB. 

NoctriU Mrhizorbinal (except in the OSdicnemulof and the genu* 

Bill ftimple (ezoi'pt in the Chionididf^), 

Orrif al vrrtebne 15 (vzoept in the (Eiiiaumida and the Parrid<E). 

0>ru^»- humeral f^ruorc distinct. 

Fufi ula with hypocleidium. 

Pnaari<« rlt-Teu. Fifth secondary wanting (hence the wing 
AK| :;^ a t« 'Cubital). 

< »iI-^Un«l tufted. 

Aflrr-liaft to the con tour- feathers prceent. Spinal feather-tract 
«' J-firhrit^l un the neck and forked on the upper body, with lateral 
tratt*. 

Hallui. if pmM*nt, connected with the JUxor hnguM haUucis, and 
V 1 1 h the JIfjror jterforanM diijitorti m . 

Tur« «»aly partially webbed, or not webbed at all. 

T'/unir riirrrrd with dose and fluffy down, and able to run shortly 
•Her \witkt hatched. 

K#7« T&nible in colour, frenerally clay-brown, mottled or spotted 
•r srnbUKi all orer with black, but in DromoM white ! 

(C/. Gadow, P. Z. ». 1802, p. 240.) 

TOL. XZIT. 1 



2 GEDICITEMIDA 

Key to the Families* 

a. Nostrils holorbinal ; tarsus covered on both 

aspects with hexagonal scales (EdicnemidSB, p. 2« 

h. Nostrils schizorhinal *. 
a\ Crop not globular. 

a". Rhamphotheca simple. 

a"\ Without basipterygoid processes . . CnrsoriidsB, p. 26, 
h'". With basipterygoid processes, 
a*. Lateral occipital fontanelles 

absent ParridsB, p. 68. 

h\ Lateral occipital fontanelles [p. 90. 

present CharadriidsB, 

h". Rhampotheca complex CllionididsB,p. 710. 

h'. With a globular crop Thinocorythida, 

[p. 714. 

Although the above characters may be of great importance in an 
arrangement of these birds, they are not of much assistance in the 
determination of specimens. Other external characters are given 
below under the headings of the respective families. 



Family I. (EDICNEMIDiE. 

Palate schizognathous. 

Nasals holorhinal. 

Basipterygoid processes absent. 

Spinal feather-tract not forked on the upper back. 

Feet not webbed. 

Hind toe absent ; middle claw not pectinated. 

Tarsus entirely reticulated, both in back and front. 

Nest none. 

Eggs two in number, stone-colour, with sparse black lines and 
markings. 

Nestling covered with dense down, of a sandy colour, with two 
black lines down the black. 

Cf. Seebohm, Classif. B. p. 37 ; Sharpe, Wassif. B. p. 73 (1891). 

The great resemblance which these birds present to the Bustards 
(Otides\ and the fact that in both families the nostrils are 
'* holorhinal/' have led to their dose association in many systems 
of classification. Among the Limicolo!, the (Edicnem\d<B stand 
somewhat isolated, but their nearest allies are undoubtedly the 
Oyster-catchers, their eggs very much resembling those of the last- 
named birds. 



* Bzoept Pluvianus, which is referred to the Curtoriida. 



1. OEDioinfirs. 



8 




Flf. 1.— Foot of (Edicnewnu adienemui, to ihow aodiiif. } nat UM^ 




Fif. 2. —Front aod bind afpect oftAnus of (Bdientmu$ 

to show •OBiing. 



Kty to the Oenera. 

^L RQl »h«'it«rr than the head, the apical portion 

•Wfll'^n, forming a marked dertnim, and 

th* apical curre of the gents ascending 

r^ilv. 

a. Tail M^'mewhat iihort, tinlv equal to the 

l^ivth '^f the hnad and bill 1. CEdicnbuui, p. 8. 

h. Tail 711 ui'b l(tnp*r. conitidfrably exceeding 

thr l«*n/th of the hea«i and lull 2. Buahinus, p. 18. 

i lUU a* I-n/ a« or I'tntrvr than the head. 
r' .Kfir^l p'rti'»n of bill idi^^htly swollen, 
furmiC/ a 4carCi*ly evident dertrum ; the 
tip '-f th** u{>pfr mandible (reotlv curved, 
and th** ^^•n_v'« abruptlv tiM?enJing, the 
di*ta !.<*»• frmn th** ^'aiv xa tht* anfrle of the 
ir^n% * ••xrtt^iink*' th»* dt-tance frmi the 
Utt'T t'l th** tip*>f th»* lower mandible. . 
^ Cilm-n ]>^rf*<t]y Mraifrht ; angle of genys 
jTt abr-if't, it* ilintAiici* fnuu the tip of 

1 «•: iiuin'tihlf al>«ut t-qiml to its di»- [P*^* 

tarir«- fmm thf ^apr 4. ObtUOEHAMPHUS, 



3. E6ACU8, p. 20. 



1. (EDICNElCnS. 



Type. 
(E, Gddicnemua. 

(£. cedicnemus. 



CfA.ez0^r.i.i*, Trmm, M*tn. tfOrn. p. :\'2\ (lHl5) 

fmi,^ I^'h, S^$t. Cat Afamm. 4* Birds Brit, Mus. 

p :*- l-l»ii 

E^t^ypt. Trm|4*rate pf»rtionft of the Pal«arctio R«gioD, and nearly 
# w!^»le' f the Kthiopian, Indian, and Australian Kegiona. 8outb 
a, from Aniaxouia and I'eni northwards to Mexico and San 



2 



4 (EBICNEMIDiE. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Centre tail-feathers uniform or slightly ver- 

miculated or barred, but the bars very narrow 
and not equal in width to the interspaces. 
a\ No blac^ patch on the sides of the hinder 
crown ; throat, breast, and flanks conspicu- 
ously streaked with black, 
a". Upper surface of the body not vermicu- 
lated. 
a"', A white band across the line of the 
median coyerts, bordered above and 

below hj a line of black feathers csdicnemuSf p. 4. 

b'". No white band across the median 
coverts, which are grey like the 
major-coverts, with longitudinal black 

centres seneffolensis, p. 10; 

b". Upper surface of body vermiculated, a 
narrow line of white across the median 
coverts, plainly bordered above, but 
scarcely below, by a line of black ; rest 
of meaian coverts pale ashy grey, like 

the greater series vermiculatMj p. 11. 

b . A black patch on the sides of the hinder 
crown; throat, breast, and flanks not 
streaked with black. , ;> • # •_^.,_ « i o 

c". Upper surface mottled, tawny and black. . \ T^^^^'^: ^^\. 
cT'. Opner surface greyisl^ vermiculated with ' ^^^««^«««» P- 1*. 
ausky and dull sandy buflT mperciliarta, p. 14 

b. Centre tail-feathers broadly barred across with 

rufous and black; upper surface of body 
coarsely spotted and barred with black, but 
not streaked, 
c'. Larger; bands on median wing-coverts broad 

and coarse ; tarsus 8*7 capenM, p. 15. 

<f. Smaller; bands on median wing-coverts 

narrower; tarsus 3*2 ajflnis, p. 17. 

1. (Edicnemiui GBdicnemus. 

The Stone Curlew, Albin, Nat. Hist. B. i. p. 66, pi. 69 (1738: 

Norfolk). 
Le Grand Fluvier, appelld vulgairement Courly de Terre, Briss. 

Om. v. p. 77, pi. vii. M. 1 (1760). 
Chaiadrius oedicnemus, lAnn. Bust. Nat. i. p. 255 (1766) ; Chn, Syst. 

Nat. i. p. 689 (1788). 
Charadrius scolopax, 8, O. Gmel. Bets. Bussl. iii. p. 87, pi. 16 (1774). 
Le Grand Pluvier, D'Aubenton, PL JEnl. ix. pi. 919 (1765-1781) ; 

Bugr. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. n. 105 (1781). 
Charadrius illyricus, Pillerj It. Poseg. Sclav, p. 26 (1783). 
Thick-kneed Bustard^ Laih. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 2, p. 806 (1783). 
Otis oedicnemus. Lath. Ind. Om. p. 661 (1/90). 
(Edicnemus crepitans, Temm. Man. d'Om. p. 332 (1815) ; Werner, 

Atais, Coureurs, pi. 6 (1827) ; MStidtr. Cat. Bats. Cauc. p. 54 

(1832) ; Naum. Voy. Deutschl. vii. p. 92, pi. 172 (1834) ; Ootddy 

B. Bur. iv. pi. 288 (1838) ; Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. <J- N. Amer. 

p. 45 (J888) ; Crespm^ Om. Oard, p. 350 ri840) ; Keys. u. Bias. 



!• GuicvBMua. 5 

WM. Emr. p. Ixix (1840) ; Nordm, in Dimid. Foy. Rim. MSrid. 
iiip. 2d0(lto: OdeiMa, March to Oct); SckL Hev. CriL^hajd 
<18I4); Miikle, Bfitr. Om. OrieehenL p. 94 (iai4) Qrmt, Oen, 
B. iii. p. r>35 (1844); id. List OnUL Brit, Mum. p. 59 (1844); 
HevUM. E^g* Brit. B. ii. p. 247, pi. Iztu. (1846) ; BfytM, Cat. B. 
Mum. Am. Soc, p. 260 (1849: CalcutU) ; TktnnpM. B. IrtL ii. d. 82 
(I'W); Mac^ Brit, B. It. p. 77 (1862); Schl. Vog. IMerL 
pU. 200, 210 (18.S4); Bp, C. R. xliii. p. 416 (1866); Jaub. et 
Bmrtk.'LapmHtm. Biek. Om. p. 441 (1859) ; Trutr. IbiM, 1859, 
p. 36 (S. P^efftixie) ; E. C. Taylor, t. e. p. 51 (Emt) ; Salvin^ 
I. r. p. 354 (EAHtern Atlas); Zindfrm. Vog, Orieekeid, p. 132 
(1860) ; TriMtr. IbtM, 1860, p. 76 (N. Sahara) ; iWf, t c. p. 338 
(Corfu k KpiniA); ScJU. Dier, NederL, Vog. pL 21. figs. I, I a 
(1^4(1); Irby, IbiM, 1861, p. 237 (Oudh) ; Orag, IamI Brit. B. 
p. ia> (1863); AdamM, Ihu, 1864, p. 28 (Effvpt); Wright, t. e. 
p. 141 (MalU: breeds): Speriing, t. e. p. 286*; Jerd. B. Ind. iii 
p. 6.VI (1H64) ; O^. IhU, 1865, p. 59 (Pisa : resident) ; More, i. e. 
p. 430; SeJki. Mum, FauM-BaM, Cursores, p. 20 (1865); L^ord^ 
Jhu, lc^66, p. 178 (Madrid) ; Chamber$, RU, 1867, p. 101 (Tripoli); 
Blgik, t c. p. 166; Drakf, t. e. p. 420 (Tangier) ; Degl. a (Hrbe^ 
Om, Eur. iL p. 115 (1867); Loehe, ExpL Sei. Aigir., OiM, \l 
p. 256 (1867); TriMtr. IbiM, 1868, p. S22 (Jericho: breedinff) ; 
Awrm, t. c. p. 391 (Maunbhoom) ; Smith, t. c. p. 452 (Portugal) ; 
Borggr. Vogelf. XorddeutMchi, p. 108 (1869); Dod^rl, Avif. 9ieiL 

51 173 (1 '!<&»); OouJd, B.Ot. BrU.'vr, pi. 35(1869); Saundert. 
Um, 1H6U, p. 173 (Spain); ElweM ^ Buckley, IbiM, 1870, p. 3d0 
(Turkcj): Btamf. t. c. p. 470 (Irawadi Valler): Oumeg, /Ms, 
1^1, p. IW (Algeria); SaunderM, t. e. p. 386 (S. Spain) ; Salvad. 
Aim. Ital., Vce. p. 119 (1871) ; B. Orag, B. We^ ScotL p. 251 
( 1-71 : St. Andrew's) ; Orag, Hand-4. B. iiL p. 9, no. 9939 (1871); 
Godmum, Mm, 1872, p. fiO (Teneriffe: breeding); ffarting, 
Hmmth. Brit. B. p. 42 (1872); SheUfv, B. Egypt, p. 230 (1872); 
Hag^M Uogd, IbiM, 1873, p. 416 (Kathiawar) ; Brooke, t.e.^tm 
<Saniinia) ; Antin. Sf Saivad, Viagg. Bogot.p. 142 (1873 : Assab) ; 
HmgL Om. S.O.-Afr, ii. p. 985, pt ('1^73: Flgypt and Nubia); 
Sfterti. Turkf€t, Jerotn. p. 09 (1873: bn*eding) ; Hume, Str, F. 
I p. 232 (I87:t: Sin^h); Adam, t. c. p. ;{95 (Sambhur) ; Hume, 
Mr. /'. tii. p. 1M2 (lrS75 : Thajetmjo) ; Morgan, IbiM, 1875, p. 333 
(S. India) ; Dam/. ^ Harvie^ Brown, t. e. p. 419 (Transylrania) ; 
Jrbg, B. Gibr. p. VA (1875); FaUon, OiM. Beig. p. 14? (1875); 
iMvMser, IbiM, \<G, p. 326; Butler, Str. F, iv, p. 14 (1876: 
M'iunt Abo^O : Tact. BuU. Soc. Zuol. Fi-anct, ii. p. 154 (1877: 
K4aod); iMm/ird, IbiM, 1878, p. :i4 (Asia Minor); Seebokm^ 
IbiM, lrv^2, p. 221 (Astrakhan); id. IbiM, lSf<\, p. 2H (Caucasus); 
Chafftmam. IbiM, iHtM, p. 78 (Spain) ; Seebohm, Hiet. Brit. B. 
ii. p. 5U6, pi. zxi. tiff*. 6, 7 (1884); Bogd. ChnMp, Av. Imp. 
BmM. £mc. 1. p. m (1H84); Buddie, Om. Cauc. pp. 43, 412 
dHM: brr«ds up to ;I00() ft.); Koenig, J.f. O. 1K86, p. 523 
iUl i4 Capri); Se^Jkm, G^ntr. Diitr. Charadr. p. 174 (1888); 
~ y, J. f. O. IhHH. p. -JO^ (tunU) ; LH/ord, IbiM, 1889. p. 338 



iCrpnu); Sharpe, Tr, Linn. S*>c. 2nd s«r. Zool. v. pt 3, p. 88 
il^J: Guban); AVmy, J.f. O. iHtM). pp. 312.451 (Madm) 



Mimd^H'aU*, Ibis, lH!io,pn. 4:{0. 432j(Vnarv Isl. : bfveding) 



Phmldaky, Aw. Hung. u. fnMl89l); Beijier, VogetM. LandetmuM 

•Hcr^rro.p. 105 (1^*1 : fi»*n«*imTina, \ftT. <>ct.) ; Madardet, AuMtt. 

Vmfor. r<». p. 101 (1 AIM ) ; Seehohm, IbtM, lH92, p. 2:i (Heligoland); 

HaiJo, IbiM, 1*4)3, p. 202 (Canary Isl. : breeding). 



6 (EDICNEMIDJL 

(Edicnemufi griseus, Koch, Syttt, baier. Zool. p. 266 (1816). 

Fedoa oedicnemus. Leack, Syst. Cat. Mamm, 8^e, Brit Mu$, p. 2S'- 

(1816). 
CEdicnemas europsBus, VieUl, N, Diet, eTHist Nat. xxiii. p. 230 

(1818). 
CEdicnemas belonii, Houx, Om. Prov. pi. 266 (1826) ; Fiem. Brit, 

AnimaU, p. 114 (1828). 
GSdicnemus deflertorum, Brehm, Vog. Deutachl. p. 639 (1831). 
CEdicnemus arenarius, Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 639 (1831). 
Edicnemufi crepitans, Selys-Longeh. Faun. Belg. p. 120 (1842) ; . 

Frittchy Tog. Eur. Taf. 39. ^a. 8 (1870). 
The Great Plover, Yarr. Brit. B. ii. p. 380 (1843). 
(Edicnemns indicus, Salvad. Atti Soc. Ital. Se. Nat. viii. p. 881 

(1866) ; HuTM, Nests <$• Fggs Ind. B. p. 681 (1873) ; id. Str. F. i. 

5. 96 (1873 : Sindh) ; Ball, Str. F. ii. p. 430 (1874 : Chota Nagpur)^ 
^airb. Str. F. iv. p. 263 (1876: Khandala); Armstrong^ t. e, 
p. 340 (China Ba-keer). 

C£dicnemus crepitans /3. senegalensis, Severtz, Turkest. Jevotn. p. 69 
(1873) ; Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 327. 

CEdicnemus scolopaz, Dresser, B. Eur. yu. p. 401, pi. 612 Q876) ; 
Bume ^ Davison, Str. F. vi. p. 468 (1878 : Tenaseerim) ; Davids. 
^ Wenden, Sir. F. vii. p. 88 (1878 : Deccan) ; Ball, t. e. n. 227 
(Qanges to GodaTery) ; juutne, t. c. p. 483 (Calcutta) ; id. Str. F, 
viii. p. 112 (1879) ; Finseh, Verhandl. z.-b. Oes. Wim, xxix. p. 242 
(1879 : N. Saissan) ; Butler, Cat. B. Sind etc. p. 69 (1879) ; id. 
Cat. B. S. Bomb. Pres. p. 74 (1880) ; Legge, B. CeyUm, p. 969 
(1880) ; Vidal, Str. F. ix. p. 82 (1880 : S. Konkan) ; Butler, Str. 
F. ix. p. 427 (S. Mahratta Country) ; Beid, Str. F. x. p. 67 
(1881 : Lucknow) ; Davidson, t c. p. 319 (1882 : W. Khandeish) ; . 
Pother, t. c. p. 482 (Ceylon : hreeding) ; Salv. Cat. StrickL Coll. 
p. 691 (1882, pt.) ; B. O. U. List Brit. B. p. 166 (1883) ; Saunders^ 
ed. Yarr. Brit. B. iii. p. 226 (1883); id. Ibis, 1884, p. 388 
(Pyrenees)^; Gates, B. Brit. Burnt, ii. p. 366 (1883) j Trislr. Faun. 
Sf Flor. Palest, p. 128 (1884) ; Whitehead, Ibis, 1886, p. 41 
(Corsica) ; Sumihoe <$* Barnes, t. c. p. 133 (Mhow Distr.) ; Beid^ 
t. e. p. 262 (Morocco) ; Yerbury, Ibis, 1886, p. 20 (Aden) ; SKarpe^ 
t. c. p. 167 (Muscat); Gigl. Avif. Ital. p. 366 (1886); Salvad. 
Elenco Ucc. Ital. p. 206 (1886) ; Backhouse, Ibis, 1887, p. 74 HE. 
Pyrenees) ; Tait, t. c. p. 384 (Portugal : breeding) ; Beid, Ibis, 1888, 
p. 77 (Tenerifie: breeding); Beicnen. Syst. Verz. Vog. DeutschL 
p. 61 (1889) ; Saunders, Man. Brit. B. p. 616 (1889) ; EagU 
Clarke, Ibis, 1889, p. 661 (Mediterranean); Seebolnn, Ibis, 18R90,- 
p. 403 (Ireland) ; GKgl. Ist Resoc. Avif. Ital p. 662 (1889) ; id. 
2nd Besoc. p. 666 (1890) ; id. Srd Besoc. p. 614 (1891) ; Seme ^ 
Beichen. Nomencl. Mvs. Hein., Om. p. 333 (1890) ; Evans, Ibis, 
1891, p. 79 ; Barnes, Ibis, 1893, p. 169 (Aden : cold season). 

QSdicnemus crepitans indicus, Seehohm. Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 77 
(1880). 

CEaicnemus oedicnemus, Brusina, Motr., etc. (Om. Croatia), p. 86 
(1890); Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 113 (Fao); EarUH, Ibis, 1892, 

S. 616 (E. Pnissia). 
icnemus oedicnemus saharse, J2etcA«n. J.f. 0. 1894, p. 102. 

AduU male. General colour above sandy buff, streaked with 
blackish centres to the feathers ; lesser wing-coverts a little more- 
tawny than the back, with broad black streaks ; median ooverta 
greyish, with brown bases and mesially streaked with black, with ^ 



1. OCDIOSKMUB. 7 

rhita \mtkd along the upper row, the feathers haying blaokiah 
tips with a broad aubtorminal har of white ; greater oorerte for the 
aoft part white, with ashy baeee and a broad tQbterminal band of 
black; baataid-wing blaekiah, with a narrow white fringe ; primaiy- 
corerta and qniUi blackiihy the outer primary white along the 
■iddle of the outer web and aoroes the inner web, the second 
frimarj with a white spot on the outer web and a certain amount 
ii white OB the inner web, which becomes less on the inner 
primaries, the latter tipped with white and with a white bar aorosa 
the base of the feathers, the inner secondaries elongated and tinged 
with tawny ; central tail-feathers ashy brown, barred with black 
ttt the end and across the feather before the white subterminal bar, 
tha outer feathers more broadly barred with black and white, the 
two terminal bars becoming gradually broader towards the outer- 
Csather, which is almost entirely white with a black tip; 
rn of head like the back, but with narrower stripes; lores, 
«yabrow, and a band below Uie eye white, extending across the 
«ar-eoTerts« the upper margin of which b blackish brown continued 
into a black line underneath the eye and ending in front of the 
latter ; cheeks and throat white, with some black-streaked feathers 
nbog the upper margin of the former ; lower throat and fore neck 
tawny buff streaked with black, these streaks becoming narrower 
OQ the breast and sides of body, which ars paler tawny buff; breast^ 
abdomen, and thighs white ; under tail-corerts tawny ; under wing- 
eoTerta and aiillariea white, with the small coverts round the edge 
af the wing ashy brown, tinged with tawny; primary-coTerta 
bbckiah, with white bases forming a speculum; quill-lining for 
the moat part black, with the white markings like those of the 
npper surface of the wing : *^ bill black at the |)oint, greenish yellow 
at the base ; feet yellow ; iris very large and golden yellow ** 
( //. .SiM»/rrv). Total length 16 inches, culmen !*($, wing 9*35, 
tail 4-7. tarsus 3*1. 

AJmU (nnalt. Does not differ from the male in colour or markings. 
Txal lrO(;th 16 inches, culmen 1'65, wing 9*5, tail 4*9, tarsus 2*75. 

•%/«</•'•'/. Clothed with sandy-coloured down, piiler on the throat 
and &bd'>a)vn, and streaked with the following bunds and lines of 
Uftck : — s narrow line from eye to eye across the forehead ; over 
the rT«> a imall line, and another in the middle of the crown, these 
mAriing* bring indistinct; another small spot on the lores, and a 
djttiart line along the upper margin of the chi^ekt* ; from behind 
t&^ •'^r m narrow line uf block, continued down the }«ide of the hind 
n^k. &0'i eitending in a broader line down each side of the spine ; 
vyA\yet broad band of black extendinfc from the middle of the 
t%xX^ %iA uniting at the host* of tlic tail ; on the cari>al l>end of the 
wt£.i; a faintly indicate! line of black. 

TtP- char»ct<>rs of the Indian hinl, which Mr. Seebohm has 
krpt d.*t«;i**t under the name of fEdiaumnt crrj»it'ttu inc/iVna, are 
mzy^^m^A to oi»n«ist of the iihort«*r wing, and thi; <oiitinuanco of 
tbtf vhitr pfttch on V» the third quill. In Kurt»iM*an specimens of 
iJ^Utmemms adienemus the length of wing rangeii from 9 to 10 
while in tha Indian apectmena it varies from 8 to 9 inches^ 



s 



aSDIGNBlODiB. 



and in the latter bird the third primary is marked with white like 
the first and second ; whereas in (E. cedienemus only the first and 
second primaries show any white (cf. Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. 
Charadr. p. 77). Even these small distinctions, however, cannot be 
maintained, for in the series in the British Museum there is a 
specimen from Italy and another from Sussex which have a white 
mark on the third primary ; while, on the other hand, there are 
several specimens in the Hume Collection which show the white 
marks on the first and second primaries only. Young birds appear 
to be invariably of a lighter n^ous and more tawny colour than the 
adults, which are decidedly greyer. 

The race which Dr. Eeiohenow has described as (Edicnemui 
<xdicnemus saharce is founded on an adult bird, and has apparently 
been compared only with young birds. The principal difference 
between young and old individuals lies in the colour of the greater 
wing-coverts, which in young birds are dusky blackish or greyish 
at the base, and have broad white ends ; whereas in the old birds 
the bases are white, and the tips are idso white with a very broad 
subterminal bar of black. 

ffab. Central and Southern Europe, as far east as Central 
Asia. The countries bordering the Mediterranean to N.E. Africa, 
as far south as Aden. Indian Peninsula and Burmese countries, in 
suitable localities. 



a. cf ad. St. 

b, Imm. y Cf €L 

Pull. 8t 

«. Juv. sk. 
/, g. Ad. ; A, ». 

Pull. St. 
h-m. Pull. sk. 
4>, Pull. sk. 
p, ^ ad. sk. 

q, $ ad. sk. 
r. Ad. sk. 
s, cf juv. sk. 

t. Ad. sk. 

tf, Vf w. Ad. et 

imm. sk. 
X. $ ad. sk. 
y. Ad. sk. 
9. cf ad. sk. 
a. Juv. sk. 
b\ Ad. sk. 
e'. Ad. St. 
<f, e'. Ad. et 

juv. sk. 
f. cf ad, sk. 
g'. cf ad. sk. 

V, a. Ad. sk. 
]^. 9 ad. sk. 
/*. $ ad. sk. 



Cambridgeshire, May. 
Cambridgeshire, May. 

Norfolk. 
Merton, Norfolk. 



Harting Coll. 
Purchased. 

J. Scales, Esq. [P.]. 
Lord Walsingham 

GouldColL 
Shelley Coll. 



I 



Norfolk. 

Scotts Hall. Suffolk. 

Brandon, Suffolk, July (J, E, Seebohm Coll. 

Harting), 
Warwickshire (J, E, JJ.). 
Sussex. 
Near Chichester, Sussex, Nov. 6 

(/. E, H,). 
Wiltshire. 
Hungary, Sept., Oct 



Seebohm Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



Tuscany, Sept. 3. 

Italy. 

Malta, Feb. 1854. 

Tunis. 

Ghuelma, Algeria. 

Ghuelma. 

Tangiers, June (A. von Huget), 

Andalucia, Spain, Jsn. 
Orotava, Teneriffe, April 29 

(R D. O.), 
Egypt, March (O, E. Shelley). 

;ypt, March (G. E. Shelley), 

loobra near Curo. 



Montagu Coll. 
Hungarian National 

Museum [P.]. 
Seebohm ColL 
Gould Coll. 
GouldColL 
Fraser CoU. 
Purchased. 
Purchased. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Colonel Irby [P.j. 
Salvin-Godman UolL 

Seebohm Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Seebohm CoU. 



1. (BDiamirs. 



m. Ad. ik. 

m\ Ad. pJl 
#. SmLsL 

f. JUY. »1l 

f . Ad. ftk. 

r\ $\ ^ 9iL\ f . 

«*. c^ ad. ik. 

r . Ad. ak. 
m\ Ad.aL 

X . Ad. Ak. 

jr . d mL ik. 

s . 9 mL ftk. 
« . Ad. ik. 
i . Ad.ik. 

r . 9 ad. ik. 
d . 9 mL ik. 

• . c^ MLik. 
/"-#•. Ad.et 

tmoi. ik. 
k . Ad. ik. 
/ .id.ik. 
•'■. ^ jur. ik. 

• .o'. 9 id. 

rX jaT. fk. 

f r ad. fk. 

r . * , f". Ad. 
»t imtn. ftk. 

• . Ad. ftk. 

t . tr", x". .\d. 



^ . ; . Ad. ik. 

«' Jot. nk. 



i* Ad. ftk. 

r' Juv. ftk 

^ \'l. ik. 

A' / id ik. 

f^ ^ id ik. 

e Ad ftk. 

/ r ad. ftk 



«* SkalL 



BwnJieba, Palestine. 
Wikierneii of Jiidea. 
Eneroum (PamlUm). 
Bagdad, Penia. 

Me«opotamia (Ccmmander 

Jomes), 
Fao, Peraan Gulf, Sept 27. 

MuicaL 

Gulrao, Northern Aighanutan, 

Mareh 11. 
Baluchiitan (Gnjith). 
Sbarpur, Sindh, Nor. 25 (A. 

O, H,), 
Larkhana, Jan. 7 {A. O. H.). 
Kutch, Jan. (F, Stcikska), 
Kajkottf, Kathiawar, June IS. 

IVeaa, March SO (E, A. Butler). 
iHimbbur, Mav {R, M. Adam), 
IVlhi, Mar 2) (C. T. Bingham). 
8ir«a, Punjab, l>ec. to Feb. 

Murdan, Dec. 

I^ore. 

Pe^^haWur. 

Uuibala, Sept, Feb. (R. C. Bta- 

ram). 
Kuniaoo Bhabur, March 22 (O. 

Kmp). 
Ktawah. April 1. 
(.hulk, mM.\, Jan. 

ft •ndah, Oudh (S. PinwiU). 
N*-pal. 

>>pal ( R. H, ilt»da$on). 
Miuabhoiim, March {R. C. Bea- 

vnn). 
lUipur, Jnnuanr. 
llhiilia, Khatideiih, Oct. 4 (/. 

Jyitcidatm). 
I>tn-ran {(*aut. Burpru), 
Sr••;^>fv, Mv««>r«*, !)«?., Feb., 

.Mar {n\' DaiUon). 
China IU-ki*<er, KanffiKin, IKt. 20 

{J. AmtMtrotu;), 
Pnni, Jan. 1» ik. H\ O.). 
\\m, llritifih Jiurma. 

Th«-inx«fik, Thaton**, TcnaMierini, 

lime. \:i ( H'. Ikicuun). 
Knirland. 



Surgeon-Capt R. H 

Penton [P.]. 
Canon Tristram [C.l 
Canon Tristram [O.J. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Kenneth Loftus, Esq. 



India M 



useum. 



AV. D. Cumming, 

Em. [P.l 
Colonel Mills [T.l 
Dr. AitchisonXCj. 

India Museum. 
Hume ColL 

Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 
Colonel Hayes Lloyd 

[P.]. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 
Hume ColL 
Hume ColL 

Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 
Seebohm Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 

Hume Coll. 

Hume ColL 
Hume CulL 

Tw#»ed(lale ColL 
HodgjHjn ColL 

India Museum. 
Tweoddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
(lume Coll. 

Oould Cull. 
Hume ColL 

Hume Coll. 

OiitPHColL 

W.T. Hliinfoid,Esq. 

Hume Coll. 

John Rav, Enq. [P.]. 
John lUy, Esq. [P.]. 



10 OBDICNBlCIDwfi. 



2. (EdicnemnB senegalenflis. 

CEdicndme du S^n^, Temm. Man. ii. p. 620 (1820). 

(Edicnemus senecndeiisis, Swains, B, W, Afr, ii. p. 228 (1887; 
Senegambia) ; &ray, ImI GrraUa Brit, Mas, p. 59 (1844 : Ghunbiar 
R. Quorra) ; id. Oen. B. iii. p. 686 (1844) ; Hartl. Om. W.-4fr. 
p. 208 (1867 : Casamance ; Qaboon) ; Brehm, J./. 0. 1857, d. 888; 
Cassin, Proc, PhUad. Acad. 1850^ p. 172 (Ogow6 Riyer ; (Jamma 
River); HarU. J. f. 0. 1861, p. 268 (Bissao; Galam); Hartm. 
J.f. 0. 1864, p. 227 ; Qumeyy Ibis, 1868, p. 254 (critical remarks); 
Gray, Rand-l. B. iii. p. 9, no. 9040 (1871) ; SheUey, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 145 ; uX. 4- Buckley, Ibis, 1872, p. 292 (Gold Coast) ; Pdz. 
Verhandl. z.-b. Oes. Wien, xxxi. p. 616 (1881 : Lado) ; Salvad^ 
Arm. Mus. Oenov. (2) i pp. 216, 274 (1884: Shoa); Hartert, 
J.f. 0. 1886, p. 609 (Loko) ; Qigl. Avif. Ital. p. 867 (1886: Tus- 
cany); SalvaeL Blench, ifcc. Ital. p. 206 (1886); 8ed>. Gtogr, 
Distr. Charadr. p. 78 (1888) ; SheUey, P. Z. 8. 1888, p. 48 (Lado) ; 
Oigl. Avif. Ital.i. Besoc. n. 564 (1889), ii. p. 666 (1890) ; Heine <$- 
Beichen. Nomend. Mus, Mein., Om. p. 88o (1890 : Abyssinia). 

(Edicnemus crepitans {nee T.), Strickl, P. Z. 8. 1850, p. 220 (Kor- 
dofan). 

GBdicnemus assimilis, Bddeker, J. f. 0. 1868, 8uppl, p. 117 (ex 
Brehm, M88,), pi. v. ^. 8 (effg). 

(Edicnemus crepitans, jpt., 8ehL Mus, Pays-Basj Cursores, p. 20 
(1865 : Abyssinia ; Senegambia) ; Bloff. Oeol. ^ Zocl. Abyss, 
p. 428 (1870: Massowa); Finsch, Tr, Z. 8, vii. p. 294 (1870: 
Amba ; ZouUa) ; id. ^ Hartl, Vog. Ostafr. p. 619 (1870). 

(Edicnemus inomatus, 8alvad. AtU 8oc. Ital. Sci. Nat. viii. p. 881 
(1866) ; Finsch ^ HarU. Vog. Ostafr. pp. 621, 872 (1870) ; Gray, 
Hand-l, B. iii. p. 10, no. 9944 (1871) ; Heugl. Om. N,0,-Afr. iL 
Abth. i. p. 989, App. p. clxxix (1873) ; HarU. Abhandh, nat^ 
Ver, Bremen, vii. p. 120 (1881 : Lado). 

(Edicnemus crepitans senegalensis, Heugl. in Peterm, Mitth. 1869, 
p. 415. 

(Edicnemus scolopaz, pt., Salvin, Cat. 8trickl. Coll. p. 890 (1882 : 
Kbartoum). 

(Edicnemus vermiculatus (nee Cab,), Biittik, Notes Leyden Mus, vu. 
p. 232 (1886 : W. Liberia). 

Adult, Similar to (E, adicnemus, but distinguished by the absence^ 
of the white band across the line of the median wing-coverts, the 
latter being grey like the greater coverts with distinct black shaft- 
lines ; the greater coverts with a black subterminal bar, a white 
ending being oocasionaUy present : *' bill black, the base, eyebrows, 
and feet pale yellowish green ; iris yellow " {J. Buttilcofer). Total 
length 14' inches, culmen 1-65, wing 8*5, tail 3*9, tarsus 2*95. 

The connection between (E. senegalensis and (E, vermiculatus is- 
much closer tban I supposed, for on more than one specimen of 
CE, senegalensis traces of vermiculations are apparent, and even in 
two specimens there is a faint indication of a white wing-bar.. 
One of these slightly vermiculated birds is from the Quorra River,, 
and the others are from Accra. Of course these slight vermica- 
lations, and even the white on the wing-bar, might be caused by the 
abrasion and bleaching of the feathers. 



L (EDICKMMVB. 11 

IM. Wert Afriea from Senegambk to Oaboon. North-eastam 
Africa horn the neighboarhood of Lado to Shoa, and north to Kor- 
dotei, Senaar, and Egypt. 

«. Ad. ak. E^t. G. Tombull, Esq. 

I. Ad. ik. Abrvinia. Tweeddale ColL 

c. Ad. iL Near MMowa. W. T. Blanford, Eeq. 



reedd 



dL tf ad. ik. Amba, Abjaania, Aug. 21 ( fT. Tweeddale ColL 

«. 9 ad. ek. Lado, Equatorial Africa, Emin Pasha [P.]. 

March 15. 

/. Ad. ik. Rirer Quorra. Capt Allen [P.]. 

tAd. ak. Accra (T.E, Bwekley). SheUev CoU. 

Ad. •k. Accra (/. SmitM). Seebohm ColL 

i Ad. at Gambia. Seebohm ColL 

A Ad. ak. Gambia (Sir A. MoUmey). SheUej Coll. 

3. (Edicncmna Termicnlatiis. 



(EdicDemiia nataleoaia, Oray, Litt Grailtt Brit. Mum. p. 60 (1844 : 

Bom. nudum). 
CEdiaiemua aeoegalenais (nee Sw.), Kirk, Ihii, 1804, p. 881 (Zam- 

ben) ; Ommty, Ihis, 1865, p. 270 (NaUl) ; Bocaae, Jam. IM. 

1807, p. 1>», 1870, p. 350; SJkarpe ^ Bouvier, BuiL Soe. ZooL 

/Wner, L p. 52 (1870: lAodaua) ; SJkarpe, ed. LayanTs B. S. AJr. 
JL 640 (18M). 
CfiiicBemiia vermicuUtua, Cab, J. / O. 1808, p. 418 ; id, in Van 

der De€ken*t Beit, iii. p. 46, pL 10 ( 1870) : Fuuch ^ HarU, F^. 

CM^. p. 022 ( 1870) ; Oray, Hand^, B. ill. p. 9, no. 9942 (1871) ; 

Gwnmy in Anderu. B, Dam.-Ld. p. 206 (1872: Orange River; 

Namaonaland) ; Reicken, J. f. O. 1877, p. 11 (Loango Coaat); 

Cmk. J,f. O. 1878, p. 24r> (Mombaaa; Zansibar) ; FiscJker, J,/, O. 

1879, pp. 290, 803; m/. 4* Beichm, i.e. p. &*»; Bocaae, Om, 

Amyoim, p. 423 (1881: S. Angola; QuillengueA ; Humbe) ; 

SkeUey, P, A. S, 1^1, p. 598 (UMUubara HilU) ; Bohm, J. f, O. 

lry«2, p. 185; SMetUy, Ihit, 1882, p. 302 (Quae Qiiae HiTer) ; 

Sek^aw, J.f. O. 1883, p. 339 (Frvnch U.) ; FiMcher, Zeitschr. ye§. 

Om, i. p. 889 (1884 : Pangani) ; SJkarpe, ed. Layar<f$ B, S. A/r. 

f. U7 (lM84); /WJUt, /. /. O. 1885, p. 110 (Waixjkomoland; 

Ba,rmmojo; Zaniibar); Beichen. J.f. O, 1887, p. 47 (Kagehi); 

MmUeJkte, t. e. p. 138 (Tanganyika) ; SeehoJkm, Ibu, 1887, p. 888 

fUmireoi ICirer; NaUl) ; id, ^M^. Distnh, Charadr, p. K) (1888); 

Bnrim. J. f. O. 1H«J>, p. lWJ (Qua/iua River) ; Kmim, J. f, O, 

Irtfl, p. 339 (Victoria NranMi); Beichen. J. /, O. 1892, p. 8 

iHakoba) ; id, JU. Uamlmry, wist. Anst, x. p. (1893: Quaqoa 

lUvcr). 

Admit Gmrral colour above diatinrtly vermiculatod with duaky 
cr*jae bart, not only on the back, but alno on tht> wingH and tail, the 
vp'^al bUck centrea to the doraal fenthers lM*ing pn*Hent; leaser 
wing-«i>v«rta brown, followed by a black bund, which ia again aac- 
etr^rd by a white l^and aoroaa the upper line of the median coverta, 
Ike real of the median and greater coverta abhy grey, with a black 
en tilt latter and well-marked black ahaft-atreaka on the 



12 (BDICNEKIDJS. 

former; quills black, the first three, and sometimes the fonrth 
primary, having white marks on both webs ; inner primaries with 
white bases, forming a speculum ; centre tail-feathers like the back, 
similarly mottled and vermiculated, the rest of the feathers barred 
with black and white near the ends, the terminal bars being very 
broad ; head like the back ; lores, eyebrow, and a band below the 
eye white; hinder ear-coverts and cheeks brown, streaked with 
black; throat and underparts white, washed with tawny buff on 
the lower throat and breast, which are also streaked with brown ; 
the sides of the body with narrow shaft-stripes of the same colour ; 
under tail-coverts light cinnamon; under wing-coverts and azil- 
laries white, the small coverts round the bend of the wing brown 
like the upper surface : '' bill black, with a patch round the nostrils 
And the base of the lower mandible yellow ; tarsi and feet very 
pale ashy green; iris tawny yellow" (T, At/res). Total length 14 
inches, culmen 1'5, wing 7*9, tail 4, tarsus 2'75. 

Hah. Southern Africa from the eastern districts of the Gape 
Colony north to Loango on the west, and on the east extending as 
far as the Victoria Nyanza. 

a. Ad. sk. Kingwilliamstown. Major Trevelyan [P.]. 

bf c. Ad. sk. Natal. Dr. Erauss [0.]. 



(Types of OS. nataleruis.) 
Tw< 



4,e,Ad,ek, 'Nsial (Oordffe), Tweeddale&Seebohm 

Colls. 

/. Ad. sk. Zambesi {Dr. Mdlar), Tweeddale Coll. 

g. Ad. sk. Tette, Zambesi (Sir J. Kirk). Livingstone Expedi- 

tion. 

A. Ad. sk. Tshiromo, Nyasaland. H. H. Johnston, Esq., 

C.B. [P.]. 

• I. Ad. sk. Usambara Hills {Sir J. Kirk). Shelley ColL 

k. Ad. sk. Caconda, Beuguela (Anehieta). Lisbon Museum [P.]. 



4. (EdicnemnB bistriatns. 

Charadrius bistriatus, WagL I»is, 1829, p. G48 (Mexico). 

CEdicnemus vocifer, L Herminierj Mag. de Zool. 1887, pi. 84 (U. S. 
Colombia) ; Licht. NomencL Av. Mus. Berol. p. 93 (1854). 

CEdicnemus americanus, Swains. An. in Menag, p. 349 (1837 ; inte- 
rior of Guiana). 

CEdicnemus bistriatus, Chray, List GraUa in Brit. Mus. p. 69 (1844 : 
British Guiana) ; id. Oen. B. iii. p. 635 (1844) ; Cab. in Sckamb, 
jReis. Quian. iii. p. 749 (1848) ; Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 416 (1856) ; 
Owen, IbiSf 1861, p. 68 ((Guatemala) ; Salvin, t. c. p. 356 ; id. Ibisf 
1866, p. 198 (Pacific coast of Guatemala) ; Set. P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 397 (Vera Cruz, Mexico) ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 19 
(1866 : Guadeloupe, Brazil) ; Sd. ^ Salv. £x. Om. p. 60 (1867) ; 
Franz. J.f. 0. 1869. p. 378 (Nicaragua, Costa Rica); Pelz. Om. 
Bras. p. 296 (1871 : Forte de Rio Branco) ; Oray, Hand-l. B. iii. 
p. 10, no. 9945 (1871) ; Sd. ^ Salv. Noinend. Av. Neotr. p. 142 
(1873) ; NuUing, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vi. p. 389 (1883 : Nica- 
ragua) ; Berlepschy IbiSy 1884, p. 440 (Venezuela) ; Salvin, Ihis, 
1^6, p. 177 (British Guiana) ; Sed>ohm, Oeogr. Distr. Charadr. 
p. 86 (1888). 



1. <EDIC5EMU8. IS 

(ESennBM mexicaDut, te$te Schi. Mu», Pay^Bas, CunoreSy p. 1& 
CEdicnemai ?, G, C, Taylor, lhi$j 1860, p. 314 (Flonduras). 

Admit f€ma!$. General colour abore tawny rufous, mottled with 
blaek eeotret to the feathers, narrower and more longitudinal on- 
ibe head and neck ; upper tail-ooverts washed with grey and centred 
•ad bmrred with dusky; wing-coverts like the back, with conspicuous 
hUekifh thaft-«tripes, the greater series ashy brown edged with 
lAwoy buff and baring a sub-terminal line of dusky, following the 
omline of the feather; bastard- wing, primary-coverts, and quills 
daric brown, with a great deal of white on the inner web, extending 
•vcr the outer web of the first primary ; the inner webs conspicu- 
ously white at the base, forming a large speculum, the innermost 
aecoodaries like the back ; centre tail-feathers brown, edged with 
lawny and rermiculated with dusky, the remainder white, barred 
acroas with dusky brown and tipped with a broad bar of black, 
wider on the outer feather, which has a broad subterminal white 
band ; lores and a broad eyebrow dull white, above which is a 
broad black patch on the sides of the crown ; sides of face, cheeks, 
aad cftr-coverts light tawny buff with narrow blackish shaft-lines ; 
throat, breast, and abdomen pure white, the lower throat and upper 
a»hy brown tinged with tawny, with narrow blackish shaft- 
; sides of lower back tawny rufous with blackish centres; 
under tail-coverts pale cinnamon ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
pore white, the lesser coverts tawny rufous like the upper series ; 
the lower primary-coverts ashy : ** feet greenish yellow : iris yeUow ^ 
(T. C. Sutting), Total length 15*5 inches, culmen 1*7, wing 9'6, 
tAil 4-7, tarsus 3*8. 

The Mexican specimens appear to be rather larger than those 
fnm more southern localities, and have a tarsus measuring 4*7 
inf hd. Some birds are much more rufous than others, and these 
are spparrntly younger birds. An immature bird collected by 
Mr. S^Tin at San Uerunimo is much more mottled than the adults, 
all the f«^theri baring sandy -coloured edges. The grey shade which 
m apparent in most indiriduals of this s|MH!ies is also present in the 
voong bird. 

//d6. From Mexico through Central America, in suitable locali- 
tir*, a* far south «s Venezuela, Colombia, Guiana, and the Rio 
Braooo. 

«. ^ m1. tk. Mitantla, Verm Cruz, Nov. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

21) (/Vrrari-/Vr<2). 
I 3 ad tk. Torula, C^hispiu*, June 20 SalviD-Oodman Coll. 

( W. H. Rihnrdton). 
t^d .''2ad.sk. Iluamuchal. <tiist«-mala, Salvio-C Rodman Coll. 

FVb. (O. .S.). 
#. Jot. ak. San(i«nmim>»,(iuatemslA, 8alvin-( Rodman ColL 

July (O. A). 
/ Ad ak. II*ifr«»U. I*iircha««'d. 

§ J«t. i4. Ikffou. Siilviii-(it)dman ColL 

1 Ad. ak. Mehda, Venetuela. Old CoU. 



14 (BDICNEHIDiB. 

i,k, (^ $ ad. ak. Aunai, British Guiana, SalTiDrGodman OolL 

March, May (H, Whitefy). 

/. Ad. sk. British Guiana. Old ColL 

m. Ad. sk. Forte de Rio Branco, Bra- Salvin-Godman ColL 

zil (J, Natterer). 

-n. Ad. sk. [South America.] Salvin-Godman ColL 



5. (EdicnemuB dominiceiuds. 

CEdicnemus dominicensis, OorVf Joum, Boat Zoci. 8oc. ii. p. 46 
(1883 : San Domingo) ; id. Auk, i. p. 4 (1884) ; id. B. S, Domingo, 
p. 140, pL 19 (1884) ; F. J. Thompson, Auk, ii. p. 110 (1886) ; 
Cory, List B. W. Ind. p. 26 (1886 : S. Domingo) ; id. B. West 
Ind. p. 226 (1889) ; id. Oat. B. West Ind. p. 96 (1892). 

^* Male, Top of the head, hack, wing-coverts, and tail hrown ; 
feathers with very pale edgings, giving a mottled appearance to the 
hack, the tail-feathers showing a hand of dull white, succeeded hy 
a hroad hlack tip ; hreast slaty, hecoming dull white on the throat ; 
ahdomen white tinged with very pale rufous ; a line of hlack passing 
from the top of the eye, along the sides of the head, to the neck ; 
under surface of wings whit«, hecoming dark hrown at the tips ; 
the shafts of the feathers on the hreast and throat dark hrown, 
forming numerous hair-like lines on the surface of the plumage : " legs 
and feet greenish yellow ; upper mandihle hlack, under mandihle 
green at l£e hase, shading into hlack at the tip" (Cory). Total 
lengtii 14-50 inches, wing 8-50, tail 3-75, tarsus 3-75, hill 1-60. 

The sexes appear to he similar. 

The single specimen in the British Museum was ohtained hy Sall^ 
in San Domingo forty years ago, and is moulting, so that it is not 
in good plumage for comparison. The only distinction that I can 
see \b the smaller hill and the somewhat stronger shaft-lines on the 
chest-feathers. In hoth these characters it is approached hy a 
specimen from British Guiana, and I strongly douht the distinctness 
of the San Domingo hird. 

Hah. San Domingo. 

41. Ad. sk. San Domingo. A. Sall6 fC.]. 



6. (Edicnemns superciliaris. 

CEdicnemus superciliaris, Tschudi, Arch, f. Nat. 1843, pt. i. p. 387 
(coast of Peru); id. ^ Cab. Faun. Peruan., Aves, pp. 49, 293 
(1846-46) ; Scl. 4- Salv. Ex. Om. p. 69, pL 30 (1867) ; iui. P. Z. S. 
1868, pp. 176, 670 (W. Peru) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 10, no. 9946 
(1871) ; Scl. ^ Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr.jp. 142 (1873) ; Taczan, 
Om. Pirou, iii. p. 333 (1886 : coast of^ Peru from Lima to 
Tumhez). 

Adult male. Similar to (E. histriatus^ and having a hroad hlack 
patch on the sides of the hinder crown, hut distinguished from that 
species hy heing ashy grey ahove, vermiculated with dusky cross 



1. aiDicnifim. 16 

Wn uid rahterminal Udm of dasky blAddfb, foDowing the maigint 
<»f th« fcftthen, which are sandy buff, there are also bars of a snody 
buff on the feathers of the opper sorfaoe ; the throat, lower breast, 
and abdomen pore white ; under tail-coverts very pale cinnamon ; 
the fore neek and breast pale ashy grey, the former with dusky 
•haft-lines, the sides of the neck browner : " bill blackish, with the 
basal half of the upper mandible green ; feet green ; iris white ** 
i MtWratftmi). Total length 15 inches, colmen 1*6, wing 8*5, tail 4*3, 
tarsus 3-7. 

Y^mmg. More thickly mottled with sandy-buff margins to the 
leathers, especially the dark lesser wing-ooTerts ; the white eyebrow 
eoDtinufd in a ring round the nape ; the dark band on the hinder 
side of the crown not so broad as in the adults ; a second band of 
black behind the ear-«0Terts : '* bill black, the base of the lower 
aaadible grey ; feet olire ; iris beautiful yellow " (8tolimann\ 

Hah, Western Peru, from Lima to Tumbei. 

A Jut. sk. IJma, Peru. SalTin-Godman ColL 

i. c^ ad. sk. Northvni Peru, Dec. 18 Count Branicki [P.]. 

{J. KaHmmM), 

ۥ Ad. ak. Western Peru. Zool. Society. 



CEdimemus capenais XM/. Ferz. Do^l p. 69 (1823: Cape); 
Fintek if Harii, Vikf, (kiafr. p. 624 (1870); Gray, Ha 



7. (Edicnemus capenais. 

p. 69 (1823 
)) ; Gray, Hand4. S. 
vL t». \K no. 9&41 ( 1871) ; Gumiy in AmderM, B. Dam. ZJ. p. 266 
(1^*2; Great Namaqua and Damara I.*aDd); Ayres, /&», 1874, 
p. 104 (Potchefiitroiim) ; Harting, P. Z. S. 1H74, p. 457; Ayre§, 
Jfms, 1 HhO. p. 1 1 1 (TraiuTaal) : Boawt, Om, Angola, p. 424 ( 1881 : 
S. AniT'la, Quill**nfnieii, lliimbe, Caironda) ; Sharttr, in Oatet^$ 
MataUU-Lami, App. ii, p. 326 ( 1H81 ) ; SKelUy, lUt, 1882, p. 363 
I >|«I(linfr*». Hart R.) ; FitcAer, AeitM-hr, yet. Orn. i. p. 380 (1884 : 
Nknirunuui) ; SMar^ie, fd. I^yanft B. S. A/r. p. 645 (18H4 : Cape 
r..>onT |:«>n**raUT and Natal); Fischer, J. f. O. 1885, p. 116; 
.Sff^oJdn, /Mf, IH^r. p. a:tH (NaUl); id. Gtoyr. iJistr. CJUtradr. 
p ••I ilt^i^M Buttik. SoUm Ijeydm Mum. x. p. 243 (1888: Hum- 
ptUi. Skflley, P. Z. S. 18M9, p. 371 (Kilimanjaro); Heine ^ 
JUukm. yumrn^L .\fu*. Hein., Om. p. 3'» (1890: S. Africa); 
Bri.krm. J. f. O. IMU, p. 141 (Yum, rniamuefti) ; Harti. AbA. 
I'rr. Brrm. Vii. pt. 1, p. 41 (1^«91 : Unauibiru) ; Beichrn. J. f. O, 
\<*2, p. X iVictiria Nvanca). 
iVA^n^mw fnarul.«us, temm. Pi. Col. v. pi. 292 (1824); Gray, Gen. 
h lii. p. rM < 1-M4 ) ; (iumey, IhiM, 1M60, p. 217 (Natal) ; Layard^ 
li S. Afr. p. 2Hrt (1^)7 : N*atal, Kaffmria) ; Gumey, Ibin, 1868, 
p JM; Ijiyard. Ibis, 18«W, p. 76; Buckley, IhU, 1874, p. 104 
• l*-trWfttr4jm); Hartert, Kai. Vnyels. Mu», Srnckmb. p. 219 

^yAirtk*-m\u^ niarrnrn«*niu«, Lichi. VUy. Kajfeml. p. 19 (1842); HariL 

J f O, I«54. p. 21 J. 
«Kd.rarnuii affinm {nee Btipp.), (\ib. J.f. O. 1878. p. 245 (Ndi, 

T-.Ui : B»hm, J. f. O. 18^2, p 1«5 (T«b<)ra) ; tirhtdow, J. / O. 

1**-^ p. VSSti (TaUira) ; Beicken. J. f. O. 1887, p. 47 (Schasthe). 

A lull male, (leneral colour above tawny or sandy rufous, mottled 



16 (IDICNEiaDiB. 

coarsely with black, vehich takes the form of bars and terminal 
spots ; wing-coTerts like the back ; the median coverts also with 
large bars and spots of black, but the outermost g^yish with irre- 
gular bars of dusky black ; the greater series ashy grey, with a black 
band at the end and narrowly tipped with white, the shafts promi- 
nently black and the inner major coverts regularly barred across 
with black ; primary-coverts and quiUs black, the inner primaries - 
narrowly tipped with white, the secondaries white at the base and 
for a great part of the inner web, the three outer primaries with a 
large white mark on both webs, and the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
having a conspicuous white mark forming a speculum ; the innermost 
secondaries barred across with black ; lower rump and upper tail- 
coverts similar to the back, but a little more definitely streaked 
longitudinally ; the centre tail-feathers with regular black bars, in- 
creasing in width towards the outside of the tail, the external feathers - 
having a broad black band at the end, before which is an equally 
broad white bar ; head like the back, the black predominating ; 
lores whitish, as well as the feathers above and below the eye, and 
a broad band across the sides of the face, this whitish band sur- 
mounted by a line of black ; the cheeks and ear-coverts tawny, . 
streaked with black ; throat white ; the lower throat, fore neck, and 
breast, as well as the sides of body, clear tawny or sandy buff, lon- 
gitudinally streaked with black centres to the feathers ; abdomen 
white ; under tail-coverts orange-rufous or pale cinnamon ; under 
wing-coverts white, but the lesser series and those round the bend 
of t^e wing brown, lined with black so as to resemble the upper 
series ; the lower primary- coverts black at the ends, forming a large 
patch ; axillaries grey with a black shaft-streak : *' bill yellow at 
the base, black towards the tip ; feet yellow, dark along the front ; 
iris bright yellow " (jT. Ay res). Total length 16 inches, culmen 1*35, 
wing 9-1, tail 4*5, tarsus 3*7. 

J^uU female. Similar to the male in plumage. Total length 
15 inches, culmen 1*4, wing 8*7, tail 4*2, tarsus 3*65. 

1 have had no means of determining, from the series in the British 
Museum, the precise differences between the old and young birds ; 
but as some are very much darker than others, I take it that these 
will probably be found to be less mature than the more rufous 
specimens. 

Hah, Cape Colony, extending on the west to Damara-land, and 
throughout South-eastern Africa to Tabora and the Kilimanjaro - 
district in Eastern Africa. 

a. Ad. sk. Elephant Vley, Damara- Tweeddale Coll. 

land ( C, J. Andersson), 

b, c. Ad. sk. South Africa. Tweeddale Coll. 

d. Ad. 8t South Africa. Sir A. Smith [C.].- 

e. Ad. sk. South Africa, Seebohm Coll. 
/. $ ad. sk. Ber^ River, S. Africa (E. Seebohm ColL 

ju. Layard). 
g. Ad. sk. Natal. Seebohm Coll. 



1. aoicvBMui. 17 

A <f mL ik. NaUl, Maj 25 (7. i?. SheUej Coll. 

BtiMey), 

i Ad. iJi. NaUl {K OaU$), W. E. & C. O. Oatea, 

Ejjqra. [P.]. 

^ cf ad. »k. N>wcaittl(« (E. A, Butler), Shelley Coll. 

i. 9 ad. ak. Swasiland, June 17 ( T. i:. SheUej CoU. 

BuckUtf), 

■i,ii. cf ? •d. tk. Potchefirtroom, TmiATaAl, Ourney ColL 

l)pc. ( T. Ayret). 

# Ad. ak. Mftrico District. F. A. Barrmtt, Em. 

p. .\d ttk. Teie,Ztimhetsi{SirJ,Kurk), LI vingstoDO Expedi- 

tion. 

t ? »d. ik. Tabora, Dec. 22. I>r. R. Bohm [C]. 

r. Ad. *k. Kilimanjaro. H. C. V. Hunter, 

Ei»q. [P.]. 

tf ^krWuoL Purrhaaed. 

8. (Edicncmm affinii. 

«KdJro<nnu« aflinis Bnpp. .IfiM. Senek, ii. p. 210(1837); i^. Skfd, 
i\Ur». p. 117. Taf. 42 (IK4r>); ASfrirJl/. P. Z. & 1850, p. 220 (Koiw 
d.«fan»; Brickenh. Hamlh,, Grail. Nor, Taf. zxxvi. figs. 2440-41 
il*Oh; lifujfl. Sugt. Cfhert, p. r>4 (18''>4(: Abyssinian coast; 
Whit«* Nilf, south of <P); HaHL Om, W.-Afr. p. 209, note 
iK'*7): Jlrttgl, Mu, lKj}». p. .'U4 (Ilabab; Danakil; Tajura) ; 
•VA/. /&i«. 1?<0<), p. 248 (S.mali) ; JIartl. •/./. O. 18*51, p. 288; 
Amtia. Vni. deter. Uce. p. OH (18(M: IP N. lat.) ; SeM. Mus. 
/Vry#-lt<M. ('ur«uivs, p. 21 (1H65: Nubia; Kordofan ; BissaoP); 
BUmf. fietJ. 4- /o"/. ^46yM. p. 42H (1870 : AnH<*ba Valley) ; ISn»ck, 
Tr. A. S. \\\. p. 2S»4 (1870: (iabena-wolt-C*onfallon)': Ftntck 8( 
lUrtl. Tny. iUtafr. p. 020 (lrt70: Somali); Gray, HaHd-l. B. 
lu. p.l>. n...«M.i(l87I); Heugl. Orn, S.O.-Afr. ii. p. 090 (1873: 
^m^\ <»f Sinihar ; E. Kordofan ; Uppt'r Kir and (lazelle RiTen) ; 
Antim. ^ SalvaJ. Viapif. Bogi^t, p. 142 (1873: Samhar ; l^ros; 
iWrkai ; .S.j/rtji, Cat. StrieU. Coll.y. MX) (1^82) ; Shelley, 1\ Z. 8. 
l""^. p. **•• ( I-ado) ; Heine iSf Beiehen. \otnenvl. .\fus. Hem. Om. 
p. .'-tS il*<«0: .Abyssinia); HarUrt, Kat. VoyeU. Mus. Senck, 
p. 2I*.» ( 1^*.«1 : AbTssinia). 

I Kl.i-r.«*aius capentis affinis, Seed. Geuyr, Di$tr. Charadr. p. 82 

A4mh. Similar to fE. cajntuis, but more tawny rufous above, and 
With like tar«uii much shorter : ** tiTminal half of the bill blackish, 
th** tioiic \rll«>v ; eyelids liare ; feet and iris bright yellow ** (von 
Hen'jUnS. Total length 10 inches, culmen l'()5, wing 8*75, tail 
4 <\, unii« :J-J. 

//<t^. .North -eAstem Africa, from Kordofan and lk>goa, south to 
kh-Uud, and to I^ado in iujuatorial Africa. 



«. A'l sk. li«*fr<*-Ui)J. Mr. E^Ier (\j. 

4 :^ ad sk. AnurU Vslb'T. AuK. 8. W.T. Hlau{;>rd,l'^.[C.]. 

c ^ ad ik An«ba Valley, Aug. 6 Twt'eddalc ( oil. 

( N'. Jet»e). 

d Ad sk Ij^iu ^>luat<l^Hl Africa, Emin Paj«hs fp.]. 

April 14 

t4: ftitv ( 



1 8 (EDICNEMID J!. 



2. BUEHnsnrs ♦. j, 

Burhinus, lUiffer, Prodr. p. 250 (1811) B. grallarius. 

Range. The same as that of the single species. 

1. Burhinus grallaxius. 

Australian Thick-knee. 
Great-billed Plover, Lath. Gen, Syn. Suppl. ii. p. 819 (1801). 
Hiffh-legged Plover, Lath, t, c. p. 319 (1801 : New South Wales). 
Bndled Plover, Lath, t c, p. 320 (New South Wales). 
Charadrius magnirostris {nee VieilL), Lath. Ind. Om, Suppl, p. Ixvi 

(1801). 
Charadrius ffrallarius, Lath. Ind, Om, Suppl. p. Ixvi (1801). 
Charadrius frenatus, Lath. op. cit. p. Ixvii (1801). 
CEdicnemus longipes, Vieill. N, Diet. d'Hist, Nat. xxiii. p. 232 (1818) ; 

Temm, H. Col, v. pi. 386 (1826) ; VieiU, Gal, des Ois, ii. p. 84, 



pi. 228 (1834) ; Ramsay, Tab. List Austr, B, p. 3o (1888). 

CEdicnemus magnirostris (nee Geoff r.)y Stephens y in Shaw's Gen. Zool. 
xi. pt 2, p. 462 (1819 : New South Wales). 

Ilimantopus grallarius, Stephens j in Shatd's Gen. Zool, xii. pt. 1, p. 184 
(1824 : New Holland). 

Burhinus novsB hollandiae, Stephens, in Shawns Gen, Zool. xiv. pt. 1, 
p. 342 (1826 : New HoUand). 

Charadrius giganteus, Wagl, Isis, 1829, p. 647 (Australia). 

CEdicnemus grallarius. Gray, List Gralke Brit. Mus. p. 59 (1844) ; 
id. Gen, B. in, p. 636 (1844); Gould, B. Austr. \i, pi. 5 (1848) ; 
Licht, Nomencl. Av, Mus, Berol, p. 93 (1854) ; Schl, Mus, Pays- 
Bos, Cursores, p. 18 (1865 : Australia) ; Gould, Handb, B, Austr. 
ii. p. 210 (1865) ; Ramsay, P. Z, S, 1866, p. 334 (Port Denison) ; 
Grau, Hand4, B. iii. p. 10, no. 9947 (1871) ; Harting, P, Z, S, 
1874, p. 459 (W. Australia, breeding, Sept. -Oct.) ; Ramsay, P, Z, S. 
1877, p. 335 (Queensland) ; Masters, Proc, Linn. Soc, N, S, W. i. 
p. 59 (1877 : Percy Is., N.E. Coast) ; Ramsay, op, cit, ii. p. 196 
(1878); Masters, t, c, p. 275 (Port Darwin); Nehrk. J. f. O. 
1879, p. 408; Salvin, Cat, Strickl, Coll, p. 590 (1882); Meyer, 
Sitzb, u. Ahh, Ges, Isis, 1884, p. 215 (Timor-laut) ; North, Proc. 
Linn, Soc. N. S. W. (2) i. p. 1170 (1886, eggs) ; Ramsay, op. cit. 
(2) ii. p. 171 (N.W. Australia) ; %d. Tab, List Austr. B, p. 19 
(1888: nearly the whole of Australia); Seebohm, Geogr, nistr, 
Charadr.ia, 83 (1888) ; NoHh, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. (2) iii. 
p. 1778 (1889 : Cumberiand Co., N. S. W.) ; Cox ^ Hamilton, op. 
cit. (2) iv. p. 419 (1890 : Mudgee Distr.) ; Salvad. Aggiunte Om. 
Pap. iii. p. 198 (1891). 

* This generic name is in general use and must therefore be employed ; but 
in strictness it should be rejected, as it was not founded by llliger on an 
actual specimen, but on the description of Latham's ' Great-billed Plover' 
(Gen. Syn. Suppl. ii. p. 319). This description is evidently taken from a 
coloured 6gure and not from a bird, and, moreover, he describes the bill as 
"very broad, resembling the Tody genus." It is on this statement that 
llliger founded the genus Burhinus, I^tham further described his ' Great-billed 
Plover' as being of the size of the 'Golden Plover': further evidence that 
Tiftt^Mtm himself never saw the bird. For the rest, the description is evidently 
that of the Australian Thick-knee. 



2. IIUKHIRU8. 19 

RoHiiDiit gimlkriuB, Reichenb, Av, Sjfst. Nat. p. xvii, Tnf. 184. 
fiir. OiVi, Taf. \m, figs. 244i>-43 (18.VJ); Bp. C. R. xUu. p. 410 
(185B): Hmne ^ Rekhen NomencL Mm$, Hein, Om. p. 3a3 (1890). 

<£diciiemui atutndin, Sei, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 212; id, IbU, 1859, 
p.3Sd. 

Admit. Generml colour above asby grey, tbe crown, neck, and 
■antle streaked with blackish stripes, mach more emphasized on the 
fimthrri of the back and scapulars, many of which have broad black 
centres and tawny margins ; the lower back and rump ashy g^y» 
•Creaked with blackish shaft -stripes ; the upper tail-coverts similarly 
Marked, bat having also some remains of bars like the tail-feathers, 
whieh have narrow and irregular cross-bars, the outer ones with a 
broad black band at the tip, before which u a broad sub-terminal bar 
of white ; leMer wing-ooverts dark brown with tawny margins, the 
leries dull white with broad black shaft-stredu, the greater 
dark ashy brown ; bastard- wing, primary- coverts, and quills 
Uaek. the first four primaries with a broad band of whito on both 
webs, aod the inner primaries with a white mark at the base ; second- 
ahea white towards the base of inner web, the innermost secondaries 
kke the back ; head ashy like the back, streaked with blackish shaft- 
liA4v : lures and a narrow eyebrow, as well as a spot below the eye, 
white ; a band below the eye crossing the ear-coverts, black, slightly 
washed with rufous, and extending in a line of black-streaked feathers 
d^wa the sid«a of the neck, this black line followed by a broad 
vkilr band stretching below the eye and losing itself in the brown 
of the ear-coverts; cheeks reddish brown, streaked with black; 
throat and under surface of body white, more or less tinged with 
tawny oo the lower throat, fore neck, breast, and side<« of body, all 
%d which parts are streaked with black, the breast very broadly ; 
mader tail -coverts very pale cinnamon-buff; lesser under wing- 
o/verti blackish, the remainder as well as the axillaries and lower 
feomarr -coverts broadly tipped with black : ** bill black ; legs sickly 
vcUawiah olive, gradually passing into the brown of tbe feet ; iris 
TcUaw; eyrUnh black** {J, Oould). Total length 20*5 inches, 
enl»en l-O, wing lU'5, tail <>, tarsus 4*0. 

//«i. Australia. 8aid to have occurred also in Timor-laut. 

a \d. ik. Australia Sir G. Grey [P.]. 

4 Ad tk Australia. Gould ColL 

r Ad. ik. 8(iuth AustraUa. Capt. Sturt rp.J. 

d. Ad. 9k South Australia. St^bohm Coll. 

« Ad. sk Sydney, New South Wales. Australian Musoum 



[j'.i 

Seebohi 



/ cf ad. sk. Sydney. Seebobm Coll. 

'm ^ mi tk Qu**rn^Und. Tweeddale ColL 

k t. Ad ik gueroiiland {J. T, Coe/ureil). Salvin-Godiuan Coll. 

4 Ad ik Up<* Tptart, Queensland, Voy. II.M.S.' Fly* 

April 1 (J. H. Juke$), 
N.W. Austndia {T. 11. 



i ^ mL9k N.W. Australia ( T. II. Capt. liowyer Ik)wer 

Purchased. 
c2 



liomyer IJotrrr). _ fP.l 

reus 



20 (BOICNEMIDJ. 

3. ESACUS. rjr 

Type. 

Esacusy Lesson, Traiti, p. 547 (1831) E. recurvirostris. 

Carv^nacft, Hodgs. J. A. S, Beng. v. p. 776 (1836) . E. recurvirostris. 
Pseudope, Hodgt, J. A, S. Beng. x. pt. 1, p. 27 
(1841) E. rtjcurvirostria. 

Range. The same as that of the single species of the genus. 

1. Esacns recurvirostris. 

G^icnemus recurvirostris, Cuvier, Hegne Anim. i. p. 600 (1829); 
Schl, Mus, Pagit-Ba», Cursores, p. 26 (1866: Benpral; Cambodia). 

Esacus recurviro:*tri8, Lenson, Traitd, p. 647 (1831) ; Gray, Lut 
GraUa Brit. Mus. p. (X) (1844 : Nepal ; Bootan) ; id. Gen. B. iii. 
p. 636 (1844); id. Cat. Mamm. etc. Nepal pres. Hodgs. \\. 131 
(1846) ; Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. p. 2t:0 (1849 : Calcutta) ; 
Irbg, Ibis, 1861, p. 237 (Oudb) ; Jerd. B. Ind. lii. p. 662 (1864) ; 
Beavan, Ibis, 1808, p. 391 (Sewalik Ililk) ; Grau, Hand-l. B. iii. 
p. 10, no. 9949 (1871); Hume, Str. F. i. pp. 102, 232 (1873: 
Sindh) ; id. Str. F. ii. p. 482 (1874: Attaran River); id. Str. F. 
iii. p. 182 (1875 : Thavetmvo) ; id. Nests ^ Eggs Ind. B. iii. p. 570 
(18/6); Blyth^ Wald. B'. Burm. p. 162 (1875: Kvasoo Creek); 
Butler, Str. F. iv. p. 14 (1876: Mount Aboo); Ba'U, t. c. p. 234 
(Sumbalpur); Butler, Str. F. v. i). 232 (1877: Guzerat) ; Hume 
iSf Davison, Str. F. vi. p. 468(1878: Ilounprthraw and Attaran 
Rivers); Davidsoti ^ Wenden, Str. F. vii. p. 88 (1878 : Doccan) ; 
ButUr, t. c. p. 186 (Karachi, breedinff) ; Ball, t. c. p. 227 (Ganges 
to Godavery); Cripps, t. c. p. 301 (Faridpur); Butler, Cat. B. 
iSwdc^c. p. 69(1879); Hume, Str. F. viii. p 112 (1879); Doig, 
t. c. p. 371 (E. Narra, breeding); Legge, B. Ceulon, p. 070 
(1880); a Su^nh. Str. F. ix. p. 237(1880: R. Hub, breeding); 
Butler, Str. F. ix. p. 427 (Bhima R., Deccan) ; Beid, Str. F. x. 
p. 67 (1881 : Lucknovr) ; Barnes, t. c. p. 166 (Indus, near Kotri, 
breeding) ; Davidson, t. c. p. 319 (W. Kuandeish, resident) ; Gates, 
Handb. B. Brit. Burm. ii. p. 367 (1883) ; Swinhoe 8f Barnes, Ibis, 
1886, p. 133 (Mhow district) ; Parker, Ibis, 1886, p. 188 (Ceylon) ; 
Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) iv. p. 613 (1887: Bhamo): hume, 
Str. F. xi. p. 316 (1888 : Manipur) ; Gates, ed. Hume's Nests ^ Eggs 
Ind. B. iii. p. 335 (1890). 

Carvanaca grisea, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. v. p. 776 (1836 : Nepal) ; id. 
leon. ined. in Brit. Mus., GraUoi, pi. 45, no. 118. 

Pseudops griseus, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 86 (1844). 

Carvanaca recurvirostris, Beichenb. Av. Syst. Nat. p. xviii, Taf. 185. 
fig. 1071 (1862) ; Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 416 (l^MJ). 

Pseudops recurvirostris, Heine Sf Reichen. Nomencl. Mus. Hein. Gm, 
p. 333(1890: Madras). 

Adult male. General colour above ashy brown, with slightly 
indicated sandy-buff or whitish margins to the feathers; wing- 
coverts lighter and more pearly grey than the back, with narrow 
white ends to the outer median and the greater series ; the lesser 
wing-ooTerts blackish, followed by a narrow white line ; bastard- 
wing, primary-coverts, and quills blackish, the outer primaries 
crossed by a white bund, the inner primaries white on the inner 
web, the innermost white at base and tip and crossed with a sub- 
teminal blackish band ; the secondaries blackish brown, white for 



H. B8ACU8. 21 

thr gTt'AUT part of the inner web, the innermost aocondaries brown 
like the back ; lower back, rump, upper tail-coTert8,and centre tail- 
iiraUien brown like the back ; the outer feathers with a black bar 
at the enda, preceded by a bar of white, l)eforc which is a narrow 
blackiah bar ; crown of head and neck ashy brown like the back, with 
Dam>w blackish shaft-lines; base of forehead and lores white, extend- 
tair in a band acnias the sides of the face to the hinder checks ; above 
the ere a line of white, extending backwards above the ear-coverts 
to the sidcv of the neck ; above this a band of black ; below the eye 
a whitr patch, followed by a line of black, running to the black ear- 
oorerts ; from the angle of the mouth a black line along the upper 
liar of the cheeks ; the latter, as well as the under surface of the 
body white, with an isabelline tinge on the lower throat and fore 
n^k : under wing-coverta and axillariea |mre white, the lower 
grrmier oorertH tipjied with black ; lower suHace of quills white, the 
ti(« black : ^ edges of eyelids, bill, and nostrib yellow ; remainder 
f'i hdl black : feet plumbeous white, clawa black ; iris yellow '* ( K, 
ir. fW4s\, Total length 19 inchee, culmen :J, wing 10-3, tail 
4 'To, tAr»us 3* 1 . 

.ii/«i// fimaU. Similar to the male in colour : ** bill black, the 
rtfrwm of the noatriU, gape, and base of lower mandible pale green ; 
fare very pale bluinh green ; iris greenii-ih yellow " ( \V, Davison). 
ToCal Irnirth 2u inches, culmen 305, wing li»*3, tail 4*3, tareus 3*25. 

l/«^. RiTrn of the Indian Peninsula from Sind, south to Ceylon, 
and caatwards to the Burmese countries, as far south as Tenasserim. 

«. ^ srd. ftk RiTtT Jh«*Iuiii, near Sharptir, Hume Coll. 

Sind. Nov. itJ {A, O. )/.). 

A Ad tk. Sins district, Pumab. flume (\^11. 

r. i£ md. *k iiuT\mtm «iijitrict, March 21 Hum** CoU. 

4 Ad. •k IVlhi. Hume Coll. 

#c '^ s a«l. «k Uivcr Jumna, near Eta wah, Hume Coll. 

i ' a<l «k Uiv«*r Jumna, Marrh( i>r. Twe<ddale Coll. 

i, Si. Ad *k NV|iaJ lItMl)rw>n Cull. 

^TvpeM of Carranara ift'ip^a.) 

m, c. /» A«l. tk N*«pa1 (//. //. Iiiidff$'fM). India MuM-um. 

f * fcl »k. Futteb^rh, March 13 Hume Coll. 

{A. Andrrmm). 

r, • .\d. ak lihotAii iKioars Feb.. May Hume Coll. 

(/.. Mamdriii). 

f \4. •k Rhotan {J'rwthrrton). India Mu>«eum. 

«. A4 tk. .\«>aro {MrCUUanH). India Museum, 

r. V * i mi tk. Khandflfinh, April, N«>v. Hum«*Coll. 

kJ. Ikir%tl»i/n). 

g \A 9k. Sht^nii yah district, April 1.H) Hume Coll. 

(/;. r. L Mar»kali). 

f Ad ftk (Vylnn. Twe«HMale(*oll 

a 2 ad tk KvajKMi (*ri*««k, Hurniah, Twt*vddalt> Coll. 

'<>pt (^. a. H\ Jt.). 

m imitk Sittang Vallev, I)h;. *JI» Tweeddale Coll. 

(A. a. H'. k) 



22 (KDICVEMIOJB. 

h'f </. cJ 5 ad. sk. Lower Peffu, May, Nov. Oatea Coll. 

{E. W, O.). 

^9 ^yf- $ ^ ^ Thatone, Tenaasenm, Nov., Hume Cdl. 

Dec. (W, Davison), 

g. c^ ad. ak. Amherst, Dec. 30 ( W. DX Hume ColL 

K, Sternum. Pegu. Gates ColL 



4. OBTHOBHAKPHUS. „,_ 

Type. 

Burhinus (nee lUig,)^ Lesson^ TrmtS, p. 547 (1831) . O. magniroetris. 
Eaacus (nee Leas.), Gray, JSand4. B. iii. p. 100 

(1871) O. magnirostria. 

Orthorhamphus, Salvad. Ucc. Bam. p. 312 (1874) . . O. magnirostria. 

Range. The same as that of the single species of the genus. 



1. Orthoramphus magnirostrlB. 

CEdicnemus magnirostris, VieUl. N. Did. cCHist. Nat. xxiii. p. 231 
(1818: ex Oeojfr. MSS.); id. Ene. Mith. i. p. 334, pi. 234. fig. 1 
(1820) ; Temm. PL Col. v. pL 887 (1826) ; S. MiiU. Verh. Land- 
en Volkenk. p. 23 (1839-44: Oetanata); Gray, P. Z. 8. 1860, 
p. 363 ; BfMfenb. Not. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. xxv. p. 253 (1863 : 
Ceram) ; id. J, f. O. 1864, p. 135 ; Seebohnij Geogr. Dietr. 
Charadr. T). 89 (1888) ; Everett, Joum. As. Soc. Straits Branch, 
1889, p. z03 (Cape SimpaDgmengaio) ; Hose, Ibis, 1893, p. 424 
(Raram Mouth). 

Charadrius magnirostris, Wagl. Syst. Av, Charadrius, sp. 3 (1827). 

Charadrius giganteus, Wagl. Isis, 1829, p. 647 (ex Ltcht, in Mus. 
Berol.). 

Burhinus ma^irostris, Less. Traiti dCOm. p. 547 (1831 : New 
Guinea) ; tS. Compl. de Buff., Ois. p. 677 (1838) ; Gray, List Gen. 
B. p. 83 (1841) ; Licht. Noniencl.Av. Mus. Berol. p. 93 (1854). 

Ksacus magnirostrifl,' Gray, List Gen. B. p. 83 (1841) ; id. Gen. B. 
iii. p. 535(1844) ; GoiJd, B. Austr. vi. pi. 6 (1848) ; MaegiU. Voy. 
BaUlesn. ii. p. 358 (1852) ; Gray, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 187 (Am), 
p. 196; Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 416 (1856) ; Sol. Proc. Linn. Soc. ii. 
p. 169 (1858) ; Cass. U.S. Expl. Eap. p. 359 (1858); Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. ^ B. New Guinea, p. 50 (1859) ; Gray, P. Z. S. 1861, 
p. 438 (Salawati) ; Wallace, P. Z. S. 1862, pp. 335, 346 (Sula 
Isl.) ; id. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 35 (Bouru) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austr. 
ii. p. 213 (1865) ; Fitisch, New-Guinea, p;^181 (1865); Schi. Mus. 
Pays- Bos, Cursores, p. 22 (1865) ; Rosenb. Reis naar Zuid~ 
ookereiL p. 82 (1867) ; Marie, Actes Soc. Linn. Bord. xzvii.p. 328 
(1870: New Caledonia); Gray, Handrl. B. iii. p. 10, no. 9948 
(1871); JTflW. Tratis. Z. S. viii. p. 91 (1872: Celebes); Hume, 
Str. F. ii. p. 290 (1874 : Andamans, breeding) ; id. op. cit. iii. p. 224 
(1875); Hume, Nests ^ Eggs Ind. B. iii. p. 581 (1873) ; Wald. 
Tr. Z. S. ix. p. 227 (1875 : Sooloo Is.); Hume, Str. F. iv. p. 293 
(1876); Scl. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 461 (Huon Gulf); Masters, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. W. i. p. 59 (1877: Cape GrenviUe ; Long Isl.) ; 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 187 (Queensland) ; id. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 835 
(Port Denison) ; Scl. t. c. p. 556; Hume, Str. F. v. p. 121 (1877) ; 
RafHsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ii. p. 196 (1878) ; Masters, t. c. 



4. ORTHOBHAMPHrs. 23 

|». i>:fi (Port Darwin); E. L. 4* E L. C. Lauard, Ibis, 1878, 
p t»ti (New Caledonia); Rotrmb, Maitty. Archip. pp. 277, 87^, 
:fi^t (Mvfiol), p. ^\3 (1878-79); Huwe 4* iJaniam, Str. F. vi. 
p. 4.'i4» (1878: Merarui In.); llume, Str, F. viii. pp. 112, S84 
il'-rW); /YiwrA. P. Z. SA97i\ pp. 0,14 (Duke of Yorii lal.); ^.X. 

* J?. L. C Layard, Ibii, 1881, p. 136 rHuon In., New Caledonia) ; 
/ViurA, t. c. p. WO (New IWtain) ; Scl Voy, • ChalUngfr; ii. p. 38 
» IHKI : ri^-on If».) ; Trutr. P. Z. 5. 1881, p. 996 (Loui*iade«) ; id. 
Ihh, 1 H>-.». pp. 140, 144 (Si)lomon !«.) ; £.L,^E, L, C. Layard, t. e. 
pp. A32. r>44 ( Iluon Is., bre<<ling) ; Oatts, Bandb. B, Brit Burm, ii. 
i». V>1 ( lh83 ) ; Skarpe, IbU, 1888, p. 208 (PaUwan) ; Grant, R Z. & 
l-"^, p. 1*01 (Ouadalcanar) ; Banuay, Tab, List Audr, B. p. 19 
(18^8); Whitekmdy /6m, 1890, p. 69 (Palawan); Sharpe, t, e, 
pp. 141, 284 (Abai, N. Ikirneo) ; OaU9f ed. Burners Ne»U 4* Bgoi 
Jnd. B, iii. p. 8S4 (1890) ; Ih Vis, Ann, Bep, Brit, New Gum, 
p <ri (1890) : id. Coian, Paper*, no. 108, p. 116 (1800) ; id. Ibi», 
1-<M. p. 41 (Fennii«on Is.); Walker, 75u, 1892, p. 257 (Addle 
U^ X. w. Atuitralia) ; Trittr. t, c. p. 290 (Solomon la.). 

<Mdicnemiia fripmteua, Gn^, Gen, B, iii. p. 535 (1844). 

<l->limi*iDua major, Brehm, teste Gray, Band-l, B, iii. p. lO^no. 9948 
il-ri). 

( Mk<n')iamphua magrniroatria, Salmd, Uce. Bam, p. 812 (1874: 
ll..nMN>); //miM, Str, F, t. p. 121 (1877: critic); Sa/cad. Ann. 
Mm. Genot. ix. p. 47 (1870); id, op. tit. xiv. p. iW) (1879); 
IfAlh. Suova Guin. p. 585 (1880); Satvad. Ann. Mum. Genov. 
iMii. p. 828 (18Hi>); Sairad, Om, Papuama etc. iii. p. 290 
1 1^*2); Set, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 52, lOi, 200 ( Kirimoen ; lArut; 
Timor-Uut) ; Forbet, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 433 ; Xehrk, J,/ O, 1885, 
p. :i.'> « Wai^ri.iu) ; Giuilem. P. Z, S. 1885, p. 604 (MyaiJ) ; Meyer, 
ZntMcAr. ye: Gm. iiL p. lif^ (188({: Jobi) ; Beine ^ Beicken, 
y\meneJ. Mum, Bein. Om, p. 8:i8 (1890); Sairad. Agyiunte Om, 
/Vii^P- l98(l8iU). 

.f-juru* mainiinvtria, BamMmf, Proc, Linn. Soe. N. S, W, Tii. p. 40 

♦ 1-*^: S»»l<.mon In.); Sharpe, Bep, Zooi, Colt. Vuy, B,M.S. 
' AUrt: p. 26(lt«^). 

A*1uU. (fen**ral colour aborc asby brown, witb duaky ahaft-linea 
ti> th'- fratht-n; at-apalara like tbe b.'ick ; upper tail-coTcrta aahy 
Ukr thr boi'k. but freckled and barred with duaky brown ; leaser 
« ioir-o^T«Tt« dark brown, the lower ones blackiah at the enda 
aad funnintr a brood band acrona the wing, followed by another 
b*ad i*( white*, formed by the median coverta, which are grey at 
tbr ti|«, with a broad white band acroea the middle followed by 
ar«pthrr barof duf»ky blackinh ; greater coverta entirely grey, fading 
«?€ iDt/> whitiah at the enda; baatard-wing and primar}'-coverta 
W^rki^h. the amaller primary -covert a white like the quilla they 
ea^rt , ftfimarir^i* browniah black with white along the inner web, 
extending acr^jaa the outer web of the flrat two ; inner primaries 
pvirr whitr ; the tecondariea dark brown, externally grey, with white 
afwl »mall whitr ti[M, ahto white along the inner weba, on the 
'JiMM the white confined to the inner web, the long inner- 
arrvmdari«« aahy brown like the back ; tall-feathera aahy 
n, with a black band at the end, l»efore which ia a broad band 
«# vhtt#, prac«<bd by a narrow black band, the two oeDtre feathera 



24 (BDICNSMID^. 

light ajshy brown freckled with dusky mottlings, the other feathers 
also slightly freckled with dusky ; crown of head and neck like the 
back ; lores blackish, as also a broad band along the sides of the 
crown, extending to the sides of the neck, where it joins the black 
ear-coverts and encloses the white of the face, which consists of a 
white band above and below the eye extending above the ear-coverts ; 
cheeks white, extending in a Hue along the base of the upper 
mandible and forming a streak in front of the eye ; fore part of 
cheeks black ; chin and throat white ; lower throat ashy brown, 
streaked with darker brown, as also the sides of the neck ; breast 
pale ashy ; remainder of the under surface of body white with a 
slight tawny tinge ; under tail-coverts tawny buff ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries white, as also the quill-lining : '* base of bill 
sulphur-yellow, continued along the sides of the upper mandible 
above the nostrib ; remainder of bill black ; tibia lemon-yellow ; 
tarsi and feet wine-yellow ; upper ridge of scales of toes lead-colour ; 
eyelids primrose-yellow; iris pale yellow" {J, Gould). Total 
length about 19 inches, culmen 3, wing 10*8, tail 4*3, tarsus 3*8. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length about 
20 inches, culmen 2*8, wing 10*6, tail 4*3, tarsus 3*3. 

Young. Two specimens from the Duke of York Island and Guadal- 
canar are apparently immature, having the feathers of the upper 
surface tipped with sandy buff, especially on the wing-coverts, where 
the white band on the median series is not so defined as in the 
adults, but showing a broader band of brown-tipped feathers below. 
There is, however, a second white band formed by the white tips 
to the greater wing-coverts, and it is somewhat curious that this 
should be a sign of immaturity. 

Hab. Shores of Australia and throughout the Malayan Archipelago 
to Borneo and the Andamans. 

a. Ad. sk. Australia. J. B. Jukes, Esq. [P.j. 

b. Imm. St. Aiistraha. Sir E. Belcher JNP.]. 

c. Ad. St. Austraha. Earl of Derby [P.]. 

d. Ad. sk. Queensland (•/. T. Cockerell). Salvin-(.todman Coll. 

e. 5 ad. sk. Port Molle, Queensland Voy. H.M.S. ' Alert.* 

(Dr. Coppinger). 

/. Ad. sk. Rockingham Bay, May 24 Captain Owen Stanley 

(J. macgillivray). [P.]. 

g. J ad. sk. Admiralty Islands. Voy. H.M.S. • Chal- 
lenger.' 

h. cJ juv. sk. Guadalcanar, Solomon Isl., Gould Coll. 

Dec. 2i^ (J. Macgillivray). 

t, $ juv. ak. Duke of York Island, Oct 15 Sharpe Coll. 

(Dr. Kleinschmidt). 

k. Ad, sk. Iluon Gulf, Eastern New Tweeddalo Coll. 

Guinea (Dr. Cotnrie). 

If m. Ad. sk. Aru Islands. Wallace Coll. 

fi. Ad. sk. Aru Islands. Tweeddalo Coll, 

o. $ ad. sk. Kirimoen Isl., Tenimber Dr. U. O. Forbes [0.]. 

Groupi Sept. 1. 



4. ORTnOBHAMrilUS. 



i'r> 



f 7 »ii. •\l 



■■ 



.• o 



? Ml. 
•4 

«r .' Ml fik. 



IjirRt, T«»iiiml>*T < troiip, S««|it. 

lUniiii Mouth, liorneo, lK*c. 

I Met. 
A odanuin^, J u 1 y ( It, J. H Vm- 

hrrley ). 
P«'rt 1 'urn wall ii«, N. Anda- 

luans April (((•'^••^- HV/n- 

P.rt lilnir. Kb. (/?./. II'.). 
Little (\iciwi Nl., March (^. 



TwrcdtlHlo Coll. 
C. llOM», V^. [P.J. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



HuDK' and Twi^eddalp 

CulU 
Hume Coll. 



26 



CURSOKIIDJB. 



Family 11. CURSORIIDiE: 

Nostrils schizorhinal (except Pluvianta), 

Palate sohizognathous. 

Basipterygoid processes absent. 

Tarsus transversely scaled in front. 

Toung covered with down at birth and able to run in a few 
hours. 

Egg white (Dromas)y or thickly blotched and scribbled (Cursorias 
and Olareola), 

On account of its holorhinal nostrils Pluvianus is associated 
by Mr. Seebohm with the (Edicnemidcg. Its relations, however, are 
so manifestly with Cursoriits that it is better to subordinate the 
character of the nostrils and to place the genus with the other 
Coursers, as has been done by Dr. Gadow. 

Dramas is placed by both the above-named naturalists in this 
same division, but to my mind it stands quite alone, its peculiar 
mode of nesting proving that it is neither a Courser nor a Thick- 
knee.* 

Ortyxelus has been relegated to the Charadrii by my colleag:ue 
Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, who considers that it is a Courser and not a 
Tumicine form. It is, of course, impossible to determine this 
question without an examination of the anatomy and osteology of 
the genus, but I have placed it provisionally with the Coursers. 
It is to be noticed, however, that Mr. F. J. Jackson, who 
obtained Ortyxelus in Turquel, entered it in his field-notes as a 
" Little Courser." 

Key to the Oenera. 

a. Middle claw pectinated, the claw only 

slightly extending beyond the end of 

the toe itself; nostril pierced in the bill 

itself; no operculum ; bill straight or 

nearly so along the culmen ; the angle of 

the genys placed very far back, much 

nearer to the gape than to the apex of the 

mandible ; quills pointed, the nrimaries 

exceeding the secondaries in lengtn, falling 

short of the tip of the tail, which a^ain 

falls short of the outstretched legs ; black 

dorsal feathers elongated 1. Dbomas, p. 27. 

h. No pectination on the middle claw, which is 

shghtly swollen on its inner aspect ; wings 

* Cf, Sharpe, Claasif. B. p. 72. 



I. DBOMAS. 27 

ant pointed ; tht» •econdaricii «ji long 110 the 

pniuArir* mod not oit4*Dding bevond the 

OQt-«tn*tchcd i(*et. 

m . Nijttrib ntOAted in a niuTow sliti abut in 

b; AO opeirulum ; up|ier plumage nifoufty 

Tvniiiculat«d and mottled with blackish 

like a Quail; no elongated plumes on 

tbr uppi-r back 2. Obtyxblub, p. iW. 

A . Ni^thu orate, »hut in by an operculum; 
plumagv not Termiculated ; interscapular 
plume* elongated and overhanging the 

I'wer back '. li. PLUViANrs, p. ^^'2. 

Slidd> elaw pectinated along ita inner 

mafirin. 

r Winir» long, the prinmriea pointed, but 

not fitending at far aii the outstretched 

Cn-t, though ther reach to the end of the 

tad. 

« . Hill long and curved, the eulmen equal 

t«». or longer than, the middle toe and 

rlav; lower mandible cunrod at the 

^•me anirle aa the upper one 4. (*urhoriu(«, p. 'U. 

i . liiU widened at the bane, the eulmen 
ii»t «f> lunir a* the middle ^>e without 
tlie rUw : lower mandible not de- 
run fd, the g^-nys aaceoding t4)wanL« 

th«- tip .' 5. Uhikoptill'8, p. 4i\, 

^. Wiiii:^ of ••itra<»rdinary length, the 

primarir* pointed and reaching far be- 

%*<kl thr outiitn*tched feet to the tip of 

th« tail, or even beyond the latter. 

r Tar»uA Terr long, the outHtretched feet 

far rice<i*iling the tail; firft primary 

priiduivd far beyond the second, and 

fttr^iii»-ly attenuated towards the 

tip . . . .' 6. Stiltia, p. U\ . 

d . Taniu« (»o]y m<<derate or rather short, 

thi* ituutrvtched feet n4>t ivaching 

bi %iiDd the tail. 

4 Tiiil vrn f»trungly forked, the outer- 

m<»»t frAther far exceeding the 

«th«-ni in length 7. (iUIRRola, p. tV). 

/. Tsil ••marginate and nearly nquan*, 

but the outer feathiT slightly ex- p. ^1- 

orrdiiig the middle one in length . . 8. GALACTtK'fiRYBRA, 



1. DSOXAS. ^ 

Type. 
I»r*«as. nmfkuU, K. VH.-Akod, HamU. SlorkMm, xxxl 

f l»^J^\*<^^) I), ardeola. 

I> ^li*. MU, I'iy JAysj. App. ir. p. Ixi (IKU) 1>. ardeok. 

Hmm^i. Tb« tame aa that of the moglo s|)ecict of tho genua. 



28 CURSOBIIDJE. 




Fig. 3. — Left foot of Dromas ardeola, from the outside. 







Fig. 4. — Middle claw of right foot of D, ardeola, from the inner side (enlarged). 



1. Bromas ardeola. 

Dromas ardeola, Payhtll, K, Vet.-Akad, Handl. Stockh. xxvi. 
pp. 182, 188, tab. 8 (1806 : India) ; Temm. PL Col, v. pi. 362 
(1825) ; Dttpont, Ann, Sc, Nat, 1826, p. 184, pi. 46 (Bengal) ; 
iStrickl, Ann. N. H, vii. p. 38 (1841); Gray, List Gralla Brit, 
Mus, p. 73 (1844) ; JRUpp, Syst, Uebers, p. 121 (1846 : Red Sea) ; 
Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 560 (1848) ; Blyth, Cat, B, As, Soc. p. 276 
(1849 : Ceylon, S. India) ; Beichenb. Av, Syst. Nat.^ Gall. p. xii, 
Taf. 167. figs. 440-442 (1862) ; Blyth, J, A, S. Beng, xxi. p. 362 
(1862) ; id, Contr. Om. 1862, p. 27 (Ceylon) ; Layard, Ann, $ Mag, 
N, H. 1864, p. 270 (Ceylon) ; Heugl, Syst, Utber$, p. 60 (1866 : Red 
Sea) ; id. Ibis, 1859, p. 346 (Gulf of Aden) ; Sartl. Faun, Madag, 
, 86 (1861) ; Schl, Mus. Pays-Bas, Stem®, p. 41 (1863 : Red 
ea) ; Jerd, B. Ind. iii. p. 668 (1864) ; Pelz, Beis, Novara, Vog, 
. 124 (1866: Nicobars) ; Gumey, Ibis, 1866, p. 270 (Natal 
loast); Layard, B, S. Afr. p. 372 (1867: Natal£; Blyth, Ibis, 
1867, p. 166; Beavan, t,c, p. 332 (Andamans); £, Newton, t,c, 
pp. 361, 369 (Seychelles) ; Heugl. J.f, O. 1867, 5. 286 (pahlak) ; 
van der Hoeven, Nova Acta Acad. Cas. Leop, xzxiii. no. 7 (1867) ; 
Sperling, Ibis, 1868, p. 284 (Europa Is., Mozambique Channel) ; 
Schl, <$• PoU. Faune Madag., Ois, 11. p. 160 (1868) ; Cab. in Von 
der Decken's Iteis. iii. p. 46 (1869) ; BUmf. Gtol, 8f Zool. Abyss, 
p. 432 (1870) ; Finsch, Tr, Z. S, vii. p. 296 (1870 : Suakin ; Zoulla ; 
Massaua) ; Finsch ^ Harti, Vog, Ostafr, p. 627 (1870) ; Gray, 
Handrl, B, iii. p. 41, no. 10237 (1871) ; Heugl Om, N,0,'Afr, ii. 
pt. 1, p. 1043 (1873) ; Hume, Nests ^ Eggs Ind. B. n. 684 (1873) ; 
Ball, Str. F, i, p. 86 (1873 : Andamans and NicoWs) ; Hume, 
t, c. p. 234 (Karachi) ; Salvad. Sr Antin, Viagg. Bogos, p. 142 
(1873 : Massaua) ; Wald, Ibis, 1874, p. 140 (Andamans) ; Hume, 
Str. F. ii. pp. 69, 293 (1874 : Andamans) ; Legge, Str. F. iii. 

5. 220 (1875 : Ceylon) ; Le Messurier, t. c. p. 378 (Sindh) ; Hayes 
\loyd, Ibis, 1870, p. 280 (Kathiawar) ; Legge, Str. F. iv. p. 346 
(1876: Ceylon); Hume, t. c. pp. 451, 464 (Laccadives), p. 496 
(Mekran Coafet) ; Butler, Str. F. v. pp. 212, 232 (1877 : Man- 
davi); Hartl. Vog. Madag. p. 320 (1877); Oust. Bull. Soc. 
Phihmath. 1878, p. 184 (Sevchellos) ; Butler, Str. F. vii. p. 186 
(1878: Karachi Harbour) ;'irumc, Str. F. viii. p. 112 (1879), 
pp. 381-384 (Mekran Coast, breeding) ; Butler, dot. B. Sind ete. 



1. DBOMA8. 29 

pu fiO (1879 : dmKU of Sindh and Cutch) ; Parker, Str. F. ix. 
p. 4M:> \ 18H0 : (Vvlon, bn^Hiinjf) ; Z^yy^ B. Cryltm, p. 991 (1880) ; 
.VV. I\ /: -SL l^g^l, p. 174 (S,»cotTa): Salvin, Cdt. StriM. Coll, 
p. r{|7 (lH*)i>: Madrv) ; SMar;>e, ed. LayartTs B. S. Afr. p. 694 
(1>^M : NiiUl); Milne-EdtrartU Sf GrandSd. H. \. Madag., Oi$, 
D.«;U (IfvC)); Yrrhury, Ibis, 1?^, p. 20 (Aden); &^/^, iWn, 
l*^?^, p. :i04 (I^mu) ; fM/r«, fd. Hume's Xftts ^ Eggs Ind, B. iii. 
p :t*7 ( IK>1 1 ; SMarfte, Ibis, 1891, p. 1 Ui (Fno, brwHiinir) ; Sibree, 
IhiM. IHtrJ, p. SraiMadafraiiiar); Bameji, Ibis, \Hm,p, 1/0 (Aden); 
Ftnnof, Joum. Bomb. X. II. .Soc. viii. pp. Ii20-S22 (1893: Aden, 

Kr *\\m aiuphi]i*n<ift, Stt/t, Trav. Abgss. App. iv. p. Ixi, cum tab. 

i\^\4: IWt of AmphiU) ; Jard. * *%, ///. Orn. pi. 76 (1829). 
\h>— iuian P^nKir. iMth. (ten. Hist. B. ix. p. 137, pi. clxix. (1824). 
\iuinupcilm chamdrioideA {ttrr ^SKVtiiu.), Jerd. Madr. J<mm. xi. 

p. 'JU\ ( 1<I0 : We<(t (\tasi of India). 

A-luli mtth. Tun' Mack and white, the entire mantle black, the 
^*mrT plumcA cloiipitiHl to a f^reat extent, so as to overhang the 
|-»Vfr back ; •capuhin, win;;-coT(*rtd, and inner secondariea pare 
whitr; Ijafttard-wintr, primary-coverta, and quilU black, the inner 
« rht of the primaries af^hy white and the shafts white ; the 
•rrondftries whitish <>n the inner web ; lower back, rump, and 
cpi^^-r tail-coverts pure white ; tail-feathers ashy prey, the outer 
ooes white on the inner weln ; head and neck all round, as well as 
thr rnlin under surface, purt» white, as well as the under winj^- 
rr^efU and axillaries ; anterior and posterior edge of eyelid black : 
•• bill black : thitrhs, tarni, and feet light bluish a.Hh ; iris dusky ** 
< r. Ayrfs). Total length \&ii inches, culmen 2*2, wing 8*25, tail 
4"*, tamuf 3-4. 

Admit ffirttiU, Exactly similar to the male, but somewhat smaller 
aad «ith th4* lont: mantli^plumes not so strongly developed. Total 
Vm^rth I'A'o inrhe*, culmen 2-ii, wing 7*9, tail 2*5, tarsus :}'7. 

f'-mm't. IHstintruishtxl from the ailults by having the mantle 
*2«*ki irrey. mon* or less mixed with black, the head and nape 
•trv-i^t^'i «:th bla<*k, <»r at least sharled with dusky gn*y on the top 
^4 ih** h»-s»d ; wing-mviTts and inner MTontlaries also ashy grey. 

Atfjrf/in^/. (\i%«'r»-<l uith aMhy-gn»y down above, slightly mottliHl 
with du*k\ ; rh«*«*ks and under surface of body dingy grey, the 
irr««^r&l ap|»«-aniiici* of the bird U^ng uniform. 

//t'». Tlie «hor«-«i of Fji-Htem Africa and Madagascar, north to the 
|U>1 N-s and .\rabia, tbrnee east along the shores of the Indian 
t*> tb<«** of .Southern India and Cevlon, as well as the 
im^n and Nic«ibar Islands. Nesting in burrows. 



« laa •k. N.R. Mada;:ascar (Tan J. E. Ilarting, K<4q 

iMm). [V.]. 

# A4 Ilk I^aniu, E..\frira. F. J. Jackson, 1*180. 

IV. 

# ^ •d tk S*»c..trs. F.b. \r,, Prof. lUlfour UM 

4 Ad •k JMdah. IM Sa. II If. Calvt-rt, Esq. 

# K-i •* J«^dah. SnlTin-(^fodaian(*oll. 
/ 4 ad tk Suakin, Sept. 1 ( H\ Jesse). Tweeddale Coll. 



30 



CUBS0KIIDJ6. 



jl-k. Ad. et imm. 

ak. 
/. Ad. sk. 
in. Pull. sk. 



n, o, p. Ad. et 

imm. sk. 
q, $ ad. sk. 

r. Ad. sk. 

8. 2 inira. sk. 

if u, cJ ad. ; v. $ 

ad.sk. 
w,x. Ad. sk. 



t/y Zf a'. S &d« ^^ 
imm. sk. 

b', $ imm. sk. 

c*. $ ad. sk. 



FaOy Persian Gulf, Oct. 

Persian Gulf. 

Island of Tungistan, E. of 

Bushire, June 2 (E, A, 

Butler), 
Mekran Coast, Jan. {A. O. 

S,) 
Mandavi, Kutch, Jan. 25 {E, 

A.Butler), 
Karachi, Oct. 2S {Ck>l, I>e 

Messurier), 
Andamans, Aug. (B, J, 

Wimberley). 
South Andamans, March 12 

(B. J. Wimberley), 
Macpherson^s Straits, An- 

damans, March {B, G, 

W, JR.). 
Jolly Boys Island, Anda- 

mans, March 9{W. Davi- 
son), 
Aberdeen, S. Andamans, 

June 5{W, Davison), 
Port Blair, August. 



W. D. Gumming, 

Esq.rP.l 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



2. ORTTXELUS. 



Type. 



Ortyxelus, Vieillot, Oal, Ois. ii. p. 91 (1834) O. meiffreni. 

Torticella (ubi P), teste Ohger. 

Psilocnemis, Ologer^ Handb. Naturg. p. 403 (1842) .... O. meifireni. 

Helortyx, Agasstz, Index Univ. p. 176 (1846) O. meifireni. 

Oxytelus, Beichenb, Av, Syst, Nat, p. xxviii (1852) O. meif&eni. 

Range, The same as that of the single species of the genus. 



1. Ortyzelns meiffreni. 

Tumix meiffieni, VieiU, N, Diet, d'Hist Nat, xxxv. p. 49 (1818) ; 
Heugl, in Peterm. Mitth. 1869, p. 413 (Kordofen). 

Hemipodius nivosus, Sioains, Phil, Mag, Ix. p. 353 (1822) ; id, Zool, 
lUuetr. iii. pL 163 (1823) ; id, B. W, Afr, li. p. 225 (1837). 

Hemipodius meiffreni, Temm. PL Col, v. pi. 60. fig. 1 (1823). 

Ortyxelus meiflOfeni, VieiU, Gal, Ois, ii. p. 92, pi. 800 (1834) ; Gray, 
Gen, B, iii. p. 511 (1847); Strickl P. Z. S, 1860, p. 220 (Kor- 
dofan) ; HartL Dm. W,'Afr, p. 204 (1857 : Senegal) ; id, J,f, O, 
1861, p. 267 (Grand Bassam) ; Gray, Hand-l, B, ii. p. 271, 
no. 9752 (1870) ; Heugl Om. N,0,'Afr, ii. pt. 1, p. 912 (1873: 
Central and Southern Eordofan) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1892, p. 543 
(Turquel). 

Ortvgis meifireni, Jard, Nat. Hist, Gatne-^ds, p. 189, pi. xxvii. 

Psilocnemis meiffireni, Gloger, Handb. Nat, p. 403 (1842). 
Torticella meiffireni, Gloger, Handb. Nat. p. 403 (1842). 
Helortyx meifireid, Agassiz, Index Univ, p. 176 (1846). 



2. oKirxBLrs. 31 

UrrteliM meif&nii, JUiekmb. At. S^st, Not., Oall, Tat 335. fign. 1801 - 

ftW3 (1362). 
IHtTxrltu iMbellinuD, Ifeujfi. Sj^ti. Ueber$. p. 62 (1866) ; id. J.f. O. 

1^02, p. 414. 

AiMt wmU. Geoeral colour above yariegated like a Quail or 

H«inii«Mle, rinoiM red, verm icuLi ted with black and streaked with 

white or aandy buff, the feathers being edged with the latter colours, 

thin lizht edging being accompanied by an internal line of black ; 

wxn|r-€«>Terta white, the inner ones like the back, but with larger 

^^rkings of white and the other pattern rather more coarsely 

iodicated ; primary-coverts and quilLi blackish, the outer primaries 

with a sandy-buff spot at the ends, yermiculated with black, and 

baring a whit« or sandy-buff band across the basal portion of the 

frathm, increasing towards the outermost or first quill, which is 

whJt« for two thirds of its length, with a sub-terminal black patch : 

tht inner primaries and secondaries black, with a broad white tip, 

th« innermost being sandy rufous, yariegatod like the back, but 

Boch more ooanely : lower back, rump, and upper tail-coyerts more 

a&ifurm rinoos red, with a few dusky cross-bars and concealed white 

vpuU, the bars more distinct on the upper tail-coyerts ; tail-feathers 

flAftdy buff, the centre ones distinctly barred across with dusky 

bn>wn, the remainder yermiculated but not barred, the outermost 

Irather for the most ftart white, with a wash of sandy buff on the 

isnrr v«rb and a dusky line in the centre : head a little browner 

than the back, Ici^s distinctly yaried with aandy markings, the centre 

o# the crown streaked with creamy buff, forming a broad longi- 

tiMJinal streak ; a broad e}'ebrow and the sides of the face creamy 

vhxte, with a brown streak behind the car-coyerta; throat and 

uadrr stiff are of liody white, washed with creamy buff on the 

thnMt and cht-st ; the fore neck and sides of upper breast sandy 

nifofM. yermiculated with dusky blackish and spotted with white 

hkr the upfKT surface of the body ; under wing-coyerts white ; the 

V'Wf-r pn mar}' -coverts blackish, forming a patch ; inner lining of 

^ullt ii»alirlijne buff, followed by a broad black patch on the 

prtinAjies, which are tipped with white : ** bill horn-yellow ; feet 

mzfi ciawi |iale horn-yellow, the claws of the middle toes marked 

m,zh bLackiah ^ ir«m Ueu«jl\n)i **feet white; iris light brown" 

* K J. Jiiclmm), Total U*ngth 4*8 inches, culmen 0*45, wing 3, 

bul 1 ^5, tarsus (H^. (A/ta. F. J. Jatlson.) 

Jimh. Wc»t .\ fries, from the Kiver Gambia to Grand Bassam, re- 
orrumng in North-eastern Africa in Kordofan as far south as 
Tar^uel. 

«. 1 \A. •k. 8««negambia. PurcbaseJ. 

^ Ai »k. 8«nt*gambia. K Wil»0D, Esq. [P.]. 



32 CUBSORIID^. 

3. PLXJVIAinJS. -, 

Pluvianus, VteiU. Analyse, p. 56 (1816) P. eegyptius. 

Cureorius, Bote, Isis, 1826, p. 978 P. BBgyptius. 

Hyas, Ologer in Froriep*8 Notizen, xvi. d. 279 (1827) . . P. agyptius. 

Ammoptila, Swatruon, Classif, B. ii. p. 864 (1837) .... P. aegyptius. 

Cheilodromas, Rupp. Mm. Senckenb. ii. p. 208 (1837) . . P. OBgyptius. 

Range, The greater part of West Africa, from the Coanza River 
to Senegambia and across to N.E. Africa and 'Egypt, occurring as a 
straggler in the countries of the Mediterranean. 

1. FluvianuB adgyptius. 

Charadrius aegyptius, Linn, Syst, Nat, i. p. 254 (1766). 
Pluvian du Sln^gal, D'Aubenton, PL Eni. ix, pi. 918. 
Le Pluvian, Buf, Hist. Nat, Ois. viii. p. 104 (1781). 
Black-headed Plover, LatJi. Gen, Sf/n, iii.pt 1, p. 217 (1785). 
Charadrius melanocephalus, Gm, Syst, Nat, i. p. 692 (1788). 
Green-headed Plover, Lat-h, Gen, Syn.,Suppl,u, p. 320 (1801). 
Charadrius africanus, Lath, Gen. Syn,, Suppl, ii. p. Ixvii (1801). 
Pluvianus melanocephalus, Vieill, N, Diet. dHist, Nat. xxvii. p. 129 

(1818) ; id. Gal. Ois. ii. pi. 233 (1825). 
Pluvianus chlorocephalus, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvii. p. 130 

(1818). 
Cursor charadrioides, Wayl. Syst. Av. Cursorius, sp. 6, p. 81 (1827). 
Ammoptila charadrioides, Stoains. Classif, B, ii. p. 364 (1837). 
Cheilodromas melanocephalus, Bupp, Mus, Senckenb, ii. p. 208 (1837 : 

Egjpt and Nubia). 
Pluvianus eegyptius, Strickl. Ann, 4" May, N, H, vii. p. 37 (1841), 

xiii. p. 39 (1844) ; Gray, Gen. B. iu. p. 536 (1844) ; Riipp. Syst. 

Uebers. p. 117 (1845) ; Stndd. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 221 ; Beif^enb. Av. 

Syst. Nat, Gall. p. xxx, Tof. 374. figs. 2120-2123 (1852) ; Bp. C, JR. 

xliii. p. 419 (1856) ; Hartl. Dm. West-Afr. p. 209 (1857) ; Taylor, 

Ibis, 1859, p. 52 (Egypt); Hart I, J, f, O, 1861, \». 268 (Bissao; 

Gaboon ; Casamanse) ; Truir, Ibis, 1862, p. 279 (Jordan Valley) ; 

Mont. t. c, p. 336 (River Coanza) ; Adams, Ibis, 1804, p. 29 (E^typ^) ; 

Antin. Cat, descr, Ucc. p. 99 (1864) ; Gould, B. Asia, viL pi. 62 

(1865) ; D^/. et Gerbe, Dm. Eur. ii. p. 121 (1867 : Spain) ; Loche, 

Expl. Sci. Algh-., Ois. ii. p. 276 (1867) ; Taylor, Ibis, 1867, p. 68 

(Egypt) ; Triiftr. Ibis, 1868, p. 822 (Palestine) ; Gray, Handrl. B. 

iii. p. 18, no. 10035 (1871); Shelley, B. JSyypt,ja. 234 (1872); 

Dresser, B. JEur.Yii. p. 521, pi. 527 (1878); Hartl. Abh. not. 

Verein. Brem. vii. p. 120 (1881 : Lado) ; Salvin, Cat. StriM. Coll. 

p. 600 (1882: Khartoum); Shelley, Ibis, 1883, p. 560 (Shonga); 

Tristr. Faun. ^ Flor. Palest, p. 131 (1884) ; Koenig, J.f. 0. 1888, 

p. 265, 1893, p. 79 (Algeria). 
Pluvianus segyptiacus, Srehm, J. f. 0. 1853, Extraheffc, p. 102 ; 

Heugl. Syst. Uebers. p. 54 (1856). 
Hyas aegyptia, Cab. J,f, O, 1854, p. 70. 
Hyas aegyptiaca, Brehm, J,f, 0, 1856, p. 329. 
Cursorius aegyptius, ScKL Mus. Pay-Bos, Cursores, p. 14 (1865: 

Nile). 
Pluvianus sBgypticus, Heugl. Om. N.O.-Afr. ii. pt. 1, p. 976 (1873 : 

Eprypt, soutn from the Delta to Nubia, rarer on tne Blue and 

White Niles, and Djur River, 8° 25' 30"). 
Hyas aegyptius, Heine ^ Beichen. Notnencl. Mus. Hein. Orn. p. 339 

(1890: kordofftn, Senaar). 



3. PLUviAWu.^. 33 

Adult miiU. General colour above slaty broini ; crown of head, 
kind neck, and mantle f^lo^tsy greenish black, the feathers of the 
aaotle elongated and lanceolate, so as to overhang the lower back, 
cooeealinf a whit4* patch on the upper back ; the mantle bordered 
on it4 upper part by a brood band of white on each side : wing- 
corert* like the back, the greater series white with ashy bases; 
hastinl-wing black, the feathers edged externally with sUty grey ; 
primarr-ooTerts block, edged with slaty grey, the inner ones white, 
with blv.-k tips : (|uills black, the outer primaries ashy at the base, 
the remainder of the quills white at the base, the primaries tipi>ed 
With black, prece^letl by a broad white band, occupying nearly the 
t«-ra&uiAl third of the feather ; the secondaries crossed by a broad 
black Ikood before the white tijie, this black band narrowing and 
alau«t diHappf'aring on the inner secondary quills ; the innermost 

mdihes Uaty blue like the bock, with white ends, except on the 
r oDoft, which are entirely slaty blue ; tail-feathers slaty blue, 
with brv>al white tip!«. preceded by a band of black on all but the 
eratre fe^them ; crowu of head greenish black, as also the lores, 
fcttthen round the eye, and ear-coverts, extending in a black band 
down the !»idei of the neck and joining the block mantle ; from the 
kaM* of the bill a bri>atl streak of white, passing over the eye and 
j«Hnt9jr *m the fiides of the na{>e, and forming a crest ; cheeks and 
ehin whii<*. faiin;; otf into pale tawny butf on the lower throat and 
iorr n«« k ; Oi^ro^s the chest a band of black, which continues upward 
aai }<>in% the tides of the neck ; centre of the breast and abdomen 
white. eiti*u ling un the chest and joining the white band which 
•Joru raih hide uf the scapulars ; Hides of the body, tlanks, and 
sAler tail-eorertK tawny butf, dee{ier on the latter ; under wing- 
CijTrrU and axillaries white, the quills also for the most part white 
Wijw. with the black bind distinctly indicated acr^MS the feathers : 
" iH.l bLkck ; f«x*t bright leaden gn^y ; iris umber-brown" (von 
//^y'lMt. Total length ^-3 inches, culmen U*S, wing 5*4, tail 2*3, 
13. 

.1 imh fftmtU. Similar to the male, but the long mantle-feathers 
* •:rv>nglv di.*%'elo|)ed. Total length 8'3 inches, wing 5*3, 
ll'.V 

i/j''. Ttitf tame as that of the genus. 

«. 4 %■! ik. Iv^pt. L. ("unuingham, K'Mi. 

1' ' 

r. d Id ftk. Kjrvpt. Viet.ir Ann«, K-q. P.]. 

* % 1 •* raini, Aprd 4. (iould (.'oil. 

/ V 1 •« :»\\i ( Atarmct of the Nile. F. ( Jalton, K*i. V.]. 

f \ 1 -fc S-o^-jral 1 IfEinrilU). iCiueour Coll. 

a i fcl •* Sh »!»/». It. Nigvr {W. Forbes Coll. 

A F). 

■ 41 •« lti«er r.Muia. Monteiro Cull. 



w «1 Kll«. 



t» 



34 CUBSOBIIDJE. 

4. CUBSOBIUS. 



CursoriuB, Lath. Ind, Om, ii. p. 761 (1790) C. galUcuB. 

Tachydromufl, lUig, Prodr. p. 250 (1811) C. galKcus. 

Cursor, Wagler, Syst. Av. p. 80 (1827) C. gallicus. 




Pig. 5. — Foot of Cursorius gaUicMs. 




Fig. 6.— Middle daw of right foot of C. ffoUicus (seen from inner side) to 

show me pectination (enlarged). 

Range, The whole of Africa, the Mediterraneo-Peraic Sub-region, 
and the whole of India and Northern Ceylon. 

Key to the Species, 

a. No black patch on the beUy. Hinder part of 
crown pale bluish or pearly grey. 
a' Axillaries and under wing-coverts black 

like the quill-lining gallicus, p. 34. 

6'. Axillaries ashy ; under wing-coverts also 
light brown, the least series isabeUine like 

the breast somalennSf p. 37. 

6. A black patch on the belly. 
c. Hinder head grey ; secondaries with a grey 

base rufusy p. 38. 

d'. Hinder head rufous or chestnut, like the 
rest of the crown. 
a", A white band across the upper tail- 
coverts ; secondaries ashy, tipped with 
white, subterminally marked with black. coromandeUcuB, p. 39. 
b". No white band across the upper tail- 
coverts; secondaries ashy brown, ex- 
ternally black, with a small white tip. . temminckij p. 41. 

1. Corsorins gallicns. 

Le Courvite, lyAubent. PL Enl, ix. pi. 795. 

Le Coure-vite, Bj^. Hist. Nat. Ois. viu. p. 128 (1781). 

Cream-coloured Cfourser, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 217 (1786) ; 

Yarr. Brit. B. ii. p. 376 (1843). 
Charadrius gallicus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 692 (1788) ; Webb ^ Berth. 

Om. Canar. p. 31 (1841) ; Bolky J.f. O. 1856, p. 176 ; id. J.f. O. 

1867, p. 336. 
Cursorius europaeus, Lath, Ind. Om. ii. p. 751 (1790) ; Bp. Camp. 

List B. Bur. ^ N, Am. p. 45 (1838) ; SchL Rev. Crit. p. Ixxx 

(1844) ; Yarr. Brit. B. (2nd ed.) u. p. 431 (1845) ; Macgtli. Brit. 



4. CUBS0RIU9. lib 

B. IT. p. 4:? (1852); Yarr. Brit, B. (8rd ed.) ii. p. 400 (1856); 

llfugL S^Mt.Ve6rr$, p. M (I8ri6) ; Adam$, Ibis, 1804, p. 'JS (Krgpt) ; 

NViyA/, /. f. p. 140 (MalU) ; Borytfr. Vogelf. Sorddrutschl,\.\Oh 

U-^O; R' (iray, B. lVe*t ikvtL p. 260 (1H71 : near Unark) ; 

/#Win. /&.#. 1871', p. i>i>0 ; Saundm, ed, Yarr, Brit, B. iii. p. 238 

(l^H; LHf**nl, hit, 18M, p. 124 (Spain); Badde, Orn, Cauc. 

pp. 44. 42:r( IH^ : Black A: Cfaspian Sea»). 
riumMinu* citrrira, Bohh. Enc, MHh. i. p. 2.) (17U1 ). 
Cttjxonuft i«abeUiou.s *^f^yrr, TascKenh. ii. p. 328 (1810); Temm, 

Man. ^(>m, ii. p. 513 (1820); MV/tmt, Atltm, Omreum, pi. 5 

ilr^'S): i>iw. .Vflii.irOrw.ii.p.303(l828); BreAm, Joff. DrutuchL 

t» .%*; I l^n I ; Mrnetr. Cat. Bait. Caur. p. 52 {\f<V2); Gould, B. 

Kur. \\. pi. 2»iiJ (\f<M)\ Crrtp. Orn. Gard,^. MW (1840) ; Bogd. 

B. Cmmc. p. l.>4 (1m7J>); K^*mio, J. f. O. 18S*<, p. 2<W (Tunis); 

.4ZfMi. J./. O, lf<>2, pp. 31«, 317 (TuniM) ; Albardn, t. c, p. 424 

(NVtbrriaxidi»). 
Tirh«dr»niu.i (rnllicuK, lUiger, J^rodr. p. 250 (1811); Boux, Orn. 

/Vr. pL 2»a» (1^25) ; /.iril/. Aomrwc/. Ar. Mwi. Bervl. p. »4 (1854) ; 

BrrMm, l'»^(f. p. 27S» (1855); Heine Jjf Btichen. y amend. Alu». 

lirtn. fh-n. p. :W» ( I^ilM)). 
TarbTdn>iiia«» iMin»pii»ii-, J'i>i//. X. Did. dfllisi. Sat. viii. p. 29.3 

d^ir> 

Cuft-jf UMibfllioui*. U'agl. Sy»i. Ar. Cureor, p. 80, »p. 1 ( 1h27) ; Sordm. 
m lM$md. IW. /^iM«. Merid. iii. p. 2*30 ( lH40). 

« '«r«tf»r run»pa*uj», .V/mm. J7>y. I)euttcM. vii. p. 77, pi. 171 (1834). 

t ttr*i rill* ^'ill:«*u<. ti'ray. List GralUe Brit, Mu*. p. t)0 (1844); id. 
Gm B iii p. 5,37 (1844) ; Brirhenh. Ar. Syst. ^at., Gall. p. xxx, 
pi 374 tijr«. 2124 2tMl852) ; Jaub.et Barth.-lMpinnm. Bick. Orn, 
p. 442 ( \<^M ; Hncit$. Ihi$, 1859. p. 7l>. pi. ii. fi»f. 3 [v^^) : .Va/rm, 
/ r. p ;U7I (FUi»t**rn .XtlftA); Trw/r. /Am. 18<J0, p. 71> (Snhara) ; 
Gra^, LiAt Brit. B. p. \*V\ ( iHitt) ; ArA/. J/nir. Jhty^Ba*, ('ur»«in»«, 
I. 12 (1«W>: Tri|»oli»; //<*My/. y. /. O. l8<yi, p." SW (rvaident in 
r^^pt. Nubia, and Kt»rdufan) ; Gould, B. Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 44 
i W^M ; E C. layhr, Ibi*, lNJ7, p. tJ7 (Kjn'pt) ; Blyth, t.v. p. 103 
• Ivlb.k ; Ihrakr, i.e. p. 421> (MonKH-o) ; ll^yL et Gtrbe^ Orn. Eur. 
u Y 11^ I Wn*); A«^A^, />/*/. .Vfi. Ahjer., 0\*. ii. p. 274 (18<;7); 
//Km-, ///!•. WW, p. i>.3!» (Punjab) : Tri$ir. t. r. p. 322 ( PaleHtiiie); 
/ r.ts A. I V,y. AW. p. ;i^«), T.»f. 32. tiu-^. 7, 8 ( 1^7i)) ; r/rav. lland-l. 
B i.\ p. IVI. IH». HIO ill 1 1871 ) : Hartiny, llandb. Brit'. B. p. 131 
1 \<:\ . ^Shelley, B. F^fypt, p. 22^» ( l^72) ; Heuyi. Orn. X.O.-A/r. 
.1 pt. 1, p. mw'> ( 1h7;{ : Arabia IN'tn-a ; (.\»a^t of Ki?d 8«a) ; Humtf 
Sir y I p 22** (1h73: Siml); Adam, t. c. y. .m3 (Saiubhur, 
Wifl!»-r». hrr*»er, B. Eur. vii. p. 425, pi. .'>14 (lf<75); Irby, Orn. 
Sirm%tM tf'tbr. p. ^V* (1^*75); tiunwy. Ibis, 1875. i>. 142 (Tibr»*?n) ; 
hlamf. F^tt /VrWfl, li. p. 2M| |lH7ti); Hayen IMtyd, IhiM, 1870, 
p I^i (Kathiawar); ButUr, Sir. F. iv. r. 11 (1^70: (Juwrat); 
%d 9p ett. \. p. 232 ( 1*^77: l>«»"wn; //w/wr, Str. F. viii. p. 112 
K'.M. /r*v. ///#/ 10». p. :U5 (Malaira); //m^/it. Oi/. A'. Sind 
^r p 57 iiH7l»); Giyl. Ihia, iH^l, p. 20^ (Iliilv); .Sr/. /*. /. .V. 
l-^I.». 173 (S.-rotra!: Stdvin, Cat. Striikl. Oil. p. 51«;J(1'^2: 
?«i«a. Turn*); B. O. /'. Li*t Bnt. B. p. 150 (iKsJiK .Srr6r/Am, 
/4,*. jHrtJl, p. in» (Caucn-u-.) ; ^V- -^'^/- ^^"' P '^^ (18H0); 
,V<^a«, /At*. I-VMJ. I,. 110; .So/ivm/. /j/«trr/ fm Ital. p. 206 
-1*^T»; i^«>M/. Bftt, l^MM, p. 77 (TitnrritTf) ; S^rbithm, Geityr. 
iMstnl (%arndr p. 2:U'i (IWH); JrfHf, Knf List Brit. B. p. 44 
1-w-,. TrMfr. rw rv>//. p. 22(l8^»: Yorki«hiri*); Sharite, Tr. 
Ijmm Akir., /0o/.v.pt.3,p.H^(lNW:Uulran); Mead^ Waldo, Ibis, 

u2 



36 CURSOBIID^. 

1889, pp. 11, 506 (Fuerteventura) ; Trutr. t. c, p. 25 (Gran 
Canaria) ; St. Johtiy t. c. p. 176 (Pishin Valley) ; Seebohnif IbiSf 
1892, p. 21 (Heligoland) ; Meade- Waldo, Ibis, 1893, p. 208 (Canary 
Is.); Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. iii. p. 5 (1893: Suatdn) ; Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B. part xxviii. (1894). 

Cursorius paUiduB, Brehm, Vogelf. p^ 279 (1856). 

Cursorius oracliydactylus, Brehm, Vogelf,^, 279 (1856). 

Cursorius iamesoni, " Jerd.,^ StoUczka, J. A. S. Beng. xli. p. 250 
(1872 : Kutch) ; Hume, Str. F. i. p. 219 (1873). 

Cursorius isabellinuSf var. bogolubovi, Zarudn. Bull. Soc. hnp. Nat. 
Mo9C. (7) Ixi. p. 327 (1886 : Murgab Kiver). 

AduU mah. General colour above isabelline-buff ; wing- coverts 
like the back, the greater coverts and inner secondaries a little more 
sandy rufous ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and primaries black ; 
the secondaries black, sandy- coloured externally, fringed with whit« 
at the ends ; tail-feathers sandy rufous, tipped with white, before 
which is a black sub-terminal band ; fore part of crown sandy rufous ; 
the hinder crown and nape bluish grey, concealing a black nape- 
patch ; loral feathers isabelline-white ; from above the eye a broad 
white band joining on the nape, followed by a black band from 
behind the eye above the ear-coverts to the nape ; feathers below 
the eye whitish ; ear-coverts sandy rufous ; fore part of cheeks and 
upper throat white ; lower throat and under surface of body sandy 
isabelline, becoming whiter on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; 
under wing-coverts, axillaries, and quill-lining black ; the lesser 
wing-coverts round the edge of the wing sandy rufous : " bill dusky 
black, angle of mouth and base of mandible white ; feet li\id yellow ; 
iris umber-brown " {yon Uexiglin). Total length 9 inches, culmen 1, 
wing 6-35, tail 2-35, tarsus 2-25. 

Adxdt female. Similar in colour to the male. Total length 
9 inches, culmen 0*95, wing ^'2^ tail 2*3, tarsus 2-1. 

Young, Reproduces the colours of the adult, but has wavy bands 
all over the upper surface. 

Specimens from Western localities are rather more sandy in colour, 
and have often less black on the sub-terminal band of the tail. 

Hah. Desert countries of the Mediterranean, and the Canary and 
Cape Verd Islands ; eastwards to Arabia, Socotra, Persia, Afghan- 
istan, and N.W. India. 

a. Ad. sk. Sicily. Seebohm Coll. 

b. Ad. sk. Cape Verd Islands. M. A. Bouvier [CI 
<?, d. Ad. ; e, f, Fuerteventura. E. G. Meade- Waldo, 

Pull. St. Esq. [P.]. 

^. Ad. sk. Algerian Sahara (J", if. (?Mr7iey). Himie Coll. 

h. Juv. sk. Tunis. L. Eraser [C.]. 

i. Imra. sk. Tripoli. Purchased. 

A, /. Ad. sk. Egypt. Hon. C.Berkeley [P.]. 

m. Ad. sk. I^ypt, Feb. 4 (O. E. S.). Seebohm Coll. 

n. (S ad. sk. Upper Egypt, Dec. {Stafford Seebohm Coll. 

AUm). 

Of 2>, q. Ad. sk. Near Cairo, Feb. Dr. Worthington 

[P.]. 

r. Ad. sk. Suakin, Red Sea. Capt. R. H. Penton 

fp.]. 



4. cuRsoRirn. 37 

■ Ad »k. Khurtmni. Consul Petherick 

[P.J. 

t \±4i. Sneotra, Feb. -J'. Prof. I. B. BiOfour 

«. Ad. ak. N«*ftr (lundwa, S. Pcnia, Not. Hume ColL 

r. / wL nk. Karpi, KhonMin, June 8. Dr. Aitchiaon fP.]. 

V 2 ftd. nk. Cfulrao* N. Afirhanistan. Dr. Aitchison [P.]. 

I. i ad. »k. Cluniian* 8. A/trhnnUtan, Aug. 4 Hume Coll. 

(.Sir O. *St. JoAm). 

y / ad. •k. Gwadar, BaluchinUn, Not. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

[C.]. 

a -f ad. *k. IHnhin, Aug. 20 (.SiiV O. ^. Hume Coll. 

Jukm), 

m . Ad. »k. Kathiawar, Feb. 23. Col. Hajee Llojd. 

• -/ a.i. tk. Karachi, Siud (Dr. J7. Gtmld). Gould Coll. 
r . / ad. i^k. Near Tatta, Siud, Dec. 3 ( W. T. Hume ColL 

hlan/urd), 

4- Imm. »k. IHl Murad, N. Sind, Dec. 23 Hume CoU. 

{A, O. //.). 

€ -*ad.«k. N. of Jacohabad, Not. 20 («ir Hume Coll. 

O. St,Joknh 

f . Ad. ^k. INinjab. Feb. Hume Coll. 

f . 4 . r. .\d. tk. Sina dintrict, cold teaaon l'^70- Hume Coll. 

71. 

i . T. m\ I ad. ok. Sirza di«ttrict, Nov. (A. O. //.). Hume Coll. 

• -r*. Ad. 'k. Sina dintrict, IW. Hume Coll. 

• Ad. 'k. Himar, IWab, Dec. \Ti (A. O. Hume Coll. 

f 2 »^- •!(• (lunrann diMrirt, Feb. 10. Hume Coll. 

«. r. vr. 9 *^- Sultaiipur, <*unra(>n, Jan., Feb. Hume CulL 

■k. ( n\ \. ChUt). 

r .f • 7 ad Pk. Ajmir. U^r. {A. O. //.). Hume Coll. 

s « . 'ad. »k. Jodhpur. Fob. (A. O. H.). Hume Coll. 

k I ^\ *k. Mai'iaii, near Krinpura, I)ec. 29 Hume (*oll. 

(/;, Kiwi). 

'. d -' ad. : Sambhur jjike, Ik>c. lo (.4. O. Hume Coll. 

^4 ', a.1 -k //. I. 

.' f At »k. .*vMiibhur. IM». (.-1. O. //). Hume Coll. 

f r 'ftil . H . Sambhur, IW\ to Feb. {li. M. Hume Coll. 

r . V : a<l. Atiam). 

■a 

/' i ».J *k Mukrana, Dec. 14 (.4. O. //.). Hume Coll. 

.••»•' i* Con. Purrhaned. 



? 



2. Curtorios somalenf U. 



• "uj*rriu« tfnlli'Mi- •w.in«1en»is Skriley, Ihi*^ InC). p. 41.V 
< u*» -nu* ^ •mal<'ti<*i4. .V#^.A»m, /Am, Iksi;, p. l|fi; iV/. (ittufr. IH$tr. 
iXaraJr p. L*;!?. pi. \i. (l-VN^i). 

.1 '•!??. >imilar to f\ [inUien.*, but diMtiiif^iilHhM by the aMhy-grey 
ai'- ;ir*». thi'liffhtrr un«ler win;r-f'overtH, and the mueh lanrcT patch 
•' sii'k on the inner wel> of the on tor tail- feat her.^. Total length 
T T» .nf^hr*, rQlmrn 1, wing Ty)iTi^ tuil I'li, tantUN 2'L*. 

//t'. Sr.mali land. 

• \ i •; *^'Miiiili.Ifii:ii (/;. Aor/ litiUip^) S«-.lN)lim Coll. 



38 CVRSORIID^. 

3. Cursorius mfoB. 

Cursoriua rufus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 81 ; id. Icones Av, pi. 10 
(1837); SchUg. Mus. Payg-Bas, Cursores, p. 13 (1865); AyreSy 
Ibis, 1869, p. 299 (Transvaal, breeding) ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 269 
(Transvaal) ; id. Ibis, 1877, p. 347 (Potchefstroom) ; id. Ibis, 
1880, p. Ill (Rustenberp) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 663 
(1884); Ayres, Ibis, 1886, p. 347 (Transvaal, June to Sept.; 
breeding) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 117 ; id. Geoqr. Distr. Charadr. 
p. 238 (1888) ; Symonds, Ibis, 1888, p. 334 (Kroonstadt). 

Tachydromus capensia, Swains. B. W. Afr. ii. p. 201 (1837). 

Tachydromus burchelli. Swains. Classif. B. ii. p. 364 (1837) ; id. An. 
in Menag. p. 340 (1837). 

Cursorius burchelli, Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 637 (1844) ; Layard, B, 
S. Afr.^. 289 (1867 : Karoo ; Nel's Poort ; Beaufort ; Cofesberg) ; 
Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 19, no. 10037 (1871) ; Holub <^ Felz. Beitr, 
Orn. Siidafr. p. 246 (1882 : High plateau of S. Africa to Orange 
River and Vaal River) ; Butler, Feilden, ^ Beid, Zool. 1882, p. 340 
(Natal). 

Tachydromus rufus, Heine 4* Beichen. Nomend. Mus. Hem. Orn. 
p. a39(1890: S. Africa). 

Adult mah. General colour above mfous-brown, the wings like 
the back, with a slight shade of ashy over the wing-coverts, the 
greater series decidedly more ashy ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, 
and primaries black ; the secondaries ashy with broad white ends, 
forming a broad terminal band ; the white increasing on the inner 
web of the inner secondaries, which are somewhat rufescent ex- 
ternally : the innermost secondaries rufous-brown like the scapnlars ; 
rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail-feathers ashy grey, the latter 
tipped with a black band, which becomes sub- terminal on the outer 
feathers, which have white ends ; the outermost feather almost 
entirely white, with a grey base and a sub-terminal spot near the end 
of the inner web ; forehead cinnamon-rufous, as well as the fore part 
of the crown ; centre and hinder crown bluish grey, with a black patch 
on the nape, surrounded by a broad band of white, which extends to 
the hinder part of the eye ; lores and feathers below the eye whitish 
with a rufescent tinge ; cheeks and ear-coverts cinnamon-rufous, 
separated from the whit« eyebrow by a line of black ; throat white ; 
remainder of under surface of body rufous-drab, paler on the chest ; 
a black patch on the lower breast; abdomen, thighs, and under 
tail-coverts white ; axiUaries ashy brown, white at the ends ; under 
wing-coverts black, the inner ones rufous-brown ; the long inner 
greater coverts white for their terminal half : " bill dusky, the 
lower mandible pale at the base ; tarsi and feet white ; iris very 
dark hazel " (T. Ayres). Total length 7'5 inches, culmen 1, wing 
5*25, tail 1-8, tarsus 1*85. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 
9 inches, culmen 1, wing 5*4, tail 2-15, tarsus 1*9. 

Hah. South Africa, below the Orange River on the west, but 
ranging as high as Matabele-land on the east. 

a, b. Ad. etjuv. Cape Colony (Z/iyrtrrrf; Anders- Seebohm Coll. 

sk. ann). 



4. ciTBiomiUB. 39 



r. 9 «1. tk. 
dL #. Ad. tk. 
/.f.A. ; «d.ftk. 


&* /. Ad. tk. 

^ Ad. tk, 

a c^ ad.; •, ^ 

S MLtk. 
f. Ad.ili. 
r Ad.ik. 


iL </ ^. tk. 

r. Ad.ik. 



p.l 



Hope Town, Maj ( r.C. ^hnore). Sharpe CoU. 

KingrwilliaoutowD, S.E. Africa. Major Treyelyan 

Kin^illiamfltown, May (C MajorTreTelyan[P.]. 

Kuniman. Seebohm Coll. 

NaUl. TweeddalA Coll. 

Natal ( T. Ayre$). Salvin-Qodman Coll. 

Oranflfe Free Sute, Jane 12 Shelley ColL 

( r. E, Buckley). 

Traiii«vaal. Sharpe Coll. 

Potcbefstroom, Not. 18 {T. Gumey Coll. 

Ajfres), 

Riuttenberg, July 1 4 ( T. Ayr€$), Gumey Coll. 

Makalaka Country {Dr. Brad- Seebohm Coll. 



4. Canaiiiu 

roonriie da la C6t4> de Cororaandel, irAuhent. Pi, Enl. iz. pi. 802. 

CoffOfnaDdel Pliiver, LatA. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 217 (1786). 

CbanMiritts coromandelicuf, Gm. Sj^ni. Sat. i. n. 092 (1788). 

Canoniw aaaaticujs LaiM. Ind. Orn, ii. p. 751 (1790) ; Le$$. Man, 
dOrm. ii. p ai>2 (18->). 

Tarbvdniinuii coromandt*licuii, liliger, Prodr. p. 2.')0 (1811); JJeme 
i iUickem. Xumenci. Mus. Hein. Om. p. :i39 (1890). 

4*umkr Crpnatun, H'ay/. Suiit. Av. p. hO. »p. 2 (1827). 

TarbTdromuii aiaaticuA, ririlL Gal. OU. ii. p. 90, pi. 232 (18^). 

Twb;i driimuA « irientalit*, Swain*. An. in Mmag. p. IV^ (18*37). 

( '«r«nnu« taray«n«iit, H"Jg9. Iron. ined. in Brit, Stut., GraUte^ pla. 44, 
44 « (DO. A74» ; id. in Grmf*$ Zoo/. Misc. p. 85 (1844). 

(*ar«<iniiaCiirtiinaDdeIicuA, Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 587 (1844); id. Idtt 
Grmil^ in Brit. Mtu, p. tK) (1844: Nepal); id. Cat. Mamm, etc. 
Sepal prf. Hudg*. p. 131 (184* J) ; Reitkenh. Ar. Sy$t. Nat., Gall, 
lm( 374. tiK. 212H (1K.'>2); My, Ifns, 184^, p. 2:^7 (Chidh) ; 
.Vi/. .!/•<*. l^ayM-BoM, CurHore^ p. 13 (1H«V)); Gmdd, B. Ana, 
lii pi. t;.*) (lM*4(|; BIytK Ihi*, IH^C, p. 1(»; Hunie, Ihis, 1808, 
p. 'A* jSifVi, Ffn>ie|>ur); B^aran, t. c. p. 3H8 (Tnibala); Gray, 
llnnd-l. B. iii p. \\\ IKK lUKtt* (1H71); St'Uirzka, J. A. ^ Beny, 
i.i. IX 2.V) (1^71: Kutih); Hayes IM>yil, Ihi*, 1m73, p. 415 
I Kathiamar) ; Hume, \eets it Eyys Ind. B. p. 5«^ ( IH78) ; Adam, 
Str F. i. p. :i!4:t (1H73: Sambhiir); Jiume, t. c. p. 421 (Sindh) ; 
B^ Str F. ii. p. 425* (l»'74 : C'hota NiMr|.ur) ; Parker, Str. F. iii. 
f 'JH U^75: Sluadapur): Butirr, Str. F. iv. p. 10 (187«; 
• toi^rmt. luiirrant) : Fairh. t. r. p. 2tt2 (Khandala) ; Butler, Str, 
F ». p. 2;J2 (1^*77: 1>«-Ni. S4-pt. tn April); Blanf. t. r. p. 247 
I Sod); Bmtlrr, t. e. p. ;^J7 (Karnchi); Ball, t. r. ji. 419 (Sum- 
baipor. lUipur. ( hi^i^) ; Hume, Str. F. vii. p. (t7 (IH4 M : Jodhpur) ; 
Iktrtde^m i H'mdrn, t. r. p. t<7 (Decran); Ball, t. c. p. 226 
i«iaair«^t>G.<la%«*rv); flume, Str. F. \iii. p. Ill (1H79); JJoiff, 
t e pL 371 <K. Narrm: bn'v'dinfr in Julv) ; l^q*^^ B. Ceyltm^ iii. 
p IC7 ( 1*5H)I ; ButUr, I at. B. Si,td etc. p. m ( U7l») ; id. Cat. B, 
K B'mth. PreM. p. 71 (l-^O) ; Vidal, Str. F. ii. p. 77 (l^HO: 8. 
KocduMii; lind, .Str. F \. p. ((4 (1>^1: Liirknow) ; DaviMon, 
t e p 112 (IHKJ: S.W. Mv»iin'»; .SVihA. Jr Barne$, Ihie, lHH5, 
t. 132 jMbow); MHirry,/r, Str. F. X. p. 4tl (1HH7: K. of 
fS^-U-aumi. SeehitMm, ^ie.^/r. lUftrih. fharndr. p. 241 (IWi**). 



40 CVRSORIIBJii:. 

Adult male. General colour above cindery grey with a faint sandy 
wash ; wing-coverts and inner secondaries like the back ; bastard- 
wing, primary-coverts, and quills purplish black ; secondaries not 
so black, broadl}'' tipped with white, and more grepsh brown on 
the inner web ; upper tail-coverts whit-e ; tail-feathers ashy-grey, 
tipped with white, before which is a sub-terminal black band, 
indistinct on the central feathers and only visible to a slight degree 
on the outer feather, where there is black on the inner web onjy, the 
outer one being pure white ; crown of head bright chestnut, con- 
cealing a large occipital patch of black ; a loral band of black 
reaching to the fore part of the eye ; a superciliary band of silvery 
white, encircling the nape and followed by a band of black, which 
extends from behind the eye round the nape ; feathers below the 
eye white ; cheeks and throat whitish washed with rufous, deepen- 
ing into cinnamon on the lower throat and chest, and becoming 
deep chestnut on the breast, the chestnut patch followed by a large 
abdominal patch of black ; lower abdomen, vent, and under taU- 
co verts white ; sides of body and flanks, as well as the inner under 
wing-coverts and axillaries, ashy brown ; under wing-coverts and 
under surface of primaries black : ^^ bill blackish, the gape and base 
of lower mandible yellowish ; feet yellowish white or whitish, the 
joints dark ; claws black ; iris dark brown " ( W. V. Legge). Total 
length 8*8 inches, culmen 0*85, wing 5*8, tail 2-1, tarsus 2-1. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 9*8 
inches, culmen 0*9, wing 6-1, tail 2*1, tarsus 2-1. 

Young. Differs from the adults in being mottled all over with 
brown and yellowish buff" as well as being centred with fulvous ; the 
secondaries and end of the tail varied in the same manner ; head 
like the back ; the white eyebrow indistinct and washed with sandy 
buff"; the facial markings visible but indistinct; the throat sandy 
white ; the fore neck and breast pale cinnamon, freckled with sub- 
terminal spots and bars of brown ; lower surface of wing as in the 
adults, but the axillaries lighter and more ashy brown. 

Ilah. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 

a. S lid. sk. Ghiznee, Sind {Dr. H. Gould). Gould Coll. 

b. Ad. sk. Bare plains near Johee, Sind, Hume Coll. 

Dec. 25 (.4. O. H.). 
e. Ad. sk. Mooltan (Major Tweedie). Gould Coll. 

d. Ad. sk. Deesa. Colonel E. A. Butler 

[C.]. 

e. ^ ad. sk. Deesa, Nov. 21 {E. A. Butler). Humu Coll. 
/. c^ ad. ; ^, h. Sambhiir Lake, Dec. (A. O. II.). Hume Coll. 

2 ad. sk. 

t, A-, /. <5 ad. Sambhiir Lake, April, May, Aug. Hume Coll. 

sk. (R. M. Adam), 

m. d" ad. sk. Jodbpur, Feb. Q (A. 0. B.). Hume Coll. 

n, 0, p. (5 2 Gurgann district, Jan., Feb. {A. Hume Coll. 

ad. sk. O. II.). 

y, r, i*. 6 "d. ; Ourgaon, Jan., June, Aug., Oct. Hume Coll. 

t, »/. $ ad. ( W. N. Chill). 

sk. 



4. CVRSOBIUfl. 41 

r Ad. #ik. Sinacli]«tnct,coldft*aiion 1H70-71. Hume Coll. 

r. J, V. Ad.; Sina, Nuv., I>fC., Miircb. Hume Coll. 

s. l^ulLi^k. 

m Ad.»k. HinMU-, Oct. P. Hume Coll. 

i ■ Ad. Ilk. F«T*z«*|mr ( H'. GriffUk). India Museum. 

r .^. c' 2 ad. I nibfila, Nov. (/^. ('. BfnroH). Tweeddale Cull. 

»k. 

€.f (^ 2 ad. Muttra, Jan. 19 (.-f. O. 7/.). Hume Coll. 

»k. 

f . \'l •k. Kumaun T«*rHi, Mairh. Col. Biddulph. 

a n Ad. ik. Ktawah, \h^., .Mar^h (.'f. O. i/.). Hume Coll. 

• A<i -k. Oudf. Hume Coll. 

p . f \*i. »k. iV'har. Hodfrison Coll. 

r . Ad. lii. Nepal Tt* rai. Hod^rson C<dL 

(Tvpe of C, tarayenms.) 

ff •' ad. •k. .Mninpuri, Mart'h 7 («'l..'lm/(rrM>ft). Hume Coll. 

r .■ .r . -*ail.; Mudditpur, Jan. ( If. //. lintokA), Hume Coll. 

r- I jid. A. 

r t Ad. -k. <iwH!i.»r (.V. ISnwiU). Tww'tldale Coll. 

Ad »k. >muir«ir (Jlwfjter). India .Museum. 

^ Ad. -k. Snu^iir. Hume Coll. 

' . Ad. »k. Mundladi.'^trict, .\pril (7?. 77«f>m/>- Hume Coll. 

»on). 

' • a<i. -k. Mhuw. Nov. 'Jk. Vol Swinhoe , \\\ 

>■ £ Aii. »>k. Klmndt-i^h. Julv 2^i (J. Z>anV/A/ii). Hum** Coll. 

• . Ad. -k. lHr<vAii ((W. •Sj/A'/'ji). India Muiteum. 

• . ^ - 1^ i N. iif Aiiiut^lnii^^^nir, Jnn. {S. //. Tweeddale Coll. 
•d. »k. Ftiirhink). 

' ,m . 'Hi! ; .\lim<<iiiu^/iir, Ik*c. (.S. //. Fair^ Twooddale Coll. 

».l »k 

f * ft'i. 'k IMpiuui, Jan. lCi (/;. .-1. liutlrr), Hum«> (\)11. 

' .# Al -k. Mmlnu(/^. <r'. H'. /^.). Tw»»*-ddal.» Coll. 

r .^ . ■* , ltd Madruf*. Humf Ctdl. 

..r \.l *K M\M.r.. (7^ <;. ir. H). Twrrddalf Cnll. 

\t .k. Jnffim, N. Cr\l..ii (.1. Uhytf). Twit-ddale Coll. 

o. Cortorios temmincki. 

• - -fc ri u* t« ■ III III i lu'k i , .SVf I I'fM. /o«/. Ithutr. ii . pi . 1 ()» i ( 1 ^**J2 ) ; Z/jh. 
Wnn. //"^/r/i. it p. iftKl | 1hi>?*). 




42 CCBBORIIB^. 

Ayres, Ibis, 1871, p. 433 (Transvaal); Gumey in Anderss. B. 
Dam, Ld. p. 261 (1892; Ondonga); HeugL Om. N.O.-Afr, ii. 
pt. 1, p. 968 (1873 : Taua Lake, April, Mav ; E. Kordofan, 'Oct) ; 
Bocage, Om. Angola, p. 419 (1881 ; Novo feedondo ; Quillengues ; 
Caconda ; (Sambos ; Humbe ; Capangombe ; Bongo) ; Shelley, 
P. Z. S, 1881, p. 598 (MeUnda) ; Holub ^ Pelz. BeUr. Om. 
SOdafr. p. 246 (1882 : Orange Free State ; S. Transvaal ; Betchu- 
analand to Zambesi) ; Butler, Feilden, <$- Reid, ZooL 1882, p. 341 ; 
Salvad, Ann, Mm. Genov, (2) i. p. 216 (1864 : Shoa) ; hharpe, 
ed, LayarcPs B, S. Afr. p. 654 (1881 : general throughout Cape 
Colony) ; Bohm, J. f, O, 1885, p. 51 (Gonda) ; Fischer, t. c, 
p. 115 (Lindi) ; Matschie, J.f, O. 1887, p. 138; Seebohm, Gtoyr. 
Dittr. Charad. p. 239 (1888) ; BuUxk, Notes Leyden Mus. x. p. 248 
(1888 : Katinga) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 306 (Lamu) ; Enun, J./. O. 
1891, p. 58 (Usagara ; not on coast) ; Beichen. t, c, p. 141 (Ugogo ; 
Mpapwa ; Tabora in Uniamembe). 

Cursonus capensis {nee Swains.), Gray, List Gralla in Brit. Mtu. 
p. 61 (1844 : S. Africa). 

ChiTBorius burchelli {nee Swains.), Chamey, Ibis, 1860, p. 217 (Natal), 
1869, p. 299. 

Adult, Similar to C. eoromandelicus, and having the same 
chestnat head and blnck and white facial markings ; no white 
bar across the upper tail-coverts ; a large black patch on the upper 
abdomen : '' bill dusky, under mandible pale ; shanks, tarsi, and 
feet white ; iris dusky " (T, Ayres). Total length 6*6 inches, culmen 
0-9, wing 4-8, tail 1*7, tarsus 1-6. 

Hah, The greater part of Tropical Africa in suitable localities. 

a. Ad. sk. River Ghimbia. Governor Rendall 

rci. 

b. Ad. sk. Bathurst (Qmiw). Seebohm Coll. 
e. Ad. sk. Bissao. Seebohm Coll. 

d. Ad. sk. Accra, April (Smith). Seebohm Coll. 

e, f. Ad. et Cambambe, Angola. Monteiro Coll. 
imm. sk. 

g. Ad. sk. Loanda, May {J. J. Monteiro), Sharpe Coll. 

h. c^ ad. sk. Ondon^, Ovampo-land, Nov. 22, Seebohm Coll. 

{C. J. Andersson). 

i, Imm. sk. South Africa. Gould Coll. 

k. Ad. sk. South Africa. Sir A. Smith rC.]. 

/. Ad. St. South Africa. Sir A. Smith [C.J. 

m,n. (S 2 ad. Kingwilliamatown, May 7 (C. Major Trevelyan 

sk. Newby), [C.]. 

o, />. (^ ad. sk. Colenso, Natal, Nov. 21. Capt. Savile Reid 

[C.]- 
q. $ ad. sk. Macamac, Transvaal, July 24 Guniey Coll. 

{T. Ayres). 

r. 2 ad. sk. Transvaal {T. Ayres). Sharpe Coll. 

s. Ad. sk. Lamu, £. Africa, Jan. 10. F. J. Jackson, Esq. 

[p.i 

t. Ad. sk. Melinda {Sir J. Kirk), Seebohm Coll. 



5. RBiKorriLrs. 43 



6. RHIHOPTILUS. ,^^ 

Rbinoptiliu, Striekl. P. Z, S. \f<^, p. L>*JO R. cbaleopteros. 

Macnitmnitui {mtc Lae^.), Bijfth, J. A, &'. Bmg, xvii. 

pi. I. p. :^•>4 (1K48) R. bitorquatus. 

t'haJciipUrnu, Heichenh. Sat, Sytt, JUg. p. xzx 

J 1 <£i) R. chalcopterui. 

H«-iDrri<inmiu«, IletigL IhU, 1H45.3, p. 131 R. cinctus. 

Hamjg, Tbe wbolc of Africa ; Central India. 

AVv to the Sftedes. 

finmarirs not rroM«d witb a white band before 
tb^ tip» ; DO wbittt on outer end of tint 
pnmarj. 
• . ^ iib two bandu nrroi« tbe fore neck. 
«' loDcr priuiarteA aud »econdarie« for tbe 
lUiMit part cbe«tout; botb upper and 
Iom4*r oand* on fore nif k black, 
a' . I'ndrr surface I'f bodv MUidv buff, 
lOf ludiofr the under wing-coverta and 
aiitUhe« : *\ie larjrer, tanus 2 2*3; 

wtn^ ovrr (» iiurht'ri bin'nctuM^ p. 43. 

A . Siz»* »nialler. winir not exct^eding 6 , . . . . .- 

iDcb«*; ta^.»u^ not .ici^linff 2 inches. | j^^J^"*^* ^J^- 
A . InDf-r primarifi* and secondaries brown ' "'^ "^'' P* 
:;ki- to«* refit I if tht* quillii, narrowly 
'^Itfv'd with butt' or white : upper band 
• •D f'l^ ncvk t»la4*k, low(>r one cm*»itnut. 
e ". iVnultiniati* tail-feather witb broad 
ham ff blark and whit^* on the outer 

Wf b rinctus, p. 46. 

d < *uter Wf b cif penultimate tail-feather 

utiit.irui bri>«'n neebttAmit p. 47. 

t With uv bU«-k baud acrofrK th«* fore neck; 
'f ..!!• tip|nil with metallic piiqtl**. 



<■ 



rail-f*-atl!frit tipofd with white; no white 
t«!iiift arrtMii tut* fiidn of th«* major 

* ' ■i»Tt* rkairopteruft p. 48. 

^ Tait-fi*athfn not tip|M>d with white; a 
di-!irif-t «hii«' baud acnMii the winfTt 
f rnit-d by the white ti{ift to the major 

ci^%*-rt* al/Mt/oM'tatui, p. 40. 

* |"r.ix;an*-« mith a whit** band; fir»t primary 

•it# mally whit*- hiforquatut^ p. W). 



1 . RhiBoptUoi bicinctni. 

<'urw.nu« afriranu". Trmm Cat, Synt. ('ah. (hm. pp. 175, 263 
TarfcHf.mu. r*.|lari«. Viei/t. ,V. Dirf tTHiBt. Sat, viii. p. aW 



44 cuRsoiuiD-a. 

Cursorius bicinctus, Temm. Man, tPOm, ii. p. 615 (1820) ; Jard. <$• 
Selby, III. Om. i. pi. 48 (c. 1839) ; Gray, List GraU. Brit. Mus. 
p. 61 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 537 (1844) ; ScU. Mus. Pays- Bos, 
Cursores. p. 11 (1863 : S. Africa) ; Hartl. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 61 
(Damara-land) ; Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 290 (1867) ; id. Ibis, 1869, 
p. 70 (Nieuw Veldt) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 19, no. 10040 (1871) ; 
Ayres, Ibis, 1871, p. 203 (Transvaal); Gumey in Anderss. B. 
Dam. Ld. p. 261 (1872 : Gt. Namaqua ; Damara-land) ; HeugL 
Om. N.O.'Afr. ii. Abth. i. p. 975 (1873) ; Barratt, Ibis, 1876, 
p. 212 (Orange Free State) ; Ayres, Ibis, 1877, p. 347 (Potchef- 
stroom, breeding) ; id. Ibis, 1880, p. 266 ; HoM ^ Ptlz.. Beitr. 
Om. Siidafr. p. 247 (1882 : Orange River ; Molapo) ; Sharpe, ed. 
Layard's B. 6\ AJr. p. 654 (1884 : Hope Town ; Grahamstown j 
Free State ; Cape Colony) ; Symonds, Ibis, 1887, p. 3^34 (Bjroon- 
stadt) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charadr. p. 242 (1888). 

Cursorius ^rallator, Leadb. Trans. Linn. Soc. n. s. xvi. p. 92 (1825). 

Cursor bicinctus, Wagl. Syst. Av. Cursor, p. 80, sp. 4 (1827). 

Tacbydromus bicinctus, Swains. B. W. Afr. ii. p. 231 (1837) ; 
Beichenb. Av. Syst. Nat., Gall. p. rxx, Taf. 376. nos. 2133-34 
(1862) ; Licht. Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol. p. 94 (1864). 

Rbinoptilus bicinctus, Shelley, Ibis, 1882, p. 363 (Siklogolo River ; 
Hart River) ; Heine ^ Reidien. Nomencl. Mus. Hein, Om. p. 339 
(1890 : Cape). 

Cursorius bicinctus bisignatus (nee Hartl.), Seehohm, Ibis, 1886, 
p. 118 ; id. Geogr. BiMr. Charadr. p. 243 (1888). 

Adult male. General colour above sandy buff, mottled ; the 
feathers of the upper surface brown, edged with sandy buff, before 
which is a sub-terminal bar of black ; wing-coverts like the back, 
but the sub-terminal black bars rather broader ; bastard-wing black, 
the outer feathers edged with sandy rufous ; primary-coverts and 
outer primaries black, with a sbadc of rufous on the inner web ; the 
inner primaries and secondaries cinnamon-rufous, with narrow 
whitish tips, before which is a broken vermiculation of narrow 
blackish bands, which is more distinct on the outer web of the inner 
secondaries, which have more brownish shading on the inner webs ; 
the innermost secondaries brown, with sandy- coloured margins, 
rufescent towards the ends, which are sandy-coloured and separated 
from the sub-terminal rufous shade by a zigzag line of black, which 
extends along the outer web, forming a sub-terminal line of black ; 
feathers of the lower back and rump brown, edged with sandy 
rufous, before which is a sub-terminal bar of black ; upper tail- 
coverts white ; tail-feathers blackish, rufescent towards the ends, 
with brown bars and white notches or bands ; the two outer tail- 
feathers white, with a slight rufous shade near the ends, and with 
a brown bar, the penultimate feather mottled with brown on the 
inner web ; crown of head like the back, and squamatcd in the 
same way, but more minutely ; lores and a broad eyebrow sandy 
buff ; sides of face and throat sandy buff, narrowly streaked with 
blackish ; across the fore neck a narrow black band, extending on 
each side to the sides of the neck, followed by a broad band of sandy 
buff on the lower fore neck, which is followed by a second hand of 



5. KHIVOFTILUS. 45 

bUck on the chest ; remainder of under surface of body sandy buff, 
palrr and more isabclline on the abdomen ; under wing-coverts and 
aiilUn*<i% blarkinh, broadly ti{>iM*d with sundy buff, the greater 
covert* blackinh, tipped with white; axillaries like the breast ; quills 
birlow reMmbling the upfMT surface : '' bill black ; tarsi and toes 
whit« ; iris dark ha/el ** ( T. Ayrt*). Total length 8 inches, culmen 
•_r-f;, winff til, tail :i*:t5, tarsus 2-.i. 

A'imli femalt. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 
•* iDchcNi, culmen *>-«k), win;? O'lo, tail 2-45, tarsus 1*9.>. 

Tb«* sprcimens fn>m (treat Xamaqua-laud in the Soebohm col- 
It-cti^'Q are |>aler and more s;indyH*oluured than those from the 
•i>^:h-4'astem [»art of Africa. The example fn)m Oudonpra mentioned 
b) Mr. Sea'lhihm <(Je4);:r. Distr. Charadr. p. 24^^) is still paler, but 
thr lueht f-olour i^ e\'idently due to bleaching in a desert land, for 
VUr Drw feathrpi which the bird is acquiring are not much {Miler 
thsn the ordinar}* rufous form of the s]x;cies. Mr. Soebohm has 
4.allr<l this we!tt4»rn form ("nrturuiM hicinctitg hisvjtuituB^hMi as the 
tAT^u* me;M»uri*H ^'H^-^'l*') inches, it cannot l>e of this race (v'uU 
lAfrii. A fronhly moultcnl i«|Mfcimen from Narnaqua-land (June) 
ran ^cjurt-ly be di!»tin$?uii»hed from the eastern bfiecimcns, and there- 
forr I cannot n^^rrtnl the Namaqua and Damara birds as constituting 
avp^ thin a }iale raoe, which, mt>reover, it is not nt*C(*ssary to 
HAOir. Thf wing in the ft^rien of H. hicincttts varii'S from .')*7 to 
'«-l.*» in<*h«-H. and it will thus 1m.* seen that it is always a larger bird 
tiksn /«. f'iti'fniitits. 

//<i''. Njuth Afric:i, fmni the Cai>e Colony to Mashona, and to 
I>A3«ira-l tiid and Ovani{»o un the west. 

« # • i ad- -k. Hr«iif»»rt» Kan**!, S. .\frica St'obuhm ColL 

I K. Is. Lat/ard), 

/y ' i ».l. -t. S. Afririi. * Sir A. Smith [C], 

a. I. ' I ftd. i»k. Il'>|i**Towii.f triqunlnnd, May U. H. ^^harpe, Mm|. 

I r C. AtfH'^n'). ' 'V.\ 

k Ad •k. Sanilv Ki\**r, Oranf^e Free F. A. Ilurratt, E^q. 

Slat.-. v. , 

4 - ^i. pk. TrM04\aitl ( /'. AtfrfM), (luniey Coll. 

m ' ad. •k, li<»untiip Ki%'cr, Gr«'at Na- Tweeddale Coll. 

uiA'juii-land, June 3 (C J, 

■ \d 'k (fr***! Nauiaqua-land {(\ Seebohm Coll 

J. A.). 
• X Mi. "k. (itjimbinqut*, Damara-land, Svobohm Coll. 

FVb. \o{(\J,A.), 

L'. Rhinoptiloi biaignataf. (Plat<; I.) 

* -r* riua biM/natU4, Hart I. IK /. .V. I^m, p. h7 (Ii«*n;rn*-la) : Grau^ 
Hamd-I It. iii. p. Il#, no. l<HMl» (I'*71); Ihtctuj^, (hrn. AttyJa, 
\ iSJ I l-vl ) ; SMnrj^, td. Lat^ard'a li. S. Afr. p. «mV» ( lhH4 ). 

i ar*"nu« ^rai'ititi, I\»rhff Jf Hrirhrn, J.f. O. lK«v|, p. 1 7f< ( MaAai- 
taA'ii. FtMeher, 'Artfsrhr, ijtt. Orn. i. p. JilHid^M: I^ttb* .-Vrum'ha; 
Ifc#nj.» N/ai; I'ar^; Konx'* Kiver) ; id. J. f. O. 1^8•^ p. 115; 



46 GURSORIID^. 

Beichm, J.f, O. 1887, p. 46 (Magala) ; Emin, J,/, O. 1801, p. 58 ; 

Reichen. J,f. 0. 1891, p. 141 (Ugogo). 
Cursorius bicinctus gracilis, Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 118; id. Oeogr. 

Distr. Charadr. p. 244 (1888). 
Cursorius bicinctus (nee Temm.), Emin, J,f, 0. 1891, p. 337 (Ussongo 

Steppes). 
Rhinoptilus pracilia, Sharpe, Bull, B. O. C, iii. p. xiv (1893). 
Rhinopdlus bisignatus, Sharpe, t. c. p. xiv (1893). 

Adult (type of species). Similar to B. bicincttis, but much smaller ; 
the edges of the feathers of the upper surface whitish or pale sandy 
rufous ; tail-feathers tipped with white ; outer feathers pure white ; 
under surface and under wiug-coverts and axillaries white : '•*' bill 
brownish black ; feet white ; iris brown " (O. A, Fischer). Total 
length 7*2 inches, culmen 0*55, wing 5*3, tail 2*15, tarsus 1*9. 

Two female specimens from Eastern Africa have the wing 5*05- 
5*15 inches, and the tarsus 1*8-1*85 inch. 

Hab. Masai-land and Ugogo in Eastern Africa, ranging into 
Benguela in South-western Africa. 

a. Ad. sk. Benguela. Monteiro Coll. 

(Type of species.) 

b. $ ad. sk. Magala, U88ukcouiitr}',Nov.4, Seebohm Coll. 

(Dr. I'ischer). 

c. 9 ad. sk. Muhalala, Ugogo, July 11 Berlin Museum 

(Emin Pasha). [P.]. 

3. Rhinoptilus hartingi. (Plate II.) 

Rhinoptilus gracilis (nee Cab.), Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 416 (Somali). 
Cursorius bicinctus gracilis, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 244 

(1888, pt). 
Rhinoptilus hartingi, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. iii. p. xiv (1893). 

Adult. Similar to B. bisignatus, and of the same small size, but 
the tint entirely cinnamon-rufous, with a strong tinge of isabelline 
on the abdomen ; the lower black chest-band narrower. Total 
length 6*8 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 5*1, tail 1*7, tarsus 1*8. 

There are three specimens of this very distinct form in the See- 
bohm collection. All have the tarsus 1*8 inch, and the wings vary 
from 4*9-5*6 inches. 

Hab. Somali-land. 

a-€. Ad. sk. Somali-land {E. Lort FhiUips). Seebohm Coll. 

(Types of species.) 

4. Rhinoptilus cinctus. (Plate III. fig. 2.) 

Cursorius cinctus, Heugl. Syst. Uebers. p. 54 (1856 : descr. nulla) ; id. 
Om. N.O.-Afr. iii. pt. l,p. 792 (1878) ; Gray, Hand-l. B.ui. p. 19, 
no. 10043 (1871) ; Fischer f Beichen. J.f. 0. 1879, p. 337 (Massa); 
Fischer, Zktschr. ges. Om, i. p. 390(1884: Par6 ; Ngaruka; Nj?u- 
ruman) ; id. J.f. O. 1885, p. 116 (Masai) ; Seeb. Ibis, 1886, p. 118 
(pt.) ; Beichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 46 (Masai Steppes) ; Seeb. tfeogr. 
Distr. Charadr. p. 245 (1888, pt.) ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 371 
(Useri River). 



5. KHIHOPTILUB. 47 

Hemetodioniiu cinctui, Heugl. Ihu, 1863, p. 81, pL i. (Gondokoru : 

d««cr. prioc«p0) ; id. /. / O. 18(ir>, p. 99 (Belenia Mto.); Fintck 

* Harii, Vog. Ost-Afr. p. CJO, not© (1870). 
Ilt^merodromiiA (CuntoriuA) ciDCtui, IleugL J. /. O. 1863, p. 25 

((«niid«)koro). 
i^irvoriuji bicinctufl, pt., Sc/d, M%a. Pays-Bfu^ Cunores, p. 11 (1855). 
Rhinopulus cinctitf, iiheHey^ IbU, 18^5, p. 416 (hills near Berbera) ; 

Sktu^, BmU, B. O. (\ ill. p. xiv (189:3). 
Ciir*i>niu bicinctiu (m^ TVmm.), ikUvad, Ann, Mu$. Gen, (2) i. 

p. 27:i (lt<M: Somali Desert). 

Adnlt, Similar to R. 9t€hi}hmi (fully described below*), but 
diffrhng io the band of bright chestnut, which extends from the 
kiader rar-ooveris down the sides of the neck to the fore neck ; the 
oQtuidr tail-feather is regularly chequered with broad black bars 
aJoDg the outer web. Total length 9 inches, culmen 0*8, wing 6, 
tail :M, tarsuA :1'\ 

H*ih. Upper White Nile to Somali-land and Masai-land. 

« .\d. ftk. NVar !ifrb*>ni, Smiali-land Se«*bohm ColL 

« K, lA*rt PkUlijM). 
4 c^ ad. ik. VM:r\ Hirer, Kilimanjaro. II. C.V. Hunter, Esq. 

'>. Rhinoptilas saebohmi. (Plate III. tig. 1.) 

rurmoriui* cin<*tU"» i nrc IlfUjfl.), fiumry in And*T$*. li. l)am,'Ld. 
p l'»W { |m7i* : OniloHKH) ; Jiitctit^^ Oni, AnifiJa, p. 421 (llumbe) ; 
.SA^rp^. e^r lytyiinft li. S. Afr. p. WikS (lHH4); Setb. Ibis, 1886, 
j». 11 •* (pt.»; id. (irtttfr. lUttr. ("haradr. p. 245 (pt), pi. xii. 
.l-^KH). 

lUim >ptilus M-v^bohiiii, SAarpr, Hu/I. li. O, (\ iii. p. xiii (1893). 

Ad^U ffm*dr, UvniTal c»>lour above p:ilo sandy ruftms, the feathers 
bm^ly r«'ntrr<i with du!»ky blackish : scapulars like the back, with 
«Liti»h maririnK ; lower b:i('k uud rump uniform ashy brown, slightly 
va^h«^ with Kandy rufous; upfKT tnil-coverts white, forming a 
br>»ft«l bind ; win^- coverts l»rown, with sundy-rufous edges, the 
mniian and greater coverts broadly margininl with white ; bastard- 
vum: blv ki«h, with broail white tips to the feathers ; primarj- 
vyrrru %n*\ quilLi dark bn>wn, narrowly fringed at the end with 
«Li>. th<- inn4*r MV)nd.irieH with sandv buff like the back: tail- 
feather* a«b\ brown, broadly tipfKHl with white, l)efore which is a 
dsttiort *ub- terminal bar of black, the out^T feather white, with a 
2r« •^t\A of brown towards the end of the inner web; crown of 
hr^ ; ale sandy rufous, streaked with blackish eentn*s to the 
Irather^ . on the na|»«* a conceal«Hl blackish patch ; hind neck like 
tW b«rk. but rather lighter ; base of ff>rehead whitish ; lores and a 
brvMd eyebrow white, uniting on the niipe ; feathers round eye also 
vutip ; «-ar-covi*rtfi |«le -landy buff : a few blackish spots near the 
; rhc^-kft, thn>at, and under surface of body pure white ; sides 

* I bav* fiv#ti a full d««rription of H. tHhokmi, as the spsriiDen \m in better 
t*^ xhuk ««th9r of Ibow of H. emrtus. 



48 CUBSORIIDA. 

of neck sandy buff like the hind neck ; on the lower throat a blackish 
collar, slighdy tinged with rufous, extending from the ear-coverts 
on each side, and forming a complete band, which is rather more 
rufous in the centre ; this collar is followed by a broad white collar, 
extending on each side to the hinder ear-coverts and encircling the 
throat ; this again is followed by a broad band of sandy buff across 
the chest, which is mottled with longitudinal spots and streaks of 
blackish ; from behind the eye a crescentic line of black extending 
to the fore neck, and below the white band a second somewhat 
interrupted band of black ; across the breast a band of light chest- 
nut; axiUaries and under wing-coverts white, with three broad 
black bars near the edge of the wing ; quills dusky below, ashy 
whitish towards the base of the inner web. Total length 9 inches, 
culmen 0*8, vring 6*5, tail 3-4, tarsus 2*5. 

Hah, South-western Africa, from Ovampo-land to the Cunone 
River. 

a, $ ad. sk. Ondon^, Ovampo-land, Jan. 25 Seebohm Coll. 

(C. J. Anderssoft). (Type of species.) 

6. Rhinoptiliis chalcopteras. (Plate IV. fig. 1.) 

Cursorius chalcopteras, Temm. PI. Col. v. pi. 298 (1824 : Sene- 
^ambia) ; Less. Man. dtOim, ii. p. 303 (1828) ; Riipp. Mus. Senck. 
li. p. 211 (1837 : Senegrambia) ; Grat/, List Grail. Brit. Mus.-o. 61 
(1844 : S. Afnca) ; id. Sf Mitch. Gen. B. iii. p. 537, pi. 143 (1844) ; 
Heugl. Syst. i7cii?r«. p. 54(1856 : Blue Nile; E. Senaar); Hartl. 
Om. W.'Afr. p. 210 a857 : Senegambia); Hartl. J. f. O. \^\, 
p. 268 ; Gwmey, Ibis, 1861, p. 134 (Natal) ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bos, 
Cursores, p. 12 (1865 : Senegambia) ; Heugl. J.f. O. 1865, p. 100 
(Senaar and Kordofan) : Hartl. P. Z. S. 186(>, p. 62 ; Layard^ 
B. S. Afr. p. 290 (1867) ; Heuyi. J.f. O. 1867, p. 304; Finsch, 




ii. pt. 1, p. 970 (1873: Fazogloa ; Rahad, mouth of Blue Nile ; 
Upper White Nile ; Kidj-Negro Land) ; Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 246 
(Mombasa) ; Bohm, J. f. 0. 1882, p. 184 (Kakoma) ; Schalaw, 
J.f. O. 1883, p. 340 (Mugonga) ; SharpCy ed. Layard^s B. S. Afr. 
p. '656 (1884, pt.) ; Fisi^ery Zeitschr. yes. Om. i. p. 389(1884: 
little Aruscha) ; id. J.f. O. 1885, p. 115 (Usaramo); Seebohm, 
Ibis, 1886, 1). 118 (pt.) ; MaUchie, J.f. O. 1887, p. 138 (Tangan- 
yika) ; Seebohm, Ueogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 246 (1888) ; Emin, 
J. f. 0. 1891, p. 58 (Steppes of Ugogo) ; Reichen. t. c. p. 141 
(Kinjakungi) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1894, pp. 25, 274 (Nyasa Laiid). 

Cursor chalcopterus, Wagl. Syst. Av. Cursor, p. 81 (1827). 

Tachydromus chalcopterus, Swains. B. W. Afr. ii. p. 233 (1837). 

Rhinopiilus chalcopterus, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 220 (Kordofan) ; 
Antin. Cat. descr. Ucc. p. 98 (1864 : Blue Nile) ; Salvin^ Cat. 
Strickl. CoU. p. 504 (1882). 

Chalcopterus temmiuckii, Beichetib. Av. Syst. Nat, Gall. p. xxx, 
Taf. 3656. fig. 3543 ( 1852) ; Heine 4* Reichen. Nomencl. Mus. Hein. 
Om. p. 339 (1890 : Senaar). 

Cursorius superciliaris, Heugl. J.f. O. l8Qo, pp. 98, 100 (Kidj-Negro 
Land); Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 19, no. 10045 (1871). 



5. KH1H0PT1LU8. 49 

Admit. Brown abore, with a broad band of white formed bj the 
vpprr tail-coTerts ; wing-covcrta and inner aecondaries like the 
bttck ; the edge of the wing white ; bastard-wing, primary-coTerts, 
mad primariei black, with metallic violet tips, before which is a 
eabCerminal bar of metallic steel-blue with a coppery line in 
bttween ; the greater coverta narrowly edged with white at the 
cods : iccondaries ashy brown with black ends, and a great deal of 
white on the inner web ; tail-feathers brown, tipped broadly with 
white, before which is a broad sub-terminal band of black ; crown of 
h«ad like the back ; lores white, as also the base of the forehead ; 
tile fore part of the crown parted with a line of creamy-buff 
fMtherf : a broad white eyebrow, followed by a narrow line 
9i black aboTe the eye : lower eyelid chestnut, as also a shade 
behind the eye ; ear-eoTerts and sides of face sandy buff, varied 
with black, which occupies the hinder part of the ear-coyerts ; 
bHiind the eye a spot of white ; cheeks and throat white, with a 
crvAmy-boff tinge near the gape; the sides of the upper throat 
■arkc^ with a broad moustachial band of brown, raried with black ; 
fort Di^ k and chewt ashy brown, the latter paler brown, followed 
bi a IJack l»and ; lirt^aiit and remainder of under surface of body 
white : und^r wing-ooTorti* and axillaries white, tinged with creamy 
boff : nrreral patches of black feathers along the outer edge of the 
wiair. the lesser corerts of which are black below : ** bill blackish« 
the bafal half and angle of the month orange- red ; foet briok-red ; 
xns vai^jer-brown ** (feii lieHgUn). Total length 9*7 inches, culmen 
«•>.*« wing t;-«), tail 3*4, Ursus 2.9. 

If 4^. From Henegambia to N.E. Africa, and down the eastern 
m^ of the continent to Xatal and British Caffraria ; occurring also 
!• iNmarm-land and on the Coanza River. 

« cf ad. ftk Waliko, Bogu(»-land, Aug. 2 Tweeddale Coll. 

( W.Jette). 

k Ad tk. River C<Muiza. Seebohm Coll. 

r ^ ad. sk. l^aniara-land, Feb. 3 (C*. /. Seebohm Coll. 

d. Ad tk. Tfte, Zambssi (^Si>/. AVrib). I^vingstone Elzned. 

JlA. tk Ttchiromo, N vans-land, Sept. H. I {.Johnston, Esq., 

{A. Wkyte). C.B.[P.]. 

/. ; ad.tk. I^f* Shirwa, Jan. 1 (A. II. II Johnston, Esq., 

Wk^U). C.B. [P.]. 

^ Ad. tk Kfi Road, abiiut 18 miles east Major Trevelyan 

of Kinmrilliamstown. [P.]. 

A t. Ad. «. Bouth Airica. Sir A. Smith [C.\ 



7. IhiBoptUai albofaieUtiis. (Plate IV. fig. 2.) 

runohot rkslr<ipt4»ru4 {nee 7*.), Ounuy in Andens, B. Dam. Ld, 
p 3» il"72, pt. : iHunsra-land); Jieichen, MUtk. Afrik. Om. 
I p 1 {Kr,: MalangH); Bticoge, Om. Angola, p. 420 (1H81 : 
r«pftii^oinb» sod lluinb»*); Butirr, Ftilden, ^ Beid, Zool. 1882, 
p -141 ; Ayrm, ihU, 1KH4. p. 282 (Potrh«*fiitroom) ; Skarpe, ed 
1 wizard's 6. H. Afr. p. OM (1864, pt.) ; Sethokm, oiogr. Dutrib, 
v«U SJUV. B 



50 CUBSOBITDJS. 

Charadr. p. 246 (1888, pt.) ; Boeage^ Jam, Lisb, (2) iz. p. 15 
(1808 : Interior of Benguela). 
Rhinoptilus albofasciatus, Sharpe, Bull, B. O. C iii. p. xiv (L893). 

Adult female. Similar to i2. chalcapterus, but distinguished by the 
white bar down the wing, formed by the broad white margins of 
tlie greater wing-coverts, by the dull bronzy green, scarcely purple 
ends of the quills, and by the absence of the white band at the tip 
of the central tail-feathers. Total length 10 inches, culmen 0-85, 
wing 6-8, tail 2-85, tarsus 2-85. 

Hah. S. Africa, from Natal and the Transvaal to Damara-land and 
Benguela. 

a. Ad. sk. Natal {T, Ay res), Seebohm CoU. 

6. 9 ad. sk. Colenso, Natal, Nov. 20. Capt.Savile Reid[C. ]. 

c. Imm. sk. Potchefstroom, Transvaal, Jan. 21 Gurney Coll. 

(r. Ai/res), 

d. $ ad. sk. Otiimbinque, Damara-land, Jan. Tweeddale Coll. 

18, 1865 (C.J.A7id^r88on), 

e. fS imm. sk. Ondonga, Jan. 22 (C J, Audersson), Seebohm ColL 

8. BhinoptUns bitorqnatas. 

Macrotarsius bitorquatus, Blythy J, A, S, Beng, xvii. p. 254 (1848). 
Rhinoptilus bitorquatus, Strickl. P, Z, S. 18o0, p. 223 ; Jerd, B, Ind. 

iii. p. 628 (1864) ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 228 ; Blanf. J.A,S, Beng. 

xxxviii. p. 190 (1862) ; Hume, &tr, P. viii. p. 112 (1879) ; Salmn, 

Cat, Strickl. CoU. p. 294 (1882). 
Cursorius bitorquatus, Gray, Hand-l, B, iii. p. 19, no. 10041 (1871) ; 

Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 119; id, Geogr. Distrib, Charadr, p. 247, 

pL xiii. (1888). 

Adult male. General colour above brown, with faint traces of 
sandy margins to the feathers; wing-coverts more ashy brown, 
fringed wiUi whitish or sandy buff', before which is a sub-terminal 
line of brown ; along the wing a broad white band, commencing at 
the carpal bend, and formed of the outer median and greater 
coverts and continued by means of the white base to the outer 
secondaries ; the inner secondaries resembling the other ashy-brown 
wing-coverts and similarly edged with white or sandy buff : pri- 
mary-coverts and primaries black, the four outer quills marked 
with white as foUows — the fourth has only a small spot of white 
near the end of the inner web ; the third has a large white spot 
near the end of the inner web; on the penultimate feather the 
white spot on the inner web is larger and extends across the outer 
web also, forming a broad sub-terminal patch ; on the first primary 
the whit« mark on the inner web is very large, and is extended on 
to the outer web for some distance along the middle of the feather : 
upper tail-coverts white, forming a broad band ; tail-feathers brown, 
with a white spot at the end of the inner web, the base also white, 
increasing in extent towards the outermost feather, where the 
brown colour only forms a sub-terminal band ; crown of head dark 
brown, parted down the centre by a broad band of creamy buff. 



6. 8TILTU. 51 

baeomiiifr MDdy-coloured towards the uape; lores and base of 
forebead alio white ; followed by a broad eyebrow of creamy white ; 
«ar-ooTerta mfoua-brown, with a streak of black below the eye ; 
cheeks and throat huffy white, followed by a patch of chestnut- 
brown on the lower throat ; this is followed by a band of white, 
circled by a frinfa* of blackish brown, and succeeded on the fore-neck 
by a broad band of brown ; this is followed in its turn by a second 
band of white, below which is another leas distinct brown shade on 
which are sob-terminal lines of black ; remainder of under surface 
of body creamy white, includin^^ the under wing-coverts and 
axillaric« : the flanks and under wing-coverts with a rufescent tinge, 
with patches of bUck near the edge of the wing ; the greater series 
black edged with white : '* bill yellow at base, horny at the tip ; 
feet |iale fleshy yellow; iris dark brown"* (T. C. Jerdon). Total 
length 10 inches, 'culmen 0*8, wing 6-65, tail 2*25, tarsus 2*25. 
Jimh, Central India. 

«. / ad. lik. Ikdrachallum, (}odav«ry Valley, March 7 Hume CoU. 

( ir T. Wan/oni). 

6. 8TILTIA. ^p, 

Stiltia. B0, C, H, xliii. p. 411^ 1850) S. i<iabella. 

lUiiinphAL^ Hrinr ^ JUicArn, Nomtnd. Mum, Ilein, 
p ISiit^ { 1h90) S. isabelU. 

iCtm^. Australia and Celebes, and the Moluccas, as far as Java 
and Bufoco. 

1. StUtia iiabellA. 

CfUrv-^U i^bella, rirW, Analyse, p. 60 (1816); id. N. IXci. d^IliM, 
Sat liii. p. 221 ( 1817 > : I^ch, Tr. Linn, Sue. xiii. p. VV2 (1820) ; 
i\riU. Gal. (Hm. ii. |i. \TA\ pi. l'«W (iH^.*)); /•«*. TraiU, p. 641 
(Kill; (iray. Gen. Ii. iii. p. r>;jM ( 1 844 ) ; Sd, Pr. Linn. Hoc. \\. 
v. I*** { lN>i ; Gray. Cat. Ii. Neic Guinea, p. .00 (iMTiJM ; iialtyid. 
rrr. Iii>me.., p. .TJO il**74) ; .Meyrr, Vrrh. s.-A. (fes. H'ien, p 7<t9 

< lH-1 : Timor) ; yard^rm. \. T. Stdrrl. Ind. xliv. p. 204 (1884 : 

(fUiti^Jji pTTmllaris. Temm. Man. d'Orn. ii. p. WW (1M20) ; S. Miill. 
Vrrk. Sat. titMtk. lAiml' en Volkrnk. p. 23 (lKtt» 44: (Mannta); 
a^mld, H. AuMr. vi. pi. 22 (lH4M) ; lirtchmh. Handb., GaUin. Sov. 
Uh cccx. tik'*. 24W 2."i0l (iHol); Sthi Ilandi. I)ierk. i. p. 445 
il»N57»; Gray, P. / .V 1^>. p. 197; id. Cat. Ii. SrfC tiuinea, 
p «2 iK/M: •*/. /'. /. S. IHtX), p. ;WtJ. \^\\, p. 348 ( Waijfi.Mi ; 
Am I«1.K n'aU /*. /. S. iHlt, «. ;Vi {Ii..un)u) ; H'»iienb. J. f. O. 
I*»'4, p. !:«; Gtmid, Ilandh. Ii. Austr. ii. p. 24:J (lh«5); *ScAI. 
Mut. ihty'lias, rurM>n*i«, y. IH (lMi.>: W. coSMt ot' New Guintta ; 
OU Major; Hun**: Ii«»ni«»ii ; Jsva) ; h\n$rh, Sru-Gninea, y. iHl 

< W»5» ; lC»*enh. lirijt mi/ir Aui^i^PMitrrrU . p. W (1^07 : Aru), p. 82 
iKri Ul), p. Hi»jlij.,r); Gray, Iland-l. Ii. iii. p. 1^, no. 100.T2 
<I-7I); Ha///rn. Tr. /am4. Syc. viii. p. 117 (1^72: CWeU*) ; 
Mryrr.J. f. O, 1^73, p. 44 15; Mastert, I^itr. Linn. Sttc. S. S. H'. ii. 
p n«H(I'i77); It>**mh. Maiay. Arrh. ^. :i7H {UTb-lS) : Celeb*«i), 

5. :S«H <\V»ijrioiii ; Sttlr'id. Ann. Mum. Genot, xiv. p. tlOt5 (H7») ; 
r-*v9^, H fey to ft, |». Hh| (Itv^)); Seebtdkm, Geoyr. IHstr. CAaratir. 
{\*v^). Ktertit. Juum Straits lir. At. Site. lH««. p. 204. 

i2 



52 CTRSORIIDJ!. 

Glareola auBtralis, Leach^ TV*. lAnn, Soc, xiii. p. 132, pi. 14, S $ 
(1820) ; Reichenb. 8yn, Av., Oall. Taf. 293. figs. 2499-2601 (1848). 

Glareola isabellina, Less. Compl, Buff,, Ois. p. 665 (1838). 

Stiltia pallaria, Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 419 (1856). 

Stiltia Isabella, Salvad. Arm, Mw, Grenov, xviii. p. 322 (1882) ; t^. 
Om. Papuasia, iii. p. 286 (1882) ; id, Agg. iii. p. 198 (1891). 

Rhimpbalea isabelki Heine 4* Reichen, Nomend, Mus, Hein. Om, 
p. ^ (1890). 

Adult, General colour above brown with a alight olive wash, all 
the feathers more or less washed with sandy rafous ; wing-coverU 
like the back and margined with sandy mfoos ; the outer coverta, 
as well as the bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and primaries black ; 
the first primary-covert and first primary wiUi white shafts ; rump 
darker brown than the back ; upper tail-coverts white, forming a 
white band ; tail-feathers black, white at base, increasing in extent 
towards the outermost, which are almost entirely white, all the 
feathers tipped with ashy brown, with a white spot at the end of 
the inner web ; crown of head brown, with sandy-rufous edgings to 
the feathers ; the hind neck, sides of neck, and sides of face uniform 
sandy bufi^ with a lighter shade above the eye ; lores black ; cheeks 
and throat isabelline buff ; fore neck and chest sandy rufous ; abdo- 
men, thighs, sides of vent, and under tail-coverts white ; sides of 
lower breast and flanks deep chestnut; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries black : *^ bill red at the base, black at the tip ; feet 
brown " (J. Oould), Total length 9 inches, culmen 0-65, wing 8*3, 
tail 2*4, tarsus 1*85. 

Young, Differs from the adult in having a much more distinct 
rufous edging ; the chestnut of the flanks paler and obscured by 
whitish edgings; sides of face and lower throat streaked with 
dusky blackish, and the fore neck also mottled with dusky 
markings. 

Hah, Australia, New Guinea, Am Islands, Kei Islands ; and the 
Moluccas as far as Celebes, Elores, Java, and Borneo. 

a. Ad. sk. Australia. Old CoU. 

b. Ad. sk. Australia. Purchased. 

c. Ad. sk. S. Australia. Gould Coll. 

df e,f. Ad. sk. Queensland (J, T, Oockr Salvin-Godman Coll. 

ereU), 

g. 5 ad. sk. Cape York. Seebohm Coll. 

A,f. Ad.et juv. N.W. Australia (T, H, Capt. Bowyer Bower 

fk. Bowyer Bower), [*P.]. 

k. Ad. sk. New Guinea. Seebohm Coll. 

/. S imni- flk. Bouru. Wallace CoU. 

tn. 5 juv. sk. Aru Islands (von Rosen' Seebohm CoU. 

htrg). 

n. Ad. sk. N. Celebes. Tweeddale ColL 

0. Ad. sk. N. Celebes (A, B. Meyer). Seebohm CoU. 

p. Ad. sk. Celebes. Gould CoU. 

q. Ad. sk. S. Celebes (A. B. Meyer), Tweeddale CoU. 



7. OLARBQLA. 53 



7. OLAHEOLA. 

(iUmiU. Britmrm, Om, t. p. 141 (17tJ0) G. prmtiiicoU. 

Tnchelia, Satp. .-f nii. /. p. 1 10 ( 1761*) G. pntincola. 

PntincnU {mec Kvek), U^L (}rn. Eur. ii. p. 107 

MM-t) G. pntincok. 

Dit«m'K*hrlidon, Ijindb. Jahrtdt, Fit. Sat WurtUmh, 

1M<H p. 212 G. pnUnoola. 




Fig. 7.— Led fuot of Glartola orientalit (from the ouUide). 




Kif --Middle claw uf right fuot (from inner ade) to show the peetiiiAtion 

(rnUrged). 

Hamje. Africm and Madugascar ; Southern Europe, eastwards to 
iVnrrm] Asia, India, the bunuiiM* countries, China ; south through 
thr Muluccaa tu Australia. 



AVv to thr Sjtecies. 

« Ai.ilan*!* rhiotiiut. 
m Tail irrvMtlv forki-<l ; ti-condaried broadly 

with whitf pratineola, p. 63. 



iij'pi^ with whiti* 

Tail 1*-«M« fitfkfii ; Mu'Diitiahee not tippi d 



• ith whit«" onr«/a/i#, p. •>*. 

« Aii.Urit-9 Dark likf thtr uodtT wiiifr-cnvfrt^. nu/aHnptera, p. !j7. 

1 . OUreoU pratincola. 

\^ lVfdriiHi.-M»-f. lirtM. Om. v. p. 141, pi. xii. fijr. 1 (17flO); 

IfAmUnf. /V AW. viii. pi. f^'2. (Hg. in--.*.); littf. Hut. \ai. Ois, 

wi p. r»41' (1 71^)). 
I^ lVrdrii-iit»-MiT k cull iff, Hhmm /. r. p. 140 ; Huff. 11%$*. Sat. Ois. 

Ill p .VPt (17r<4h. 
I> r#viihi-ilt-Mer tarhi-t/*«s //riM. <. <*. p. 147. 
I^ rertlni-d«-Mrr dii S^n^Hnil. HnM. t.c. p. 1 \^^. 
Iltniiidi» pratiiimU, Ijinm. Sy^t. Sat. i. p. •i4*> (17tMi). 
Tr.rv* fuwa. JJnn. .Sy*r .Va/. i. p. 'J't'J (17tWi, n Hriss), 
Tnrh*-Iia \*r^\ini'*'lA, Sf'p. Ann. J. p. 110 (17(^h 



54 CURSORUDA. 

La Perdrix de Mer grise, Buff. IKst Nat. Oie, vii. p. 544 (1780). 

La Perdrix de Mer bnine, Bttjff' t, e. p. 544. 

La Qiarole, Buff, t. c. p. 545. 

Austrian Pratincole, Jjath, Gen, Syn, iii. pt. 2, p. 222, pi. Ixzzv. 
(1785: fig. pess.). 

Collared Pratincole, Lath. t. c, p. 223 (1786) ; Yarr, Brit, B. iii. 
p. 1 (1843). 

Senegal Pratincole, Lath, t. c, p. 224. 

Spotted Pratincole, Lath, t, c, p. 225. 

Glareola austriaca, Gm. St/st, Nat. i. p. 695 (1788). 

Glareola senegalensis, Gm. t. c, p. 696 ; Brehtn, Vog, DeutscM, p. 566 
(1831). 

Glareola naevia, Gm. t. c. p. 696. 

Glareola torquata, Meyer, ToBcherib, ii. p. 404 (1816) ; Temm. Man. 
cPOm. iij. 500 (1820) ; Werner, AtUui, Alectorides, pi. i. (1828) ; 
Brehm, Tog, DevUchl, p. 566 (1831) ; Mhiitr, Cat. rait, Cauc, 
p. 52 (1832) ; Gould, B. Eur. iv. pi. 265 (1837) ; Naum, Vog. 
JDeiitschl, ix. p. 437, Taf. 234. figs. 1, 2 (1838) ; Crespon, Om, Gard, 
p. 339 (1840) ; Nordm, in D&mid, Vog. Buss, Mirid, iii. p. 274 
(1840) ; Beichenb. Av, Sgst, Nat, p. xxvii, Taf. 291. figs. 1619- 
1625 (1852) ; Grag, B, W, ScoU, p. 251 (1871) ; Fallon, Ois, Belg. 
p. 141 (1875). 

Glareola pratincola, Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 131 (1820) ; 
Brehm, TUg. DeuisM. p^ 565 (1831) ; Kegs. «$• Bias. Wirb, Eur, 
p. 66 (1840); Grag, Gen. B. iii. p. 538(1844); MUhle, Beitr, 
Om. Griechenl. p. 88 (1844); ScM. Bev. Crit. p. Ixxx (1844) ; Biipp, 
Sgst. Uebers. p. 117 (1845); Thomps. B. Irel. ii. p. 81 (1850); 
Macgill. Brit. B, iv. p. 49 (1852) ; Heugl. Sgst, Uebers, p. 54 
(1856); Rartl, Om, W.-A/r. p. 210 (1867: Senegal; Gambia; 
Gold Coast ; Gaboon) ; Jaub. et Barth.-Lapomm, Rich, Om, 
p. 433 (1859) ; Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 354 (Eastern Atlas) : Linderm, 
Vog. Griechenl. p. 126 (I860) ; Tristr, Ibis, 1860, p, 79 (N. Africa); 
Povygs, t. e. p. 239 (Ionian Isl. ; Corfu and Epirus) ; Marti. J,/, O, 
1861, p. 268 (Galam ; Bissao) ; Grag, List Brit. B. p. 137 (1863) ; 
Sperling, Ibis, 1864, p. 285 (Palestine) ; Antin. Cat, descr, Ucc. 
p. 99 (1864 : Senaar and Koridofan) ; Filippi, Viagg, Pers. p. 351 
(1865) ; Schl, Mus. Pags-Bas, Cursoros, p. 16 (1865 : Senegambia ; 
Gold Coast ; Accra) ; I)rake, Ibis, 1807, p. 429 (Tangiers) ; Loche, 
Expl. Sci. Algh-., Ois. ii. p. 278 (1867) ; Tristr. Ibis, 1868, p. 322 
(Palestine) ; Shatye, P. Z. S, 1869, p. 571 (Ambriz) ; Borggr, Vogelf, 
Norddeutschl, p. 104 (1869) ; Elwes ^ Buckleg, Ibis, 1870, p. 380 
(Dobrudscba) ; Gmdd, B. Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 46 (1870) ; Fritsch, Vog, 
Eur, pi. xxxiii. figs. 6, 8 (1870) ; Blanf. Geol. ^ Zool. Abgss, p. 431 
(1870) ; Finsch ^ Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 630 (1870) ; Finsch, Trans, 
Zool. Soc. vii. p. 295 (1870 : Gabana-weldt-Gonfalon) ; Saunders, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 385 (S. Spain) ; Grag, Handel. B. iii. p. 18, no. 10026 
(1871) ; HaHing, Handb. Brit. B. p. 133 (1872) ; Shelley, B. Eggpt, 
p. 227 (1872) ; Antin. 8^ Salvad. Viagg. Bogos, p. 141 (1873 : R. An- 
seba) ; Brooke, Ibis, 1873, p. 338 (Sardinia) ; Severtz. Turkest. Jevotn, 
p. 69 (1873) ; Ussher, Ibis, 1874, p. 73 (Gold Coast) ; Dresser, B. 
Eur. vii. p. 411, pi. 163. fig. 1 (1874) ; Irbg, Om. Str. Gibr. p, 154 
(1876) ; Severtz. J. f. O. 1875, p. 183; Kruijer, t. e. p. 283 (Asia 
Minor) ; Davf. 8f U.-Brown, Ibis, 1875, p. 419 (Transylvania) ; 
Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 328; Blanf. East. Pers. ii. p. 282 (1876); 
id. Str. F. iv. p. 507 (1876 : S.W. of Kotri, Sindh); Hume, Str, F. 
V. p. 329 (1877 : Sindh) ; Dan/. Ibis, 1877, p. 271 (Asia Minor^ 



7. OLARKOLA. 55 

from Inje-9U to Kaiauieh) ; id. Ibis, 1^78, p. .^3 ; Butler, 8tr. F. 
tii. p. \m (1^78); Jiiifffi, B. Cauc. p. 1/W (187») ; Ilume, Str, F. 
»m. p. 1 V2 (187JM ; /Any, <. r pp. 8i 1-:J75 (E. Narra, breedimr) ; 
Hutlrr, Cat. H, Sindeic. p. 57 (1h79) ; GoeM, J. f. 0. 1879, p. 274 
1 1 man); FinfcM, IM$. H'.-»ViAin>», p. 134 (1870: Ala^Kul); 
VvliU. .Str. F. ix. p. 78 (1H8(): 8. Konkan; Ralnagiri); Butler, 
Vat. li. if. Bomb. Pre$. p. 7'2 (18^)) ; ('. Swinh. Ibis, 1882, p. 120 
lAfk'hiiniMtaii); Salrin, Cat. .Vrt>A7. CtM. p. 502 (I^82: Smyrna; 
Kart.>uui); /;. O. C. List Brit. B. p. 155 (1883); Saundert, 
rd. Yarrrll, Brit. B. iii. p. 231 (1883) ; Seehohm, Ibis, 188.3, p. 20 
<r»uc«f»u.«» ; Tristr. Faun. ^ FU^r. Palest, p. 128 (1884) ; Radde^ 
tPm. Cauc. pp.42, 422(1884: brecnlinff ) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard^% 
B. .V .ifr. p. iW>2 (1H84) ; iSeeb. Hist. Brit. B. lii. p. i\\\ pi. 24 
I lH<i> ; Skarpe, Ibis, 1880, p. 4Jn> (Fm>) ; f?i^'- ^^j^ ^^' P- 410 
. I«^«^J) ; Satrad. Etenc. Ucc. Ital. p. 204 (1880); Koenig,J.f. O. 
l-^-*. p. lliO (TuniH); 5rt^/r)Aiii, Gecffr. IHstr. Ckaradr. p, 256 
» l^'^^^ ; SaundtTs, Man. Brit. B. p. 517 (1880) ; f?iV//. Arif. ItaL, 
\*t IU»>^. p. 02:> (1K80) : m/. 2W i^r^or. p. H52 (IMIO) ; Oa/#«, ed. 
I turns' » y'eAts ^ Ktfi;* Ind. B. iii. p. 318 (1800) ; Kttenig, J. f. O. 
IKV. pp. 312, 4ol (Mmlfira) ; Heine 4- Beivhen. Somencl. Mus. 
Hrtn. p. ;i"W <18i>0); Bnufina, Motr. {Om. Cnnttica), p. 80 
iK^iJj; Friratdsku. Ares Hunyarite, p. 124(18J»1); Sharjte, Set. 
lU*. Jnd Vark. .l/w.. Arrs, p. 130 (1801 : Sarikol) ; Kmin,J.f. O. 
ls*l, p. :C4m ( (Mtii^ro to Lake Victoria); Madardsz, Erlaut. Ausst. 
I'mfar. Vrnfrlf. p. 103 ( 18JU ) ; Aibarda, J. /. O. l8l»2, p. 424 
tll«4:An<l); hhouw, S*»t^s Leyd. Mus. xv. p. 224 (I8lrt: N. 
HraUnti; Uifurd, dd. Fig. Br. ^. pt. xxviii. (1804); Shelley, 
Ibis, l>:i4. pp' 20,274 (Nva>a-M.). 

I'laliuo la j:Uniila, Dryland, Om. Fur. ii. p. 107 (18-10). 

\ h"* -m ^•hi'Uiion ntLtT**\il\ilA, Ltthdbeek,JaMretb. Vrr. Xat. JfHrtlemb. 
1 M»N p. 228. 

liUrr..U limbata, Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 538 (1844. ex Riipp. MSS.) ; 
Buf^K fHf*t. i'ebrrM.'n. 113. pi. 12 (1K15) ; Strickl. Ann. ^ May. 
.\at. Hist. (2) ix. p. 34^ ( 18.>2 : Kordofan). 

.id nit male, (lenenil cilour olive-brown witb a sligbt greenish 
t«^ : wing-C4*T«TtM like the Imck, aa well as the long inner second* 
tf f» : b:i*tt:ird-Hing, prim>ir}'-covert(«, and quills greenish-black; 
titf M-^-ittidaric** fxtiTuully olivi*^bn»wn and inclining to atihy whitish 
tf tl.t- emU : upfier t.'iil-cuvertN white; tail greatly forked, the 
fn h« fh M:irki"h, witli u gn*«*n gloas and paler brown tip**, the base 
«s t«-. grailu.-tlly incn*a*ing in extent towards the outer ones, the 
wt t«- 'if ru*.\ing the buKil two-thirds tif the outermost; head like 
U« f*a< k : fraih«'m )N*|tiw the (*ye whitiith ; fore |»art of cheeks and 
ttrvat fwmdy buff, ^urruund<•<l by a whito line, which is followed by 
t :i^(k line runnini; fnim the fn>nt part of the eye, which is 
l:.tf«i«i bv a wliiiish sh:ule : ear-cnvtrts. hinder chc<'k«, sides of 
9«rs. fiirr nM'k.nnd br«aM dark af>hy brown ; lower breast, abdomen, 
t2^h«, and und^ r tail-rovertu white ; axillaried and inner under 
i;-ciY#'rlA rhc^tnut, the formiT with black bases; remainder of 
-(iiTrrt4 blackish, with a littU* [»atrh of white near the lower 
9ri.-«r)-c<«T«'rt4 : '* bill dark bn>wn, red at base ]»ehind th<* nostril ; 
tarn black; iris bmwn ; no eje-ring" (F. J J. II. GuilUn*ani). 
T«&1 Irogth *«'H inches, culuien 0-8, m-ing 7T>, tail 3-M, tarsus 



I 



56 



CUR80RIIDJE. 



AduU femdU, Similar to the male in colour. Total length 
9*2 inohes, culmen 0*7, wing 7*15, tail 4*2, tarsus 1*2. 

Young. Distinguished from the adults by the numerous white 
edgings to the feathers of the upper surface ; all the light margins 
accentuated by a sub-terminal bar of black ; quills and tail-feathers 
similarly fringed and tipped with black ; cheeks and throat creamy 
white, with narrow blackish shaft-lines ; fore neck and lower throat 
ashy grey, edged with white and mottled with sub-terminal bars of 
black ; chest creamy buff ; remainder of under surfiEUse of body 
white. 

Hob. Southern Europe and the countries of the Mediterranean 
eastwards to Turkestan and the Indian Peninsula. Wintering also 
in Africa. 



a,b, (^ ad. sk. 

e. $ ad. sk. 

d. Ad. sk. 
€, Imm. sk* 
/. Ad. sk. 
g. Ad. sk. 
A. Ad. sk. 
«, k. Ad. sk. 
/. Ad. sk. 
m, S ftd* sk. 

n, o. Ad. sk. 
Py q, (S ad. sk. 
r. Ad. sk. 

s, t (S ad. sk. 
Uf Vf w. d* &d. ; 

X, 2 ^^ ^* 
f/,z. S 2 ^- >k. 

a'. Ad. sk. 

b', $ ad. sk. 
c'. Ad.; <f-/, 

Imm. sk. 
ff\ 2 ad.8k. 

h'. Ad. sk. 

t". 2 Ad- sk* 
k\ Ad. sk. 
F. 2 ad.sk. 

m'-/. ($ ad. ; V, 

2 ad. sk. 
u'. $ ad. sk. 



Malaga, S. Spain, April 

(H, Saunders), 
Seville, June 12 {B, Saun- 
ders), 
Tangiers. 
Marocco. 
Marocco, Aug. 
Zana, Algeria, June ( O. S,), 
Algeria. 
Tunis. 
Greece. 
Missolonghi, May 80 (H, 

S), 
Egypt, April ((?.JE:.-S'.). 
Egypti April 19 ( O. E, S.). 
Fayoum, Egjrpt (von Hen- 

glin), 
Pfdestine. 
Cyprus, May 21 {Dr, Ouil- 

lemard). 
Geesarea, Asia Minor, May 3 

(C. G. Banford). 
Mesopotamia {^Commander 

Jones), 
Shiraz, June ^4750 feet). 
Fao, Persian Gulf. 

Sarakhs, May 16 (Mus. 

Petrop,), 
Turkestan, May 2 {Mtu, 

Petrop.), 
Sarikol, May 9 (Dr, Stotiat- 

ka). 
Bibinani, Afghanistan, 

May 18. 
Kandahar, April 23 {Sir 

O, St, John), 
Eastern Narra, Sind, May 

to June (S, Doig). 
Allahabad, May 10 (A. O. 



Tweeddale Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll 
Seebohm Coll. 
L. Eraser, Esq. [C] 
Gould ColL 
Seebohm Coll. 

Shelley ColL 
Seeboom Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Canon Tristram [C.]. 
Lord Lilford [P.]. 

Seebohm Coll. 

India Museum. 

Sir 0. St. John p.], 
W. D. Cummng, 

Esq. [P.]. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Second Yarkaid 

Mission. 
Col. Swiuhoe [t]. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll« 



XHZDr -tu. 



f Ai. 



i-fca 


i: 


..L«l! 


CK ^*'y*» 






All. n •- 




Jt-'IC 


J fHfCiUmriL. 


I.BP- 


• 


«T- 





»-l. 



^ -J J 



.uOC 



Ir C lit- "TTPr- C •'- i£HIVCU. 

t' I TO-. 5L luir'- ivr:?- ^m .; V~ 1 liianrtTr-.i 



r - 






•i^.. X r*^ .:Sir .vaL Jzu. J'ttip i«a. z?*-7?«=i i i«" :"«V 

TTr 4, Z^ if"-- \ jr— -111 M' .VSM. Jo«» JTTiL : ilL ..-i< 






.>'>. 







58 



CUBSOBIIDA. 



Ibis, 1874, p. 888 ; Ayres, Ibis, 1877, p. 347 (Transvaal) ; Bopd. 
B. Cauc. p. 163 (1879) ; Holub ^ Von JP^lz. Beilr. Om. Siidafr. 
p. 241 (1882) ; Badde, Om. Cauc, pp. 44, 422 (1884 : breeding). 
Glareola pallasi, Bnich, MSS, in Mus. Mogunt. ; Schl Bev, Crit, 

5 p. Ixxxi, 94 (1844) ; FHvaldszky, Aves Hung. p. 124 (1891); 
ladardsZf Erldvt, Ausst, Ungar, Vog, p. 104 (1891). 

Adult, Similar to Q. pratineola^ but easily distinguisbed bj its 
black axillaries and under wing-coverts ; the under surface paler 
than in Q, pratincola, the throat having scarcely any ochreous 
colour : *' bill black, with the base and t^e edges of the mandible 
red; feet dusky" (2". Ayres); *'iris dark hazel" (T. E, Buckley). 
Total length 9*5 inches, culmen 0*7, wing 7*6, tail 3*25, tarsus 1*5. 

Hab. S.E. Europe, especially the Volga and lowlands of the 
Caucasus, as far west as the Dobrudscha and even Hungary. Win- 
tering in Africa. 



a. $ ad. sk. 

b, c. Ad. sk. 
a. Ad. st. 

e. 2 ^' ^k. 

/. cJ ad. sk. 

g. Imm. sk. 
h. Ad. St. 
t. Ad. et. 
k. Ad. sk. 
/. Ad. sk. 
m, 2 Ad. sk. 

n, o. Ad. sk. 

p, q, (S ad. sk. 

r. Ad. sk. 
s. Ad. sk. 

t,u, ^2 ^' ^^' 

V, S &<!• Bk. 

w. $ ad. sk. 
X. $ ad. sk. 



Constantinople, July 7 (C 
Pearce). 

River Volga. 

Altai Mountains. 

Maiterek, Turkestan, June 4 
(Dr, O. Finsch). 

Irgb River, May 18 {Mus, 
Petrop,). 

Calabar River, W. Africa. 

South Africa. 

South Africa. 

South Africa. 

South Africa. 

Damara-land ( C, J, Anders- 
son). 

Damara-land (C. J. Anders- 
son). 

Transvaal, Dec. ^ (T. E. 
Buckley). 

Transvaal (T. Ayres). 

Marico, Eastern Transvaal. 

Branslow's Farm, Transvaal, 

Dec. 8 (F. Oates). 
Potchefetroom, Dec. {T. 

Ayres). 
Grahamstown. 
Queenstown, S.E. Africa 

(T. C. Atmore). 



R. B. Sharpe, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Seebonm Coll. 
Mr. Brandt 
Geogr. Soc. Bremen. 

Seebohm Ck)ll. 

Dr. Alex. Smith [C.]. 

General Hardwicke. 

Purchased. 

Earl of Derby [P.]. 

Sir A. Smith [C.J. 

Seebohm ColL 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Shelley ColL 

Seebohm Coll. 

F. A. Barratt, Esq. 

W. K & C. G. Oates, 

Esqrs. [P.]. 
Gumey CJoll. 

Hume Coll. 
Sharpe ColL 



3. Glareola orientalis. 

Perdrix de Mer, Sonn. Voy. Ind. Orient, ii. p. 216 (1782). 

Maldivian Pratincole, ZafA. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 224 (1785). 

Coromandel Pratincole, Lath. t.c. p. 224 (1786). 

Madras Pratincole, Lath. t. c. p. 224 (1785). 

Glareola orientalis, Leachf Trans. Linn. Soc. ziii. p. 132, pi. xiii. 
<J $ (1820 : Java) ; Horsf. t. c. p. 187 (1821) ; Less. TraiU, 
p. 641 (1831); id. Compl Buff., Ois. p. 665 (1838); Gray, 



7. GLABEOLA. 59 

Gen. B, iii. p. 638 (1844) ; id. List OralUs in Brit Mus, p. 62 
(1844: Java); id. Cat. Mamm. etc. Nepal pres. Hodgson^ p. 131 
(1840) ; Gcnddj B. Atutr. vi. pi. 23 (1848) ; Reichenh. Sun. 
Av., GaU. Taf. 292. fiprs. 1627-28 (1848); Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. 
As. Soc. p. 259 (1849: Agra); Reichenb. t. c. Taf. 310. 
tigs. 2504-2505 (1851) ; Kelaart, Faun. ZcyL, Pfodr. Cat. p. 132 
(1862) ; Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 419 (1856) ; Schl. Handl Dterk. i. 
pp. 445, 481, tab. 7. fig. 79 (1867-68) ; Smnh. Ibis, 1861, p. 342 
(Formosa) ; Jerd. B. Ind. iii. p. 631 (1864) ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bos ^ 
Cursores, p. 16 (18i3o : Banka ; Java; Timor) ; Gotdd, Handb. B. 
Austr. ii. p. 245 (1866); Finsch, Neu-GuineOy 5. 181 (1866: 
Ceram; Tern ate ; Plalmah<^ra; Batchian: Amboma; Timor); 
Blythf Ibis, 1867, p. 16-3 (breeding near Calcutta) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 
1870, p. 603 (Luzon), 1871, p. 403 (China) ; Graj/y Band-l. B. iii. 
p. 18, no. 10031 (1871) ; Waldeti ^ Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 106 
(Nejrros) ; Ball, Str. F. i. n. 83 (1873 : Andamans) ; Hume, Str. 
F. ii. p. 284 (1874: Andamans and Nicobars) ; Walden, Ibis, 
1874, p. 146 (Cocos IhI.); Salvad. Ucc. Bom. p. 319 (1874) ; C. 
H. T. Marshall, Str. F. iii. p. 415 (1876: flissar); Wald. Tram. 
Z. S. ix. pp. 228, 251 (1875 : Philippines) ; Hume, Nests 8f Eggs 
Ind. B. p. 668 (1876) ; Blyth 4- Wald. B. Bumi. p. 154 (1875) ; 
Cockbnrn, Sir. F. iv. p. 511 (1876: Allahabad); Sharpe, Ibis, 
1876, p. 61 (Matu ; Sibu) j Tacz. Btdl. Soc. Zool. France, i. p. 247 
(1876); David Sr Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 431 (1877); Sharfte, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 23 (Bintulu ; Marup) ; Tweedd. torn. cit. 1877, 
p. 322 (Lampongs) ; Wardl. Ramsay, t. c. p. 469 (Tonghoo) ; 
Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii. p. 199 (1877); 
Hume ^ Daviaoji, Str. F. vi. p. 454 (1878: Tenasserim) ; Oates, 
Str. F. vii. p. 49 (1878); Davidson ^ Weiiden, t. c. p. 88 (Dec- 
can) ; Hume, t. c. p. 482 (Calcutta) ; Rosenberg, Malay. Arch. 
p. 109 (1878-79: Sumatra), pp. 220, 278 (Celebes), p. 324 
(Ceram), p. 663 (Lakahia) ; Hume, Str. F. viii. pp. 69 (Smgapore), 
112 (1879) ; DoUjy t. c. p. 371 (E. Narra) ; Butl. t. c. p. 387 ; id. 
Cat. B. 8. Bomb. Pres. p. 71 (1880) ; Legge^ B. Ceyl. p. 980 
(1880); Bingham, Str. F. ix. p. 196 (1880: Kaukaryit) ; Nichols. 
Ibis, 1881, p. 156 (Java); Reid, Str. F. x. p. 64 1(1881 : Luck- 
now) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. xviii. p. 322 (1882) ; id. Orn. 
Papuasia, iii. p. 284 (1882) ; Kelham, Ibis, 1882, p. 6 (Perak) ; 
Blasius, J.f. O. 1882, p. 263 (Sarawak); Oates, Handb. B. Brit. 
Burm. ii. p. 261 (1883); Slater, Ibis, 1882, p. 435 (Hankow); 
Vorderm. N. T. Nederl. Ind. xliv. p. 204 (1884) ; Seeb. Ibis, 1884, 
p. 267 (Yangtze Kiang) ; id. Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 268 
(1888) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1888, p. 203 (Palawan) ; Everett, Joum. 
Straits Br. Asiat. Soc. 1889, p. 204 ; Oates, ed. Hume's Nests 8f 
Eggs Ind. B. iii. p. 319 (1890); Whitehead, Ibis, 1890, p. 69 
(Palawan) ; Sharpe, t. c. pp. 143, 284 (Labuan) ; Sieere, List Birds 
and Mamm. Phtlipp. p. 25 (1890: Luzon); Sty an, Ibis, 1891, 
pp. 330, 603 (Lower Yangtze : migrant) ; Sawad. Agg. Orn. 
Papuasia, iii. p. 198 (1891); Stejn. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xiv. 
p. 490 (1S91 : new to Japan); De La Touche, Ibis, 1892, p. 495 
(Foochow: migrant). 

Glareola torquata {nee Briss.), Jerd. Madr. Joum. xii. p. 216 (1840). 

Glaroola thermophila vel longipes, Hodgs. Icon, ined. tn Brit Mus., 
GraUa, pi. 46. fig. 1 (no. 799) ; id. tn Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 86 
(1844). 

Glareola pratinoola (nee Lirni.), Radde, Reia. Sibir. ii. p. d07 (1868 : 
Argun Kiver). 



60 



CUBBOBIIDA. 



Adult male. Similar to O. pratineola^ but having the lores blade, 
the throat more mfouB-boff, and the chest decide^y more rofous ; 
no greyish- white tips to the secondaries, which are narrowly fringed 
with white at the ends ; the tail much less forked and less broadly 
tipped with black : '' bill black, the gape in the adult yermilion, 
brightest in the male, paler and duller in the female ; feet brownish ; 
iris umber-brown '' (A, 0, Hume), Total length 10 inches, culmen 
0-65, wing 7-3, tail 3-15, tarsus 1-2. 

Adult female. Similar to the male. Total length 87 inches, 
culmen 07, wing 6*95, tail 2*8, tarsus 1-15. 

Timng. Differs from the adult in having the entire upper surface 
blackish, mottled with broad edgings of sandy buff to all the feathers, 
especially the quills and tail-feathers ; the head mottled like the 
back ; cheeks and under surface of body isabelline bufiP, the fore 
neck and chest mottled with black, the feathers with a broad sub- 
terminal bar or heart-shaped spot of black. 

The sandy-buff margins to the feathers become bleached to white, 
and in many respects abraded, so that the sub-terminal black 
markings of the young plumage remain as margins to the dorsal 
feathers. The adult plumage is apparently gained by a moult, and 
the new feathers have a slight indication of a sandy-buff fringe on 
the upper parts, while the chest is mottled with ashy, the feathers 
having sandy-coloured margins; the throat is at first irregularly 
spotted or streaked with blackish, and has scarcely any signs of a 
black crescent. 

There is considerable variation with regard to the rufous colour 
of the throat and breast, this being sometimes very rich in tint. I 
imagine that this is a sign of nesting plumage to a great extent ; but 
it may also indicate the age of the bird, the plumage becoming more 
richly coloured as the bird gets older. 

Ilab. N.W. India and Sind, over the northern part of the Indian 
Peninsula, extending to Ceylon and through Burmah and Tenasserim, 
the Malay Archipelago, to Northern Australia. Breeding also in 
Eastern Siberia and migrating through China. 



a, 6. cT $ ad. sk. 
c, d, $ ad. sk. 

«> /j 9' d ad. at 
juv. ; h. 2 imm.; 
t. Pull.sk. 

k-n. (S ad. etjuv. ; 

o~v, 2 *^- ^• 
w, X, Imm. sk. 
y, z. Ad. sk. 
a', ^ imm. sk. 

h'j c'. Ad. sk. 

d\e\ cJ $ ad. sk. 



Eastern Narra, May {S. 

Doig), 
Hissar, Punjab, Oct. 1 {G. 

F. L. Marshall), 
Sultanpur, Gui^gaon, July, 

Sept. ( W. K Chill). 

Delhi, March to June (C. T. 

Bingham). 
Etawah, August. 
Calcutta, Jan. 24. 
Kandelay, N.E. Ceylon, 

August 4. 
Little Cocos, Andamans, 

April 6 (R. G. W. R.). 
Table Island, Cocos, April 

( W. Davison), 



Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Col. W. V. Legge 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 



7. OLAREOLA. 



61 



/'. Ad. sk. 
^. $ ad. sk. 

V, r. d ad. ; k\ r. 

$ ad. sk. 
m', $ ad. sk. 

n'. Ad. sk. 

o'. $ ad. sk. 

/?', y'. c? J ad. sk. 

r', «'. cf 2 ad. sk. 

<'-ir'. Ad. sk. 
y. Ad.sk. 
y'-5". 2 ad. ; c", 

rf". Ad. sk. 
e". (S ad. sk. 

/",/'. dad.sk. 
A",r. c?? ad.sk. 

A", r. d ? ad. sk. 

m", S ad. sk. 

n". $ ad. sk. 
<^'»y- c? ?ad.8k. 
q", 2 ad. sk. 
r". 2 ad. sk. 

o • £xA» Sa. 

*". Ad. sk. 

I*", r". c? 2 ad. sk. 
to", c^ ad. sk. 

x",y",s". cJimm.; 

«*-«'. 2 ad. et 

imm. sk. 
/». Ad. sk. 

y*, A". Ad. et imm. 

sk. 
t*, A:'. Ad. sk. 
P, ($ imm. sk. 

m'. Imm. sk. 
n'. Imm. sk. 
o'. c^ imm. sk. 

p*. Ad. sk. 
9^. Ad. sk. 
H-fi*. Ad. et imm. 
•k. 



Andamans. 

S. Andamans, Nov. SO (B. 

J, Wimberley), 
S. Andamans, March (R. G, 

W. J2.). 
Camorta Island, Nicobars, 

Dec. (R. J. Wimberley), 
Camorta Island, March ( W, 

Davison), 
Nancowry Island, Nicobars, 

Dec. (k.J. Wimberley), 
Kjouk Ph jon, Burma, April 

(/. Armstrong). 
Pegu, March, April (E. 

W. Gates). 
Pegu, March (E. W, O.), 
llangoon (E. W. O.). 
Tonghoo, Oct., April, May 

(R, G. W. R.). 
Kaukaryit, May (C. T. 

Bingham). 
Thatone, Nov. ( W. Davison), 
Momenzeik, Moulmein, 

March ( W. Davison). 
Khobang, Attaran Distr., 

March ( W. Damson). 
Amherst, March ( JF. Davi- 
son). 
Yea, March ( W. Davison). 
Tavoy, March ( W. Davison). 
Siam {Sir R. Schomburgk). 
Bangkok, April 2 {Capt. 

Conrad). 
Penang. 
Malacca, Oct. {Dr. Main" 

Johore, March ( W. Davison). 
Sin^pore, Sept. 24 (ir. 

Davison). 
Singapore Island, Sept. to 

Dec. ( W. Davison). 

Lampong, S.£. Sumatra (E. 

C. Buxton). 
Java. 

Borneo (Rajah Brooke). 
Labuan, Oct. 19. 

S.W. Formosa {R. Smnhoe). 
S.W. Formosa {R. Swinhoe). 
Shanghai, Sept 28 (Capt. 

Ince). 
Australia. 
Queensland. 
Cape York. 



Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Oates Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Gould Coll. 
Dr. Sharpe [P.]. 

Wallace Coll. 
Tweeddale CoU. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume CoU. 

Hume Coll. 



Tweeddale Coll. 

India Museum. 

Qould Coll. 

A. H. Everett, Esq. 

rc.]. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Seebohm ColL 
Mrs. Ince [P.]. 



Linnean Society. 
Lord Leig 
Gould Co) 



Lord Leigh [ P. j. 
)oll 



62 cimsoBnDA. 

V*. Ad. sk. Cape York. Seebohm Coll. 

ttT*, x*. Imm. sk. Cape York (/. T, CockereV). SalTin-Godman Coll. 

y*. Ad. sk. Cape York (/. T. Cockerdl), Tweeddale Coll. 

«', a*'. Skeletons. Java. Puichased. 



8. GALACTOCHRYSEA. 

Galachryaia, Bp, C, R, xliii. p. 419 (1856) G. iSctea. 

Galactochiysea, Heine <$* Beichen, Nomencl, Mus. Hein, 
p. 338 (nom. emend., 1890) G. lactea. 

Baiige, Africa and the Indian Peninsula. 

Ket/ to the Species, 

a, Axillaries chestnut like the breast ; a white mark 

under the eye and another behind it ; legs black. . ocularis, p. 62. 

b. Axillaries slaty ^^y or ashy bro¥m like the sides of 

the body ; feet yellow in skin, red in life. 

a'. Hind neck with a rufous collar Hberugf p. 63. 

b'. Hind neck with a white collar. 

a". No white on outer base of secondaries eminiy p. 64. 

b'\ Outer edge of base of secondaries white .... nuchahSf p. 64. 

c. Axillaries white; feet yellow in skin; hind neck 

with a pale rufous collar ; a black patch on ear- 
coverts ; back ashy grey cinerea, p. 64. 

d, Axillaries black; feet black; back ashy grey; no 

collar on hind neck laeteOf p. 65. 

1. Galactochrysea ocularis. 

Glareola ocularis, Verr. S. Afr. Q. Joum. ii. p. 80 (1833) ; Hartl. 
Faun, Madag. p. 71 (1861) ; Grandid. Bev. et Mag. de ZooL 1867, 
p. 419; Layard, B. S. Afr, p. 21)2 (1867); Schl. ^ Poll Faune 
Madag., Ois. p. 130, pi. 38 (1868) ; Fimch ^ Hartl. TUg. Ostafr, 
p. 635 (1870) ; Gray, Hand-4. B. iii. p. 18, no. 10030 (1871) ; 
Hartl. Vbg, Madag. p. 292 (1877); Milne-Fdwards * Grandid. 
Hist. Nat. Madag., Ois. p. 645, pis. cclvL-cclviii. (1882) ; Seebohm, 
Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 260 (1888) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 304 
(Lamu) ; Sibree, Ibis, 1892, p. 115. 

Glareola geoflroyi, Pucher. Bev. Zool. 1845, p. 51 ; id. Mag. de Zool. 
1845, pi. Ivii. ; Beichenb. Syn. Av., Gall. Taf. 291. fig. 1626 
(1848); Boch <J- B. Newton, Ibis, 1863, p. 169; E. Newton, t.c. 
p. 455. 

Glareola nordmanni {nee Fischer), Kirk, Ibis, 1864, p. 332 (Zambesi). 

Adult male. General colour above brown with a slight olive 
gloss, the wing-coverts and inner secondaries like the back ; outer 
coverts, bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills blackish brown, 
with a narrow whitish fringe at the end of the secondaries and 
greater coverts ; rump rather darker than the rest of the back ; 
upper tail-coverts white, forming a broad white band ; tail-feathers 
Uacky with a good deal of white on the basal half of the feathers, 
increasing in extent towards the outermost, which is white with a 
broad band of black at the end, the middle tail-feathers tipped with 



8. OALACTOCHRTSEA. 63 

ashy brown or whitish ; crown of head dusky blackish brown, 
forming a cap ; the lores and feathers round the eye black ; a spot 
of white below the eye, and a second spot of white behind the 
latter ; ear-coverts, throat, and chest dark ashy brown ; entire 
breast pale chestnut, the flanks inclining to ashy brown ; abdomen, 
lower flanks, thighs, and under tail- coverts white; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries chestnut, the outer coverts dark brown with a 
spot of white at the base of the primary-coverts : " bill black, the 
base vermilion ; claws reddish brown ; iris brown " (E, Newton), 
Total length 9 inches, culmen 0*7, wing 7*5, tail 2*65, tarsus 1. 
Hab, Madagascar, and Eastern Africa from the Zambesi to Lamu. 

a. Ad. St. Madagascar. Purchased. 

b. Ad. St. Madagascar. Mr. Garrard [C.]. 

c. Ad. sk. Zambesi (Sir J. Kirk), Livingstone Expedition. 

d. Ad. sk. Lamu, Sept. 11. F. J. Jackson, Esq. [P.]. 

2. GaJactochrysea liberia.* (Plat« V. fig. 1.) 

Glareola megapoda, Grai/j List OraUee Brit. Mus. p. 62 (R. Quorra : 

descr. null&!) ; id. Hand4. B. iii. p. 18, no. 10029 (1871 ) ; Buttik. 

Notes Leyden Mus. vii. pp. 233, 256 (1885 : descr. princeps), x. 

p. 99 (1888), xi. pp. 127, 136 (1889) ; Seed. Geogr, Distr, Charadr, 

p. 267 (1888). 
Glareola nuchalis {nee Gray), Hartl. Om. W.-Afr. p. 211 (1857) ; 

Beicheti. J.f. O. 1877, p. 11 (Loango). 
Glareola marchei, Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) i. p. 104 (1877). 
Glareola nuchalis liberiae, Schl. Notes Leyden Mus. p. 58 (1881). 

Adult, General colour above dark ashy brown with a slight 
olive gloss. Wing-coverts and inner secondaries like the back ; 
outer coverts, bastard -wing, primary-coverts, and quiUs blackish 
brown, with a little white at the base of the inner web and the 
secondaries. Upper tail-coverts white, forming a band ; tail- 
feathers blackish, white at base, increasing in extent towards the 
outermost, which have only the terminal third black, the centre 
feathers edged with white at the end of the inner web. Crown of 
head darker and more blackish brown than the back, with a collar 
of bright cinnamon on the hind neck and sides of neck ; lores 
blackish, as well as the chin ; below the eyes a streak of white ; 
sides of face, ear-coverts, cheeks, throat, and breast dark ashy grey, 
becoming lighter on the sides of the body and flanks ; abdomen and 
thighs whitish, slightly washed with grey ; vent and under tail- 
coverts white ; under wing-coverts blackish, axillaries greyish : 
" bill coral-red, the point black ; feet coral-red ; iris dark brown " 

* Following the absurd custom of earlier days, that the naming of a specimen 
in a museum was sufficient to set up a specific designation for the whole world 
to recognize. Mr. G. B. Gray called this species Glareola megapoda in 1844, 
but eave no description by which it could be identified. The best description 
is that of Sir. Biittikofer, and it would have been a pleasure to have followed 
his recognition of the species, but for the fact that, m the meantime, the late 
Professor Schlegel had named it G, nuchalis liberim, so that one has no option 
but to adopt the Utter name. 



64 CUR80BUDJI. 

{J, BiiMUeofer), Total length 6*3 inches, colmen 0*55, wing 5-65, 
tail 1-9, tarsus 0-95. 

Towtig. Similar to the adult, hut freckled on the hack, wings, and 
chest with fulvesoent tips to the feathers, which have a hlackish 
suh-terminal har. 

Hob, West Africa, from the Niger to liheria. 

a, Juv. sk. River Niger (Dr, Baikie). Tweeddale Coll. 

6, c. Ad. ; d, Juv. River Niger. Dr. Baikie [C.]. 

sk. 
e. Juv. sk. River Niger. Mrs. Heywood [P.], 

(Type of U, megapoda.) 
f. Ad. sk. Scarcies River, Gold Coast. H. F. Blissett, Esq. 

3. Galactochrynea emini. (Plate Y. fig. 2.) 

Glareola emini, Shelley ^ P. Z. S. 1888, p. 49; Seebohm, Geogr. 
Distr, Charadr. p. 209 (1888). 

Adult male (type of species). Similar to O, liberies, hut larger, 
with no white at the hase of the secondaries, and at once distin- 
guished hy the white collar on the hind neck : '* hill hlack, with 
the hasal half vermilion-red ; feet vermilion ; iris umher-hrown *' 
(Bhnin Pasha). Total length 8 inches, culmen 0*55, wing 6, tail 2*5, 
tarsus 0*7. 

Hab. Equatorial Africa. 

a. S &d. sk. Foda, Equatorial Africa, Emin Pasha [P.]. 

Oct. 18, 1885. (Type of species.) 

4. Oalactoclirysea nuchalifl. 

Glareola nuchalis, Grat/f P. Z. S. 1849, p. 63, pi. iz. ; Heugl, Om. 
N.O,-Afr, ii. pt. 2, p. 984 (1871: Upper Nile; Gondar) ; Oray, 
Hand'l B. in. p. 18, no. 10028 (1871) ; Seeb, Geogr. Distr. 
Charadr. p. 266 (1888). 

Adult (type of species). Similar to G. liherice, hut with a white 
collar round the hind neck, and further distinguished hy the white 
on the outer weh of the hase of the secondaries. Total length 
5*7 inches, culmen 0*5, wing 5*45, tail 1*85, tarsus 0*7. 

Hah. Upper White Nile region. 

a. Ad. Bk, White Nile. F. Galton, Esq. [P.]. 

(Type of species.) 

5. Oalactochrysea cinerea. 

Glareola cinerea, Fraser, P. Z, S. 1848, p. 26 ; Gray, Gen. B. iii. 
p. 638, pi. 144 (1844) ; id. List GralUs Brit. Mus. p. 62 (1844 : 
R. Quorra); HartL Om. W.-Afr. p. 211 (1857); CoMtn, Proc. 
Philad. Acad. 1859, p. 173 (Camma R.) ; Hartl. J.f. O. 1867, 
p. 268; Gray J Hand-l. B. iii. p. 18, no. 10034 (1871); Beichen. 
J.f. 0. 1877, p. 11 (Loango Coast); Bocage, Om. Angola, p. 422 
(1881); Beiehm. J.f. O. 1887, p. 299 (Manyanga) ; aeebohm, 
Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 265 (1888). 



«■. 


i J 


uv 


•k 


9 


Ai 


•k 




d 


Ai 






f 


\! 


»*. 




4 


>»• 


:•: 


•11. 



8. OALACTOCHKTABl. 65 

HnUrhnrtia rineit^a, Bp. C. 11. xliii. p. 410 (\t<m), 
(■Ujw)U ((Uki.-hr\>«-a) I'in.Tea, llurtfrU /. / O. 1H^M», p. 010 
iK. Xic»TK 

A'tth. Similar to (t. larUa^ but paler and more of a i>early grey^ 
Alii ditfrriiif^ in the cinnamon-nitouM coUur ou the hind-neck and 
•;d«'^ •»! net*k, the white eyvbrow, white ch(H.*kB and sides of face, 
«itb A line of Mai.-k rrob^n;; the ear-cuvert8 to the Hides of the 
ttifv at : it haft oImi white axillariint and u veliow ba.He to the bill. 
Z^»\ i<-Q^th •K'i incheA, culnien o*.'*, winjj 5*6, tail 2*1, tarsUH 0*85. 

//■i'/. W't^t Afrioa, from the Nig«T to the Congo. 

« i A 1. -k Ki\«'r .N'i^*T (Z. J-'roArr). lapt. Allen [V.]. 

(Tvjie-* of i»|)tH*ie*. ) 
Ki\«T Nijr»T ( A. Fratrr). K\ ton Coll. 

Kivrr Nij^tT. Dr. liaikitr C.\ 

KivtT Nijrvr {l)r. liaikie). 'I'wiN'ddnh* Coll. 

CKfijwi'' I{iv«T. II. T. AnM'll, Yj»\. 

<tul>i»'iL Puicha<i«*d. 

<i. Galactochxysea lactea. 

«.Urv..U 1 u:t.-a. Trmm. Mtm. tlOm. ii. p. .VW (iS-Jd) ; id. Ji. Col. v. 
pi . S«H . I -Ll'» \ ; /f ivry, Li^ (na/irf lirit. Mw. p. iVJ ( 1 <U ) ; iV/. Om. 
// lii. p :tLi^ < I'-Uj ; /»'/yM, f >//. /A Mhm. A*. S.^-. y. 2o9 (l^4S» : 
< ai.uttai; Jr;'/. //. /#!//.* iii. p. (WiJ (l-Mil); Sthi. Mut. PatfS-Ifaji, 
|'j:«,irv-.. |i 17 il-^Mf ; (nnt/ii, H. A/fin, \ii. pl. t>4 (iNftJ); (f'niif, 
iitn'i'i. li. ill. p. N. MO. |IKI;« (1^71); //wwf. Sir. I\ i. p. 440 

I -7.11; I*/. .%>•/.* .V i^;^s p ."ii^s (l'»7:il; //«//, .Vr F. ii. p. 4l1) 
• l*»r4» . iinrtfuf, y. /..S. 1^74, pi. t*,o. tijf. I (ly^r) ; Jlumr, Mr. F. 
..:. p. 17i» .I**:.!!: JiJt/tA A- » ii///. /*. liunn. p. l.'»4 (l'^7.")); 
Armu/r. Str. F. iv. p.":t.;«» (lM7li); Jintnf^tif, 7/im, lh77, P. 4»a»; 
iiumr .V /iii'-jji.*/!, .Vr. /■'. vi. |i. 4ol (1^7>) ; JJtuitiiu/n ^ ll'mtim, 
.V' /'. \li. p. •*'• ll'*7'*l ; //'//, ( r. p. l»l»r»; (Vi/'pn, t. r. p. it*!*; 
//•,»»#. f .- p *-»-*; /inflrr, (iit. Ii. S. liuinh. /*/>*. p. 7l> (lfv*<)»; 
'MV-. il^itt'f**. Ii. Jinrni. i:. p. .'UU't ! |**<ti ; JIunir, S/r F. xi. p. :i\'J 

!••-- . .V-''- /iFM. tii'Hjr. Jti'fr. Cfuinuir. p. I'ti4 (!'»''.•*); Oafrit, 
*■ 1 //m'v * .\ri>*M 4- /.yy*. iii. p. .'tl'<> ( l**l«M ; litirnen^ Jnurn. liomh. 
.%-• //i»r. v*- in. •]•. -J*).'!, i\. pp. J, s{. L'.J7. \. j p. I, !'7, .'tl'), \i. 
V. l.r* 

<•..»• .A .f ■ :i? il ' .«''• I.rti. h\ Jtni. .}ftti/r. J"Ht n. \ii. p. l'l*> 

*i.ar- i» i.:|»iil*-n-i» xt-l « in-ra-ri-n", U'»'iy^. /*■»'/!. //i#^/. n/ lirit. Mua ^ 

t$ritUir, pi 4«'» HHi »».'»•* I . ii/ r/i firttt/n /<••*/. .l/iw. p. **''m1**I4i. 
••.•T" 1* fc*j!i.'« 'I'll. //■••/'/•. /»"W. /««*7. i« /Vn^ .\hi*., fi'rui'fr, pl. -{i) 

-J.'il . 1./ Ii ^r.jy« /o../, .Vm'. p. >«i il.**lll. 

ii».»'iin-:.iU «• I, //;;. /'. A* \liii. p. il'.» t l.*v>;,. 

• •» • ! <l,r*«#-.i iiii''.i .1. Ilri.it \ linrhrn. ^nmntri. .\tti)t. I/fiii, p. .*CW 

.1 'M'f riii//. <i*fii-rtl ••'•l"tir :ilrtiVf liirlit H-liv irrrv : wiut'-covort-i 
.^a- •;!• 'ti*-*. ihf i^'P.itt-r -i-ri* -* fdj^i'd wilh uhitf; i.utiT win^- 
• ry^.--. Sft»t.irlwin;:, j»riniiir\-ro\irl-, :ind ipiiiN hi I'k. wilh white 
•^«/ ?.*;«• ^«•<' of ir.f- tiwi* r ii«^. inriiMNiii^ touanN the centre of 
•..-,* « *.; t.V" M oriilirM- «hil»', with a black b.u .it thr Hid, the 

1 '*. ii:v. r 



66 



CURSORIIDiB. 



inner ones ashy grey like the back ; upper tail-coverts white ; tail- 
feathers black, white at base, increasino^ in extent towards the outer 
ones, which are white with black tips; the centre tail-feathers 
tipped with white or ashy ; head like the back, with a line of black 
from the gape to the lores ; sides of face, ear-coverts, and sides of 
neck light ashy grey ; the cheeks and entire throat mfescent buff ; 
fore-neck and chest pale pearly grey ; remainder of breast, abdomen, 
and under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
black, with a white spot at the base of the outer primaries : *' bill 
black, gape and basal part of margins red ; feet neutral brown or 
plumbeous brown ; iris dark brown "( W. V, Legge). Total length 
6*5 inches, culmcn 0*5, wing 6*8, tail 2 05, tarsus 0*65. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 
6 inches, culmen 0*55, wing 5*6, tail 1-75, tarsus 0*7. 

Young, Only seems to differ from the adult in having some 
obsolete light margins to the feathers of the upper surface, and in 
having the throat spotted with dusky brown. 

Hab. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 



a. $ ad. sk. 
6, c. Ad. sk. 
df «,/. Ad. sk. 

%-m. Ad. ; n, o. 

Juv. sk. 
Py q, r. Ad. sk. 

8, t Ad. sk. 
u-x. Ad. sk. 
y. Ad. sk. 
s. Ad. sk. 
a\ Ad. sk. 

b\ Ad. sk. 

c\ tP, e'. Ad. sk. 

/',^. Ad. sk. 
A'. 9 ad. sk. 
t*. Ad. sk. 
k^. <S Ad. sk. 

f . cJ ad. sk. 

m', n'. Ad. sk. 

o'. Ad. sk. 
p'-ti'. Ad. sk. 
v\ Ad. sk. 
tp',y,y'. Ad. ek. 
s',a". Ad. sk. 



Kotri, Sind, Feb. 20 (H. E. 

Barnes), 
N.W. frontier of India (W. 

Griffith), 
Murdan, March. 
Gurgaon District, March 12 

(A, 0. H,), 
Etawah, Feb., Oct 

Nepal. 

Behar. 

Dinapur. 

DnrjuiDg Terai. 

Sikhim Terai. 

Bhotan Terai, Jan. (X. Man- 

delli). 
Lower Hills, Bhotan Dooars 

(X. M.), 
N. Khasia Hills (A. W, Chen- 

nell). 
Dacca. 

Calcutta. Dec. 
Calcutta. 
Godaveri Valley, Jan. ( W. T. 

Blanford). 
Bilaspur District, April 5 ( W, 

T. Blanford). 
Damoodah River, Feb. {R, C, 

Beavan), 
Saugror. 

Raipur, Jan., Feb. 
South Canara. 
Khandeish. 
Deccan (Sykea), 



Hume CoU. 

India Museum. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 

Hume Coll. 

Hodgson Coll. 
(Types of O. nipaiensis.) 
Hodgson Coll. 
PinwiU Coll. 
India Museum. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume CoU. 

Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Col. J. Biddulph [C.]. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
India Museum. 



h. OALACTOCHRTSKA. 07 

i \>l. •k. Mndrt^ {J^rdnn). (;oii](l ('oil. 

r . • ml. «k. S.K. (Vvloii, Jiiiio «M. (*ol. Vincent Iit*m^ 

i> I 

'^ V ■-■* : A ', ToDirhix), lIuniiA, Ffb., A])ril, TwwddRlt* Cull. 

r : ««i.»k. May (/^ O'. ir. li.). 

i Ad. !»k. Shwrtv-ir-wiiMi, Jan. 1 (/?. ^r. TwiH'ddale Coll. 

U','li.). 
: 'All. -k. PaLiw. IVpi. April U (Al Oaten Coll. 

ir. o). 

«■ .' ad. "k. Klt*|)liant Point, I W. 1 {J. Ami' Iliini(< Coll. 

« -" :'iiin. ; fi". Thi*in£*'ik. T*'na<«MTim« I>t><*. 12 lliiiie Coll. 
/I .7 . 4 ad. (IV. IhirUtui). 

- , ».! *k. IMiii-at. Nov. i»i; ( ir. /M. Hum*! I 'oil. 

m *r* • »il ; r*- Thaliine, Nov., lK«c. ( li'. /i.). Ilunif C«ill. 

■ »\ •*. 
'.v ^<- l.'l..:.«. KIlHMil IlilN \ .1. ir. Chr»Hvll). Tw.N.I.Ul.' Cll. 



K J 



68 FARKIDX. 



Family III. PARRIDiE. 

Palate schizognathous. 

Dorsal vertebne opisthocoelous. 

Basipteryjijoid processes present. 

No occipital foramiDa. 

Spinal feather-tract forked on back. 

General aspect that of a Rail. Toes enormously long, and armed 
with straight spur- like claws, the hind too very long with a claw 
exceeding it in length. 

Nest a floating mass of grass and weeds. 

Eggs pear-shapt'd, f?lo8sy, uniform olive in Hydrophasis and J/eto- 
pidius ; in the other genera thickly scrawled over with black. 

Key to Hie Genera, 

a. No frontHl shield or lappet ; centre tail- 
feathers greatly elongated, exceeding the 
length of the body : primaries attenuated 
towards the ends, the shafts of the outer 
ones, at all ages and treasons, produced in 
such a manner as to form a kind of elon- 
gated terminal plume in continuation of 
those quills ; a small sharp spur ou the 

carpal joint 1. Htdrophasis, p. G9. 

h. With a frontal shield or lappet ; primaries 
not produced at the ends. 
a . With a frontal shield, rounded or trun- 
cate posteriorly. 
a". Frontal shield large, not leaf-like 
and unattached, but occupying the 
anterior pait of the crown to behind 
the line of the eve ; spur obtuse and 

feebly developed 2. Metopidius, p. 72. 

h''. Frontal shield very small, not extend- 
ing as far as the line of the eye, and 
unattached posteriorly to the skull, 
leaf-hke in character; spur on the 
wing obtuse and scarcely developed 

at all 3. Phyllopkzus, p. 76. 

b'. With a frontal lapnet, leaf-like, with an 

erect central como 4. Hydralector, p. 79. 

c*. With a frontal lappet, leaf-like and 

divided posteriorly. 

<?". Frontal lappet with a single median 

indentation behind ; a small pendent 

lappet at the anjrle of the mouth ; 

spur on wing well developed and 

very sharp 6. Jacana, p. 81. 

iT'. Frontal lapp<»t with a double inden- 
tation behind, with no pendent rictal 
lappet ; spur on wing strongly deve- 
loped, long, and very sharp 6. Asarcia, p. 86. 



1. BTblCuPRAKIII. W 

^. Ft»n*hfMl f*4ith**r«»(i, without any fmntal 
•hi*4d : primmrie^ ordinary, uot pro- 
«lur»^i at ihf end*. Si£»» \ery Muall : 
t.ital leDjrth «J*> inrh*"* \ 7. Ariui.rH. p. Hrt. 

1. H7DR0PHASI8. ^ 

Il%dn>pha.«tanu^ WayUr^ hin, \f<V2^ p. 270 li. itineiuid. 

liatuj*. Indian IVnioHuIa from Cusihmon^ and Sind, aouth to 
<V\ I .n. ci^t through the hiirinr>e ronntrioa to S>uth China, and 
»^-*.irh«ar<l!« to Malicca, Java, and the rhilippine I^land;». 



1 . Hydrophasis chimrg^s. 

I^ ('hirur^it'D d»» Ti-le «!•• L>iV'>n, Stum, V'ty, S. (imn. p. 8i% pi. 45 

177»;» 
Tr.n.M i'hinir^'tiA, .Si».y>. //#•/. yhrr. et Faun. In*uhr. W. p. 0*2 (17^45). 
I. i/ n:iin J.irAnK, iMth. firn, Stfu. iii. i»t. 1, p. -4*> (I7'n>'>). 
< r;.n»--» Jnraua. hith. f.r. p. '2Ai\ n 7. **•"») ; iV/. OV/*. St/tt. Suppi. i, 

P !'■>;. pi. 117 ii:'<7). 

I'a.th 1 i/"ni**n«i«. fwm. S. .V. i. p. 7iV (17'^'*); 17/7//, .V. />fW xvi. 

J. 447 t 1-I7i. 
I'arm •ii,.:i-:«.. <»'/«. / r. p. 7<i{> »17K**»: fV#'i7/. /. r p, -lol (1817l; 

1/ t,.t: ih*. ii. p. liV,. p!. -JtVi (I^lHI :i4) . IjtM. tniitr, p. fwW 

■ l^;l ! : /fivry .V Ihnlir. 111. InH. '/^ntl. ii. pi. .V» (iKWl ; IbultjtL. 

/f..#i !«#•«/. iM //ri/. .I/mj».. UntUtf^ pi. I OS (no. r><>:J»; i*/. i/i (tray 9 

/- <". .Vi#« . p. "^li 1 1"^! 1 » ; S-hl. .!/ii/«. Piiy^-litt*, Kalli. p. 71 (l>HVi : 

L'ii t; ; Ji\rt»; Krthum, Ihi*, I "v*!*, p. l>."i i IVrak J. 
Il*«lr : iLi-ianu- ^iii'ii-;*. M'tv/Ur, hi*, \<V1, p. 1*70; dnvi^ Li*t 

'«,r,i!u I:Ht. Mu* p. 1 14 1 1^44 » ; iV/. frVw. ^. ni. p. .>!» 1 1K4V.) ; vi. 

t'fit. Mumm. et'\ ^»i'd irr*. H'nltfM. p. 142 ( 1*^4 *>): Urirhrnh. Ar. 

•H-/ S*it , FHlir^irur, laf. llJ. tlL'v 1 1:«»-1 1.TJ ( |.*^VJ) ; ^W//. /?. 

,1-./. i:i }1. •*►•* il'*."»*»i, Ii!t/th, Ihin, Hi '•7. p. 170; Strinh. t. r. 

\ >••• i.\;n.\i. .Vol.; '.(I. J. A. .y /»V/#//. \li. p. l'o4 (1H72: 

« .• f. ; //»i»iif ,\ lirnUr*. hihnrr to I'liii. p. 'J^lO » l'*7.'l) ; ///j//A 

•> H I ■'/ //. Jiurm. p. I.'i7 « HT'*: Anikiti)). 
r*-T.» ;. .;• .1 lii/'' A';/)i ». H'tl';*. Ir*,ft. inni. in lirit. Mh*., GniUtf, 

i :"•« I/ 1 «n. 71 in. I// V/i ^v♦l^/^ /-ul. Mi**- p. hj (H44). 

\\\ ;r i'.'. •..I'M* i-Kii iir^ni^. Ji/ufh. f'ltf. It. Mu*. A* S*h\ p. 278 

' 1*4.* . /»'■;/, Mm. 1*m;1. p. i»42 MMdIi): Jmi. Ii. lud. iii. p. 7<.»9 

1^4 . .Sir.fiA 7Aiii, lNt-,.'#. p. .',11 1 1-', ni,i.P«M). l^i'Hi, p. 4(k'» (ThIciw) ; 

/«' ; •; 1. 7//H, l'^>». |i '*\*Xt I NliiftMiilHi) : fi'tftHin-Au>(tn. J. A. S. 

I,rm.y \\\,\ p. L*74 .1*»7<>: Kl.Hfi.u llili^); SiCinh. /*. /. .V. H71, 

|. ii4 II.ii.k-i\% . .\nii»\ • -ifti; fir.ti/, JlfinJ-i. Ii. iii. p. 70 

'•'.;'» 1-71 I. U'Jii'tr. r/.s l.''7"2. p 47.'. .tV\l.i i; //i/wi/-, 

\"'' .y /.'/./• I'll li p. .V.*2 iK.'Ji; ifl Str. I\ i p. 'JV.* tl>*7.t: 

- : 1'. .<■(•/"». r r p .';:»7 i^^Hiiihhiiri ; llfti^^* /,■"»/''. /A*. l'^7.*i. 

; 4i- Kii?Kmw.ir< ; S4tl,.ui. t'rr. li'-rn p. :i4*J lH7 4f. /?«//, 

V / II p ll:: '1-7I. rh'U Na;:in.r). Ihnm, Sir. F. ill. 
l-'i i-7-'i P'."i.. 1./. / r p. ;;-! (K. .\nrru>. lint'rr. Str. F. 

.. ; -«» l-r»' l».--ai: /iiirA /. r p llwJ | U nnfH : (* ^khurn, 
t ."Ki. \\ .i../r'i. //•, /. .V i\. p. I'.'L* • H7."» . Lu/"M ; Hume, 

V / * J l»i'l-77 r:irli.iri. lh\r.iiif(Pu^t.th*.i*hnte,Y.\i<\ 
:-*7 ** ri.jiia : //i<m/- .V hnri». Str. F \\ p. 4«U (1*»7^: 

I *--fi >.■ . />.< <«/• <»i :^ IfWii/rM, .Wr. K ni. p ■*»» I "•7**: IM:- 
«ftxj H'ltl.t.c p 'Z.*)* I K.ijuieha! flilU; I^linnlii^r'/a* ; rn;>/.f 



70 PARRIDJS. 

t. c. p. 304 (Faridpur) ; Leyge, B, Ceulon, p. 914 (1879) ; Hume, 
Str, I\ viii. p. 113 (1879) ; Doiff, t. c. p. 371 (K. Narra) ; Tiraut, 
Bull. Comm. Agric, Cochin Chine, (3) i. p. 169 (1879 : Cochiu 
China) ; Butter, Cat B. Sind etc, p. Ql^ (1879) ; id. Cat. B, !S. 
Bomb. Preji. p. 79 (1880) ; Vidal, Str. F. ix. p. 86 (1880 : S. Kon- 
kan); Forbes, P. Z. S. 1881, pp. 640, 642; Butler, Str. F ix. 
p. 431 (1881) ; Beid, Str. F. x. p. 72 (1881 : Lucknow) : Scully, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 690 (Gilgit River); Davidson, Str. F x. p. 321 
(1882: Khandeish); Gates, Handb. B. Brit. Bunn. ii. p. ikiO 
(1883); Blasius, J. f. O. 1884, p. 210 (Bangkan Lake) ; Afurrai/, 
Vertebr. Faun. Sind, p. 269 (1884); Vorderm. Nat. Tijdschr. 
NederLInd. xliv. Afl. 3, p. 204 (1884) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1884, p. 208 
(Kiukiang) ; C H. T. Marshall, t. c. p. 424 (Chaiuba) ; Swtnh. ^ 
Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 134 (Depalpur); Parker, Ibis, 1886, p. 188 
( Cevlon : breeding) : Cordeatuv, Ibis, 1888, p. 222 (Cashmere) ; 
Elliot, Auk, V. p. 303 (1888); Hume, Str. F. xi. p. 32(J (1888: 
Manipiir) ; Everett, Joum. Straits Branch. Asiai. Soc. 1889, p. 20»*5 
(S.E. Borneo) ; Steere, List B. ^ Mamm. PhUipp. p. 26 (1890 : Min- 
doro) ; Oates, ed. Hume's Neats ^ Eggs Ind. B. lii. p. 368 (1890) : 
Reid, Cat.. B. Lucknow Mus. p. 264 (1890) ; Sharpe, Bep. Sci. 
Besults 2nd Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 136 (1891: Woolar Lake); 
Stgan, Ibis, 1891, pp. 330, 602 (Lower Yangtze). 

Adult mal^ in breeding-plumage. General colour above dark 
chocolate-brown witb a bronzy gloss ; scapulars like the back ; 
entire wing-coverts creamy-white ; primary-coverts white ; bastard- 
wing feathers also tipped with black ; primaries blackish ; the outer 
one entirely so, the next one white at base of inner web, the white 
gradually increasing, until on the inner primaries there is only a 
black tip ; secondaries entirely white except the inner ones, which 
are brown like the back ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail blackish 
brown ; crown of head and face, as well as the entire throat, pure 
white ; occiput and nape black, extending in a line down the sides 
of the neck, separating from the throat the golden patch which 
occupies the whole of the hind-neck ; entire under surface of body 
blackish chocolate ; under wing-covert« and axillaries, as well as the 
quill-lining, whit«. Total length 20'6 inches, culmen 1'15, wing 7*8, 
tail 2*4, centre feathers 12, tarsus 2*1. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in plumage : ** bill bluish ; 
feet pale plumbeous, claws horn-colour ; iris brown " (E. W, Oates). 
Total length 21 inches, culmen 1*15, wing 9*5, tarsus 2. 

Adult male in winter plumage. Different from the summer plumage. 
General colour above bronzy-brown, rather more dusky on the lower 
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; wing-coverts for the most part 
white, but the inner, median, and greater coverts browner and 
crossed with wavy black lines, more or less obsolete on the outer 
coverts ; inner secondaries also slightly varied on the outer web 
with white and black bars ; upper tail-coverts white, freckled and 
barred with brown or black on the inner web, the longer coverts 
brown like the centre tail-feathers ; remainder of the tail-feathers 
white ; crown of head dark brown ; the forehead freckled with 
hoary white edgings to the feathers ; down the hind-neck a band 
of brown feathers tipped with whit/C and flanked with golden yeUow 



1. BTDKOPflAMrt. 



1 



fnyju the hinder part of the eyebrow down the side* of the neck ; 
lt>ro^ white, as aLto the eyelids : from the fi^pe a line of black 
iKiMinf; through the eye and joining a black line which traverHes 
th4^ tide* of the neck and unites in a Hoinewhat broad collar on the 
foTp-neck ; sides of face and entire under surface of body white, 
tiDs«d with creamv-butf on the thn>at : '' bill dark brown, the 
h«^] half of the lower mandible bright yellow ; fit't dull greenish, 
*-! »w» hom-eolour ; iris pale yellow '* ( K, W, OaUs), Tplal length 
ir."* inrhc-ft, culmen 1*2, wing 7*1, tail 3. 

A IhU jfiHttU in winUr pliimatje. Similar to the male, but somewhat 
Urcer. Total length 14 inches, wing 7 1), 

youmj. Generally re<^mbles tht* winter plumage of the adults, 
but IS always distinguitluHl by its rufous head, and in the first 
•tA;*e of plumage by the Handy-rufous margin to the feathers of the 
apf^T •urfaee; the duttky band of the sides of the nock is feebly 
indicate*! and the honu*shoe collar on the fore-neck is marked bv a 
ifw s{iL>ti of dii>ky blackish. The white on the primaries is more 
r»*trii tcni, but the clon(;at4*<! tips are present, 

i/'tf'. The same as that of the genu'^. 





' ad. Ai, 


\Vi»iiUr Ijike, (^ii/*hmere, 
Julv (K Si^Uiczka). 


India Mu<4«'um. 




Ad. ^k. 


DtH'siC Aug. iM {E, A, 
lUtUr). 


HumfColl. 




•• j-n. nk. 


KhnpiH>ndi, Nov. (/>»*. 


Hume Vo\l 




-• t\ ; t, f, *j. 


IMhi nUtrin. June, Julv 


IIunie(\>lI. 




. ad. -k. ■ 


{ir. y.ChiU). 






• hu-m. sk. 


(;uivm->n.Julv tJ(H'. .V. 
TAi//). 


Hume (\>11. 


•. 


A ■• ? a ».tiv. sk. 


MtH*nit.Si«pt. (--1. O. //.). 


llume(\.ll. 


« 


AJ .k. 


Alhihabiui. July. 


lIumtM'oll 


•• 


« Ad . «. /I. 


Ktawah. 


!IumeC.»ll. 




. •!. .; 


Kt.iwah, July IM. 


IIuui.> (\»11. 


* 


• • S.I : f ? 

a* 10 i4. 


< >udh. .May, .\ug. 


Ilumf(\»ll. 


■■■ 


r • »ii. ; IT, r. 
* ; hi-iu. ; y. Juv 


<hidh. 


Pinwill Coll. 




-^•.1 .k 


Ijicknow, May '27. 


('mIoii.I \Vrt\ V 




• si. .k 


Mo^'ui STiii. Jtiii. f< ( ir. 

A', linutk* ). 


IIum.><*oll.' 




\ \.\-n\. *k 


.M*>i:ul S-rui. 


llum.r«.II. 


■ 


^ ' ; ad P.k 


Ik'uur. .Vug. |.'{ {A. An- 


Sf Imiini ('•»l!. 


^ 


, ^ \*\ hirui. ; 
f J<i« tk 


K.-har. 


n<vlg>M.n(%>n. 




J«i .k 


NVpjil, 


II(Mi;:Hi>n (\dl. 


m 


.• \<l Ak 


NVpiiI I// //. IM;mh). 


India MuM*um. 




A'l ht'Mfl. AM. 


l>srj«'*'Ufiir T»nii, \hH\ 
{L MitndrUi). 


Hume (\dl. 


P 


. f \d •■I ht«in. 


Va*X lUii;rsl m/jfth). 


India Museum. 



72 



PARRIDf. 



r'. Hiem. sk. 
s', (S hiem. sk. 

t'f h\ Ad. sk. 
v', tc", (S ad. sk. 
x'. (S juv. sk. 
y'. cJ ad. ; a'. J 

hiem. sk. 
a", S ad. qk. 
i". $ luv. sk. 
c". Ad. sk. 



Cachar. 

Logrtak Lake, Munipur, 
March 16 {A. O. H.). 
Dacca. 

Calcutta, Mav. 
Depalpur, Jan. 7. 
Saugor, July 5. 



Raipur. 
Khandeish. 

Satpura Hills, Northern 
Khandeish, Mav. 
<f' , e". Ad. et juv. ek. Deccan (Sykes). 
f'fP"' Ad. sk. Madras. 

A", t". Ad. etjuv. Ceylon, June, July (S. 

Chapman), 



sk. 
*", /". 6 ? ad. ek. 

m",n". 5 ad. sk. 
o"-flf". 2 ad. hiem.; 

r . (J juv. gk. 
*", t'\ c^ ? hiem. sk. 
m". $ iuv. sk. 
I'". 2 hiem. sk. 

tp". 5 ad. hiem. sk. 
x", 2 ad. sk. 

y". cf ad. sk. 
z". 2 ad. sk. 
a^,b\c\ Ad. sk. 

d*. 5 ad. sk. 

tf*. Bones of trunk. 



Cotta, Northern Province, 
Ceylon, April lO{Hart). 

Lower Pegu, April, Aug. 

Toughoo, Dec. to Feb. (h. 
G. W. R.). 

Thatone, Jan. 9. 

Amherst, Dt'C. 

Malacca, Nov. {Dr. Main- 

Java (Diard). 

Hankow, China (R, Swin- 

hoe). 
Ilankow {R. S.). 
Hankow (R.S.). 
Formosa, April, Aug. 

(R. S.). 
Takow, Formosa, June 

(R. S.). 
Nepal. 



Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Colonel Swinhoe[P.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Tweeddalo Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

India Museum. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Gates Coll. 
Twoeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Sahin-Ciodman Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Hodgson Coll. 



2. METOPIDIUS. 



Type, 



Metopidius, Wayler, Im, 1832, p. 279 M. indicus. 

Ranfje. Indian Peninsula, not extending to Ceylon. From the 
N.W. Provinces throughout India to Travancore, east through the 
Burmese provinces to Siam,reoccurring in Java, Sumatra, and Celebes. 



1. Metopidius indicus. 

Indian Jacana, Lath. Gen. Syn. Suppl. i. p. 257 (1787). 

Parra indica, Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 765 (1790) ; Vieill. N. Diet. xvi. 
p. 447 (1817); Schl. Mus. Pai/s-Bas, Ralli. p. 67 (18(>5: Java; 
Celebes) ; Grat/, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 70, no. 105:38 (1871) ; Salvad. 
Ucc. Bom. p. 343 (1874) : Hume, Str. F. v. p. 46 (1877 : Cachar) ; 
OateJt, t. c. p. 105 (Pegu) ; Hume ^ Davison, Str. F. vi. p. 464 
(1878: Tenasserim); B ill, Sfr. F. y'n. p. 2'2i) (1878: Ganges to 
Godaveri) ; Crippi^, t. c. p. 304 (Faridpur) ; Tiraut, Bull. Comm. 
Aqric. Cochin Chine, (3) i. p. 159 (J879) ; Hume, Str. F. viii.p. 113 
(1879) ; Butler, Cat. B. Sind etc. p. 60 (1879; ; id. Cat. B. S. Bomb. 



2. unopipirs. T*^ 

Vallrv : BhLW. ^ •.•. p. 4:V 1>>1 : Mahnitra o uuin- ■ : Ik: i.t\ ^r, /*. 
X. p. 71* «l^^l: Lucsn w» ; Liovd, -/*■>. IS*^-. pi 470: /V«n.<t.;i, 
.Vr. /: X. p. 415 I l>-<i : Wvcauid : McOt^K- r^ t. r. p. 441 , 1n>7 : 
IVccaa : Hu/n>f, .V.-. F. xC. p. :)2'.» 1SS5: M.ii.ipu. >; H^Ui, Cut, 
LucAntr M>«. p. iV^2 i l>l*:^ •/ 

Pjirra euprvi. I'luV. jyi. .Vtri'V. Sztun*. .ScY*A\ 17^"i^. ii. p. -"^l. 

Le «.ira:i i Jivar.a Vi-M ;\ or^^to. Trtum. (.\:t. \:*f. p. 177<l>'-^7): 
Htrtl. Ccifr. Orn. 1MV\ p. 4. 

P.ir. i c:;i»:a:;i. J'l^iV.". X />.W. x\i. p. 4->^ • 1*^17'. 

Parra *UfA, ( wr. i?r'/nf .-I/ifin. i. p. 4^'"* ^1>17» ; Z*-**. Trut*",^. 7»Jtt.> 
. ISil » : FtirV*, P' /. 6*. ISSl. p. lU-S. 

Pa:rH SLjpeiviii-.^?.-*. HiT*/. Tran*, Li -in. So'\ xiiL p. ItM il>-l»; i«/. 
Z"'L Bfoearch. Jiir<:, pi. lU i1m»4»; H'Mf^*. Ic*oi, iWo'. ii* ^riV. 
J/m^.. GralUe, \\. 110 mo. o7>'»: «V. m Uratis /'»-■/. .ViV. jv NJ 
• 1>44». 

Parm phcenicuni, //"rfy*. /«>»«. /««»'/. i/i />Vi7. Mu.*., irntu<e, pi. Ill 
uo. 072I ; Of, m Orayf Zhh, Mt\'. p. ^0 (1*^4>. 

Met-pidiu-i aMi-^u-i, W'wi^r, hi*, l**3i*, p. :?n>: R^iihrah, A v. S^M, 
Art/.. /WiV'nVp. T.if. ill. Hsr?. llJ4-lli»o i ISc**. 

llyiinilector orI>tatas. Wa-ztW, f, r. p. iJS). 

Pdira arat;u TirAr//, J. A. S. /»Vw;/. ii. p. -V^l* { lSw*»K 

Parra luelaiKvhloris, J"/>iV/, (wal. Oi*, ii. p. ihU \ KU^ 

Parra m»'laii«n-iridis, I'lV///. t. c. p. ItU. 

Meioj»idiii> iudkni<. Gmtf, Li*f (tratUe Urit, Mu.<. p. 1 V\ (1S44> ; itt. 
(''en. /». iii. p. o^i^ »l.>4th : i./. Ctt. MnMim, etc, Xeftai prr*. //iWtfjt. 
p. I4i> (lS4*(i;: AVvM. («/. 7/. .!/»«. .^x. .S,r. p. L»73 (1S40: Tal- 
ciitta); /rAv. Jbis, 1N>1, p. iM:? ii>inlh); Jfn). Ii. Intl. iii. p. 7<>S 
nSUi; /j/vM. //*#x. lS«i7. p. 170; Bntrau, Itu\t, \^l<, p. :ttW> 
iManbhtx^ni) : Ot'^iinn-Atisf. J, A. S, />>«»/. xxvix. p. 1*74 . Iv**70: 
Kha«ia Hil!?) : Bhnf. »ni. cif. x\. p. 1*7«> (1871 : Witnllia V;ill.-v> ; 
Ilitmf, Xc^ff A- /Tv^x 7/1//. /;. p. r/M (l«-7:!^; liaiK ^y/•. 7*.' ii. 
p. 431 (1874: Chota Nnj-piir) ; HttHn\ t.c. p. 48."*; id. Str. F. iii. 
p. K^ (lS7o: Pt-^u); AVyA vS* HVi///. />. 7>«r//i. p. l.'V7 (l*^7o: 
Arakan): But/. .Vr. F. iv. p. h> (187t»: Lantriez): Fairh, t.c. 
p. 2ti3 (l>t^ccan): Arnt^ifnmt/, t. c. p. o4S ^Klt')»hant Point); --l/i- 
*/«-r*//i, 7if<7>. Z(n»/. ('**//. i'«M-wfl/i, -(rf*.". p. liSl ^1878: Bhamo) ; 
Ori/rx, HiiiM. B. Br. Burm. ii. p. :V»< (1.<S;U : 7;///../, Auk, v. 
p. in>9 il.^*^':^); 6W'W. --I//W. .1/mx. frVwor. (iM iv. p. I>1.S (1887: 
Teinzo): id. op. n't. v. p. H*il (Inv^: Kaukarvit): (hites* «/. 
Hume* ye*fs i* 7>r/y* 7/*//. 7/. iii. p. .*<*><> (18SH)). 

nTdn.>pha>iauus sinen«i< (w'- (im.\, Sc/ii'mbun/k\ Ibi.<, 18tU, p. 2lV) 
*(Siam) : Striiih. Ihi*, 18,u;. ]i. inK?. 

Adult male, (ieneral colour above jrlo>sy olive-bronze, with a 
slight shade of oil-green ; wings glo.^sy t)il-green, the tips of the 
feathers somewhat ashy in worn plumage ; bastard-wirg, primarv- 
covert8, and quills blm*-black, the inner secondaries externally oil- 
green, and the innermost ones bronzy like the back ; lower back, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts deep maroon, with a gloss of purple ; 
tail chestnut ; head all round, neck, and entire under))arts black, 
with a greenish gloss, api>earing somewhat purple un<ler certain 
lights ; hinder neck and upper mantle decidedly glossy purple : a 
broad white streak from above the eye to the sides of the nape ; 
lower flanks maroon like the rump ; thighs ding\- brown ; under 
tail-coverts chestnut ; under wing-coverts like the breast : quill- 



74 PARR1DJ5. 

lining glossy blue-black : " basal balf of upper mandible and frontal 
shield livid blue, the portion near the gape pink ; remainder of upper 
and whole lower mandible green ; a rose-coloured spot on either 
side of the base of the upper mandible ; legs, toes, and claws bluish 
slate-colour; iris brown " (E, iV. Gates). Total length 10 inches, 
culmen 1*4, wing 6, tail 1-7, tarsus 2-6, middle toe and claw 3-6. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour, but larger. Total 
length 11*5 inches, culmen 1*45, wing 7, tail 2, tarsus 2*7, middle 
toe and claw 3*9. 

Young. Differs from the adult in colour and in the hairy texture 
of its plumage, the general colour being oily-green, with sandy- 
rufous edgings to the feathers ; wing-coverts like the back ; lower 
back and rump barred with rufous and dusky black ; crown of head 
chestnut, with a dusky-black patch from the nape to the mantle ; 
sides of face white, as also the throat ; breast and abdomen, the 
ear-coverts, lower throat and fore neck cinnamon-buff; some of the 
wing-coverts with hoary whitish edgings. 

This seems to be the first plumage of the young bird, the descrip- 
tion being taken from a specimen still in nestling plumage, in which 
the tail has not yet appeared. The sandy-coloured edgings to the 
feathers of the upper parts appear to wear off gradually ; the black 
on the hind neck becomes more defined and shaded with green, 
inclining to purple on the mantle ; the lower back and rump become 
more definitely purple, the rufous bars being confined to the rump ; 
and the tail is white, varied with zigzag bars of black, the sub- 
terminal one following the margin of the feather all round, some 
few feathers being olive-green externally. The bars on the tail are 
often found broken up, and a chestnut appearance overspreads them, 
as the moult approaches ; this does not take place till the bird is a 
year old, according to Mr. Hume. 

There is no sign of a winter plumage in this species, and, so far 
as I can see, the change from the joung plumage to that of the 
adult is effected by a direct moult, without any change in the 
pattern of the feather whatever. 

Ilab. The same as that of the genus. 

a, b. (^ juv. ; c. J Sankheira, Dec. Hume Coll. 

juv. sk. 
d. 2 inim. sk. Langrez, North Ouzerat, Hume Coll. 

Dec. 28 (K A. Butler). 
^9 /iff- 6 sd. ; h. Gurgaon District, May 4, Hume Coll. 

? ad. sk. (A. O. H.). 

ifk. $ ad. sk. Jhansie, Sept. Iliinie Coll. 

IfTn. (S 2 ^' ®k' Allahabad, Aug. (J.Cock- Hume Coll. 

bittm) . 
tifO. Ad. et juv. sk. Etawah. Hume Coll. 

Pfq. (S 2 ^d. sk. Kheree District, Feb. 14 Seebohm Coll. 

{A, Ayidei'Hon), 
r, S ad. ; 8,1.2 Oudh. Piuwill Coll. 

ad. ; M. S juv. ; 
Vy w. 2 jnv. sk. 
X. 2 ad. ek. Mogul Serai, Jan. 8 (ir. Hume Coll. 

E. Brooks). 



2. METUPIDIUS. 



<•> 



y, z. (^ ad. et imm. ; 

a'. 5 ad. sk. 
b\ c'. Ad. sk. 
d ,t\ Juv. sk. 

f\y\K^r, h\ Jiiv. 

8k. 
t'. Ad. sk. 
k',l\ ^ ad. ctimin. ; 

m\ n\ 5 ad. sk. 
o', ;>', 9'. Ad. ; /, 

Juv. sk. 
»' , Juv. sk. 

t\ (S juv. sk. 

m'. 2 juv. sk. 

r'. Juv. sk. 

tr', y, I/'. (S ad. ; s', 

a". 2 ad.; 6",c". 

Imm. sk. 
r/", <f". Ad. sk. 
f",a". Ad. et juv. 

BlVa 

A",i"' Ad.etjuv.sk. 
k'\ Ad. sk. 

/". Ad. sk. 
m". Ad. sk. 
«''. Ad. sk. 
o\p". Ad. sk. 
9". cJ ad. sk. 

r", »". Juv. sk. 
^", ?/', V". cS ad. et 

juv. ; tv"-z\ 2 

juv. sk. 
a^j 6*. c? ad. sk. 
c*. Ad. sk. 

<r. $ ad. sk. 

6*. d ad. sk. 
/% ff'^ 6 ad. ; A'. 
2 ad. sk. 

r*. cJ ad. ; k\ 2 

juv. sk. 
r, m'. (^ ad. ; w'. 

2 ad. sk. 
o^-8\ (S ad.; <',ti». 

2 ad. et imm. sk. 
r*. 2 ad. sk. 
Mr*. 2 ad. sk. 
^^t y^- 2 ad. sk. 



Bebar. 

Nepal. 
Nepal. 

Nepal (B, 11, Hodyfott). 

Darjilin^. 

Buxa Doars, Jan., Feb. 

(L. Mandelh). 
Bbotiin Doars, Nov. to Jan. 

(L, MamltUt), 
Bhotan Terai, Nov. (i. 

Mandelli). 
Dibrupbur, Dec. 21 (J, 

It. Cripps). 
Noi-tb Kliasia Hills, Feb. 

{A.W. Chenjiell), 
(^achar {J, Inglis). 
Mauipur, Feb! (A. O. U.). 



Dacca. 

Maunbbum, March ( R, 

C. Beacan). 
Haipur. 
Mirzapur, March {R, 

Thompson), 
Saugor. 
Kaniptee. 
Coorg. 
Madras. 
Trevnndrura, Travancore, 

Feb. 7. 
Bhamo,UpperBurma,Feb. 
Tonghoo, Oct. to Feb. (It 

G. W. JR.). 

Tonghoo. 

Rangoon, June 10 (^. W. 

Oates), 
Prome Distr., March 10 

{E, W. O.). 
Pegu, August 14. 
Kaukaryit, Tenasserim, 

June to August (J. 

Darling). 
Beeling, Jan. 29 (W. 

Dari«on). 
Theinzeik, Dec., Jan. 

( W. I). ). 
Thatone, Sept., Dec, Jan. 

( W. B.). 
Khayin,Dec.,Jan.( W.D.). 
Ngabeemab, Mar. 8 ( W.D.). 
Yeaboo, Attaran River, 

Dec, March ( W. D.). 



Ilodgi^on Coll. 

Hodgson Coll. 
llodgsonColl. (Ty])os 

of P. pha'Hicura. ) 
India Museum. 

Tweeddale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Ilume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Dr. R. B. llinde rp.]. 

Tweeddale Coll. ' 

Rev.H.H.Baber[P.]. 

F. Bourdillon, Jvsq. 

Dr. J. Anderson [C.]. 
Tweeddale Coll. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Cull. 

Gates Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



•6 



PARUID-F.. 



£>. cT ftd. ; a\ b\ 2 Assoon, March 3 ( H'. D.), Hume Coll. 

ad. ct imm. sk. 

c%rf*. c? ad. etjuv. Assoon, Feb. (Jr. Ziw- Tweeddale Coll. 

sk. horg). 

e\.f\ 6 2 jiiv. 8k. Amherst, Dec.20 ( W.D.), Hume Coll. 

^*, A*. Ad. et juv. sk. Siam {SirR.Schmnlnirgk). Gould Coll. 

t*. Ad. flk. Cambodia, May. M. Pierre [P.]. 

A*,/». Ad. sk. Java (Or. HorffieM). India Muaeum. 

i^Types of Parra su/>frci/iosa. ) 

wi*. Ad. sk. Java. * Tweeddale Coll. 

w*. 2 ad. sk. Java (Diard). Salvin-Ciodman Coll. 

o*. Ad. sk. Sumatra. Wallace Coll. 

p*, 9*, r*. Bones of Nepal Hodgson Coll. 

trunk. 

ri. PHYLLOPEZUS, gen. nov. 
Jianfff. Nearly the whole of Africa and Madagascar. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Hinder neck black a/ricanvs^ p. 76. 

6. Hinder neck white albinucha, p. 78. 

1 . PhyllopezuB aMcanus. 

African Jacana, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 240, pi. Ixxxvii. (178o). 

Parra africaua, Gm. S. N. i. p. 709 (1788) ; VieilL N. Diet dfHUt. 
Nat. X vi. p. 447 ( 181 7) ; Swaiyvt. Zool. Illusfr. 2nd ser. pi. « ( 1 829) ; 
Lese. Traits, p. 539 (laSl) ; Hu/f. Sysf. Uehers. p. 126 (1845); 
Gray, Gen. B. lii. p. 509 ( 1846 ) ; Reichenh. A v. Syst. Nat., Fulicarice, 
Taf. 111. fig. 1121 (1852) ; Heuyl. iyynt, Uehers. p. 04 (1856 : Tana 
Lake); HartLOm. Ff'.-4/r.p.240(1857: Gaboon; Mozambique); 
Brehm, J. f. O. 1858, p. 470; Caw. Proc. Philad. Acad. 1859. 
p. 174 (Camma River) ; Gtimeif, IhU, 1859, p. 249 (Natal), 1800, 
p. 221 ; Ilartl J.f. O. 1861, p. 271 (St. Thomas; Bissao) ; id. 
Faune Madag. p. 79 (1861 : W. Madagascar) ; Gumey, Ibis, 1802, 
p. 38; Antin. Cat. defer. Ucc. p. 110 (1804: Kozeres) ; Kirk, 
Ihi.% 18<)4, p. ii34 (Zambesi) ; Btanconi, Spec. Zool. Mosamb. xvi. 
p. 327 (1865) ; Mvnt. P. Z. S. 18(^, p. 00 (Benguela) ; Schl, Mw. 
Pays-Bos, Kalli,p. 69 (1865: (told Coast; Elmina; Algoa Bay); id. 
P. Z. S. 1866, p. 425; Lai/ard, B. S. Afr. p. IS^") (Cape Colony) ; 
Grandid. JRev. et Mag. de Zo^A. 1868, i). 4 (N.W. coast of Ma'da- 
gascar) ; Schl. Sc Poll. Faune Madag., Ois. p. 137 (18(J8) : Sharpe, 
Ibis, 1869. p. 388 (Fantee) ; Finsch ^ Ilartf. rdf/. Ostafr, p. 781 
( 1870) ; Gray, Han^-l. B. iii. p. 70. no. 10535 (1871) ; Gurney in 
Anderss. B. Dam. Ijd. p. 328 ( 1872 : Damara to I^ke Ngami) ; 
Garrod, P. Z. S. 1873. pp. 469, 041 ; Heuql. Orn. NO.- Afr. ii. 
pt. 1, p. 1210 (1873: N.K. Africa to 140^ N. Int.): Ussber, Ibis, 
1874, p. 74 ; Beirben. J. f. O. 1874, p. 375 (Wuri River) ; Sheliei/, 
Ibi*. 1H75, p. 6iS (Durban) ; Garrod, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 348 ; Beichen. 
J. f. O. 1^77, p. 12 (Loango); Hart!. Vnt/. Mad(Hf. p. :V>4 (1877); 
Fischer 6c Beichen. ././. O. 1878, p. 248 (Malindi), 1879, ]>. Ji'W 
(Tschara) : Oust. Nouv. Arch. Mus. (2) ii. Buil. p. 115 (1879: 
f.ake Sil^) ; Borage, Orn. Angola, p. 477 (1881) ; Hartl. Abhnndl. 
nnl. T'er. /y/cm. vii. p. 119 (1881 : Lado) ; Milne-Edw. Sc Grand Id. 
y. If. Madag., Ois p. 581 (1882) : Forbes, P. Z. S. ISftl, pp. (MO. 
642 ; Uoluh if- von Pelz. Beitr. Orn. Siidnfr. p. ^SM\ {\>^^'2 : Panta- 



3. riiTU.orr.zr**. 77 

mati'iika) ; ShJ/^y, Ihis, 1*^2, p. 'M'u (K<><irooinoonM>i Pun) ; liohm^ 
J f. n. l**^*J, p.'l^** (Kakomn); Schtii>ur, J. f. O. Jkm;<, p. :U() 
i/an/ibar) ; Shnryr, Jnuni. Linn. .V***., Z'W. xvii. p. 441 (l^^4 : 
Mu^'hni \in^\\, iff. «•'/. hiyantt //. .V -l/r. p. i'A^ { |HS4) ; Fmhrr, 
/rifiu'hr. t/rj: iPm. \. p. it^7 (I^**4: Naiwajiclirt l^iikn) ; Satnifi. 
Attn. .Mm^. Cic. (i'ennr. rJ) \. p. L>jr> (lKH4: Shoi); liohm, ./. /*. O. 
l»v«%'t, |i, :;•* ((iiiiwiit); I'lW/nr, t. r. p. 117 (Kipiiii; liarawa; 
riikMii; Jliirtrrt, J.f. iK ISSH. p. iWC j Ii.iui« K.); --ly^<►^ /fci*. 
In"*?. p. ♦»-* iM.»*liiipau U.) ; Uruhm.J.f. (). Ik^;, |,. 4.S (Victoriii 
N\nti/Ai; Miitmhif, t. c. p. I4'> ( K. of Kajrehi : Liitim; M*butni; 
Liniii*: L'jmnilMi I^k**) ; Jirichrtt. t. c p. 'M^ (MAiivan^A); 
.\A,///y, ///M, l^^vs, p. ;jm (Jipi); RficheH.J.f. O. lSM»* p. 2(58 
(C^iiiliiiiiiiit'). I>i*<). p. Kh^ (C'Hni"nM)iu*». 
V,t tiipiiliii^ iifiifHiiii't, W'tnjlrr, Ui*^ IKJ'J, p. :?79 ; (irat/. Lift (iruUat 
lint. Miii p. Ill il>U: (iiiinhiiO; 0<w/. //«//. .vi-. Philom, (7) 
I p. |i»7 J<7) : .nAi'///'.v. /'. /. 'S'. l-*^!. p. ♦»>! (l*Hnjraiii); /;//iof, 
.IfiA-. \. p. ;J«»1 ^l'<^^*<). ' 

.^.^•//. <i(MiiTal o»l »ur alwve rinnuuioii-rut'ou!! or < ht'stiiat ; lower 
N»ik. rutnp, aii'l upjK»r Liil-i'ovt.Tls manH)n-<'htf»tiiut : wiiij;-covert« 
l.kr thi- la< k, ihr K:i'»tani-wiii|; tVatlicrs blackish, cxUTimliy more 
«.r L'*" cbratiiut ; prima ry-covtTt8 blackish, with rbehtiiiit bai<es ; 
pnmAri*i« black, tbc secondarit'H blackish, uith rufous Inibcs. the 
rufi>u« colour iiicrca>in^ towaniii tbr inuennoAt Heatndaries, which 
ftrr •UMP-Iv chestnut like tho buck: tail maroon-chestnuL with 
ilu*k\ *'U*U : hire-, eyebrow, hin<It»r cn»wn, na|H.s and hind-neck 
>i.ir*. l-rniin:; a narrow batid down the latter ; hides of fuco and^idea 

• •! tit.'fc u.'iit*'. as w«-ll a-» the thriKit, gradually sbadinj; off into the 
^••iiii :i -tr.iw-rolour ot'tbc HJdfs i>f the ntvk and t'on^-neck, the >»ideH 
.•tth«* litter barre<i with black ; remainder of the under MurfuciMif the 
Cr-iv dtt'pm ir«K»n-ebe^tnut ; the under witij^-ooverts like thebn*aM, 
tL«r l'.w«r primary -covfrtsbhnki"!! : (|uill-lininf?bla<'k. uith a steel- 
\'\ .• ;:1 '•"» : ** fr^ital ^bul*!. Mil. aiil feet lK*autituI lea«h'ri blue : bare 

• I' :*^ : \\' \«li"vv : iiii Mimeniiu-* inMrlv white, Honietiines brown ** 
lif I , ... . I'H.il it iiu'th !•» inch»>. culuien with frontal shield J*3, 

•m.- J '■ .*■. tail 1 "*•'». til"']" :.'■•». iii'iiile im* and claw .*<•.">. 

)' ••» /. h:tr r- irotn I l«e alult in btin:' bronzy oil-ijreen alK)ve. 
«!•:* r .t"'.i* C'l-« * to tlie Icithi'r^: lump and up|MT tail-covertM 
•i.-.iT' 'if'N/e. wjiwhel with ni irti.»n ; tail bri»nzy l>rown ; head and 
■.•*k ■ r-tw II. Inc.»u»wi^' a httif bl nker on the latter; facial markings 
»• :ri !'.«- .eiult. b .t tbf loril streak brown inMead of black; under 

• -.rti'^ • ti'tfth wKite ; the ^iiie-* of the bo«lv an<i tlanks a** well aa 
*i.^ u*i ;fr wifi;: ••o\im!«« marHHi-i-he^tnut : su\k-h i>f the fore-nei-k 
•?ri» <""l';«r. \ u? u •• -o ;;iildeii a;* in th»* ad«dt. 

N. ith- \tri'" tn b,r<N m-< ni to be rather larjrer than thoM» from 
W# .1 \Jri«a ii.d .NortJj ca*t Alrira ; the frmale if* jHTtcptibly larjrer 
•M*. •.!*• mile. Tim-i a !• m lie fr'»m Liniu nnsuturen : total b-n^th 
'.» .; :.. V. • 'jlii.' n :i!id itotit.-d hbii'ld 1'* I , winj: .**•»», inl ^^J, tarhua 
2 i. t:i die '•< in-l . I.iv\ .'M.*». 

V !. ^n »lf Ir.im iMiibiii !iii'a«.iireH: total b'n^rh lo-Ti iinheo. rulmen 
»•'* fr t.il.bi. Id «' J. win- ♦*»*•. tail 1' !'.'». lurMis L'**. middle to« 
1*. 1 ' ♦ »« •^-*. 

//'?'• "W* ;:!• !:• I J. 11: oi Afri«a. 



78 , PAERID^. 

a. Ad. St. Gambia. Old Coll. 

6. Juv. sk. Gambia. lie v. D. Morgan [P.]. 

c, d. Ad. sk. Gold Coast. Shelley Coll. 

c,/, y. Ad. sk. Fantee (H. T, Ussher). Shelley Coll. 

h, Juv. sk. Amissah River (H. T. Ussher), Shelley Coll. 

I. cf ad. ; A^ $ Accra, May (J. Umifh), Shelley Coll. 

iuv« sk 

/. Ad.' sk.' River Volta (H. T. Ussher). Shellev Coll. 

m. Ad. sk. Shonga, River Niger. Capt. terry man [IM. 

n. Ad. sk. Gaboon (P. B, BuchaUlu). Tweeddale Coll. 

o. Ad. ; p, Juv. Rio Dande, Angola, Jan. 23 Sharpe Coll. 

sk. (Sola), 

q. Ad. sk. Benguela. Monteiro Coll. 

r. fS ftd» sk. Shoa, July {Sir W. Harris), India Museum. 

8. Ad. St. Fazogloa. Old Coll. 

L Ad. sk. White Nile (Consul Pet her ick). Tweeddale Coll. 

u. Ad. sk. Muschra Req, Niam-niam F. BohndorfF [C.]. 

Country, Dec. 

Vf w. Ad. sk. Muschra Req, Dec. (F. Bohn- H. O. Forbes, Esq. 

dorff). [P.]. 

X, S ad. sk. I^ke Jipi. F. J. Jackson, Etq. 

[P.]. 

y, 2. Ad. sk. Pangani (Sir J. Kirk). Shellev Coll. 

a\ b'. Ad. et Upper Shire River, Nov. (A. H.H. Johnston, Esq., 

inim. sk. Whyte). C.B. [P.]. 

c'. Ad. sk. Lake Shirwa, Dec. 10 (A. H. II. Johnston, Esq., 

^nyte). C.B. [P.]. 

d'. Ad.; e'jf. Tete, Zambesi (6VVt7. AVrA;). Livingstone Ivvi»e I. 

Imm. sk. 

g*yh', Ad.etjuv. Zambesi. Sir J. Kirk [P.]. 

sk. 

r. Ad. sk. Makalaka Country (Dr. Brad- Shelley Coll. 

shaw). 

k'. $ ad. sk. Mashu])an River, Transvaal, Gurney Coll. 

i\j\y Z (T. Ayres). 

l\ m'. Ad. sk. Natal {T. Ayres). Tweeddale Coll. 

n'~q'. Ad. sk. Durban, Natal (Gordye). Shellev ColL 

r'. Ad. sk. Kingwilliamstown. Major ^TrevelyanX.]. 



2. Phyllopezns albinticha. 

Parra albinucha, Is. Geoffr. Rev. et Mag. de ZooL 1832, Aves, pi. 6; 
GuSrin, Iconogr. li^(/ne Afiim., Ois. pi. Ivii. fig. 1 (1844) ; Gray, Gen. 
B. iii. p. 689 (1846)'; Beiehmh. Av. Syst. Nat., Fulican'of, Taf. 111. 
fig. 1123 (1862); HartL Faun. Madag. p. 78 (1801) ; Roch Sr E. 
Newt. Ibisy 1863, p. 172 ; E. Netct. t. c. p. 468 ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Ralli, p. 70 (1866) ; id. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 425 ; Grandid. Rev. et Mar/. 
deZool 1868, p. 4 ; Schl. 8f Poll. Faun. Madag., Ois. p. 136 (1868) ; 




239 (1882). 

Parra atricollis, Swains. An. in Menag. p. 334 (1837). 
Metopidius albinucha. Gray, List GralUe Brit. Mus. p. 114 (1844); 

Cab. in Von den Decken's Reis. iii. p. 60 (18(59) ; Bartlett, P. Z. S. 

1876, p. 68 (Tamatave); Eiliot, Auk, v. p. 300 (1888). 



4. BYDRALKCTOR. 79 

Adult, General colour above cinnamon -rufous, the wings like the 
back ; bastard-wing feathers blackish with rufous centres, the 
primary-coverts entirely rufous ; primaries black, the secondaries 
rufous like the back, the outer ones blackish at. the end of the outer 
web ; rump white, somewhat mixed with rufous where it adjoins 
the back ; upper tail-coverts and tail chestnut, with blackish ti})s to 
the feathers ; head for the most part bare, the hinder crown and 
occiput black ; nape, hind-neck, and sides of neck pure white, the 
latter washed with straw-colour ; a small black patch on the top of 
the mantle; sides of face and ear- coverts, as well as the entire 
throat and fore-neck, black ; chin whitish ; remainder of under 
surface deep cinnamon-rufous or chestnut, with a large patch of 
white on the lower flanks ; under wing-coverts and axillaries like 
the breast, the latter with ashy brown bases : " bill, frontal shield, 
and feet i)early grey ; iris clear brown '' (A, Grandidier), Total 
length 10*5 inches, culmen and frontal shield 2*1, wing 6, tail 1*9, 
tarsus 2*4, middle toe and claw 3*3. 

Young birds, according to MM. Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, 
are paler in colour, have the top of the head and nape black varied 
with white ; the neck white, as well aa the greater part of the face ; 
the back and tail-coverts are rufous, slightly washed with greenish. 
The frontal shield is smaller than in the adult. 

Hah, Madfikgascar. 

a. Ad. St. Madagascar. 

b. Ad. sk. Madagascar. 



M. Gu^rin [P.l. 
M. Guerin "P.J. 
Shellev Coll. 



r. Juv. sk. Madagascar {Bewsher), Shelley Co 

d. Skeleton. Madagflscar. Purchased. 

e. Skeleton. Madagascar. Salvin-Godman Coll. 



4. H7DRALECT0R. 

Type. 
Ilydralector, Warier, Isis, 1832, p. 280 II. galliniiteiw. 

Ittnxfje. Australia and New Guinea ; Celebes ; S.E. Borneo. 

] . Hydralector gallinaceas. 

Parra gallinacea, Temm. PL Col, v. pi. 464 (c. 1831) ; Less, Trait4, 
p. 539 (1881) ; Gray, Gen. B, iii. p. 589 (1846) ; Gould, B, Austr 
vi. pi. 75 (1843); Gray, P. Z. S. 1860, pp. 365,438 (i3anda*)i 
Gould, Ilandb. B. Austr, ii. p. 330 (1865) ; Batnsay, Ibis, 18(«), 
p. 305 (Kockhaiupton ; Clarence River) ; id. Ibis, 1867, p. 417, 
pi. ix. fig. 3 (egg) : id. P. Z, S, 1877, p. 344 (Queensland) ; id, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N S.W. ii. p. 199 (18/8); Masters, t. c, p. 275 
(Port Darwin) ; Ramsay, Tab, List Austr. ^. p. 21 (1888) ; North, 
Nests iSc Eggs Austr. B. p. 327 (1889) ; Co.v iJ(- Hamilton, Proc. 
Linn. Soc, NS. W. (2) iv. p. 421 (1889 : Mudgee district) ; Biittik. 
in Ma.r Weber, Ztwl, Ergeh. Heis. Nederl. Ost-Ind. p. JKW (189;i). 

Ilydralector gallinaceus, fiagler, Isis, 1832, p. 280; Walden, Jr. 
Z. S. viii. p. 92 (1872: Menado; Makassar); Meyer, Ibis, 1879 
p. 141 (Liinbotto) ; Forltes, P. Z, S, 1881, p. 647 ; Blasius, J,f, Q, 

♦ I haTc not found Mr. Omy's authority for this locality. 



80 PAR RID J!. 

18S4, p. 2l() (Lake Bankan, S.K. Bi>rDeo) ; KiUter, L c. p. 22Q 

(egg); Ellioty Auk, v. p. 302 (1888); Everett, Journ, JStrattf 

Bramh Aaiat. Sov. 1880, p. 204. 
Metopidius gallinaceus, Orai/, List Grallce Brit. Mm.j). 114 (1844). 
Ilvdralector cristatus {nee V.), lieivhenb. A v. Si/8t. JN«^., FulicaricB, 

Taf. 112. figs. 1120-29 (1^52) ; 6VinW. P. Z. S. 187.% p. ;U. 
Parra cristata {nee F.), Sehl. Mm. Pays- Bus, Ualli, p. t)8 (I860: 

Gorontalo; Limbotto: Wawoiij; Oray^ Hand-l. B. iii. p. 70, 

no. ia)39 (1871). 
Ilvdralector novaj-hoUaudite, Sulrad. Orn. Papttasia ftc. iii. p. 309 

0881) ; Rainmy, Tab. List Ausfr. B. p. 21, note (1888). 

Adult, General colour above bronzy brown, more dingy on the 
lower back and rump ; upper tail-coverts and tail black, all but the 
centre tail-feathers white at baije ; wiug-covorts like the back ; 
marginal coverts, bastard- wing, primary-covert*, and quills black, 
with a slight bluish gloss ; inner secondaries bronzy brown like the 
back ; forehead behind the lappet to centre of crown, sides of face, 
and sides of neck golden straw-colour ; throat white, inclining to 
golden straw-colour on the foro-neck; an infra-loral streak of black 
from the fore part of the cheeks to the fore part of the eye ; hinder 
crown black, extending in a broad line down the hind-neck and 
overspreading the upper mantle ; cho8t, breast, and sides of body, 
as well as the under wing-coverts and axillaries, sooty bhick ; entire 
abdomen, lower flanks, thighs, and under tail-coverts white ; quills 
glossy black below : " bill greenish grey at the extreme tip, then 
black to near the nostrils ; the basal portion of the upper mandible 
and the helmet aurora-red; base of the lower mandible light 
primroso-yellow ; fore part of tibia red, with a mixture in patches 
of yellow and greenish grey ; iris light sulphur- yellow : eyelash 
light ash-grey ■' {J. Gould). Total length 9 inches, culnien with 
frontal lappet 1*8, wing 5-6, tail 1*0, tarsus 2*4, middle toe and 
claw 3-6. 

Adult female. Resembles the male in colour, but is decidedly 
larger ; a male from Port Essington measures 7 inches in length 
and has the wing 4*7, while a female from the same place measures 
b'o inches in length and has the wing 5*6. 

Young. Differs considerably from the adult. General colour 
olive-brown above, the feathers with sandy-rufous margins ; crown 
of head bright rufous ; under surface of body entirely white. 

Hab. Australia ; Celebes ; S. Borneo. 

fl. Ad.; b. Juv. at Australia. J. Gould, Esq. 

c, d. Ad. St. New South Wales. Australian Mxiseum. 

e,/,ff. Ad. sk. Queensland (./. T. Cockerel I). Salvin-Godnian Coll. 

h. Juv. sk. Queensland. Tweeddale Coll. 

«. >t. (^ 2 ad. sk. Port Essington, Nov. J. R Jukes, E>q. 

rpi 

I *■ • !• 

L 2 ad. sk. N.W. Australia {T. IL Boxcyer Cuj)t. Bowyer Bowor 

Bower). [P.J. 

m. Ad. sk. Menado, Celebes. Twetnldale Coll. 

w, o. (^ ad. : », Makastar. Wallace Coll. 

Qy r. 2 ad. SK. 

8. Ad. sk. Makassar. Tweeddale Crll. 



6. fAOUTA, 81 

2. HTdnleotor nons-piiBMB. 
Pmth gslliMcea (nee T.), IfASttrt. P.Z.8. 1876, p. 80; tAAw, 

Mm. Qeaov. nii. p. 799 (187S). 
Pura cmUtta (nee F.}, Siarpt, Jottm. Lhn. Son., ZooL xii. p. 605 

(1877: Lrioko River). 
Fkm noTie-g:umege, lUaams, Proc- Lin». Soe. N.8. W. iii. p. 29S 

(1878 : Port Moresby), iv. p. 102 (1879) ; Satoad. Ibu, 1879, p. 827. 
Hvdnlector g«lliiuceua (nee T.), Salvad. Om. Pt^wuia ko. iiL 

p. 308 (1882). 

Adtdt. Similar to H.gaUitiaeau, but darker and more olive-greea 
above, without tlie bronzy shade ; the blue-block colour of the 
hind-neck orerapreading not only the mantle bat the upper back as 
well ; the wing-coverts sooty black, nearly as dark as the breaat. 
Total length 7*8 inches, culmen with &ontal lappet 1'7, wing 5, 
tail 1-35, tarsus 21, middle toe and claw 3'1, 

According to Ur. Banuay, the female is one flftli larger than Qie 

Tovng hirdt difier in the same way as in f , goHinaeeut, being 
white underneath with a mfoos head. 

Bab. New Qoinea. 
a, b. Ad. et juv. sk. Port Moresby. A. Ooldie [0.]. 

6. JACAHA, 

Part*, Zwn. **(. Wat i. p. 269 (1766, pt) J.jscana. 

Jacsno, &A(j/er, £Jm). Om. foL aB, pi. vii. figs. 1, 2 (1774 : 

ex Brut.) J.jacana. 

{Of. Stejneger, Ank, ii. p. 838, 1886.) 



to (how form of Itpftk and &aul wattles. 

Jtange. The greater part of Sonth Am^M, north ef Patagonia 
and Ctuli, ext«i>diiig into Panama. 



82 PABBID^. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Back and wing-coTerts rufous ; under surface of 

bodj blackish ; sides of body and under wing- 
coverts rufous, all the inner secondaries being 
rufous like the back jacanoj p. 82. 

b. Back and wing-coverts deep maroon chestnut ; 

inner secondaries with blackish centres, the 
longer ones entirely purpliflh black; under 
surface of body blackisn, dark maroon on the 
sides of the hody, azillaries, and under wing- 
coverts ; the marginal coverts and the lower 
primary-coverts black mdanopygiay p. 84. 

c. Entirely greenish black above and below, includ- 

ing the inner secondaries and under wing- 
coverts nigrOf p. 84. 

1. Jacana jacana. 

The Spur-winged Water-hen of Brazil^ Edtoarde, Gleanings, iii. 
p. 306, pi. 867 fl764). 

Le Chirui^en brun, Briss, Om, v. p. 126, pi. xi. ficr. 1 (1760). 

Parra jacana, Linn. Syst, Nat, i. p. 269 (1766) ; Gm, S. N. i. p. 707 
(1788) ; Lath, Ind. Om, ii. p. 762 (1790) ; VieiU, N, Diet, xvi 
p. 446 (1817) ; Neuwied, Bettr, Naturg, Brae. iv. p. 786 (1833) ; 
Gray, List Grallce Brit, Mus, p. 113 (1844) ; id. Gen. B, iii. 
p. 689 (1846); Hartl, Ind, Azara, p. 24 (1847); Burm, Th. 
Bras, iii. p. 304 (1866) ; JScl. P, Z, S, 1866, p. 282 ; id. P, Z. S. 
1860, p. 290 (Babahoyo) ; Burm. Beis, La-Plata St, ii. p. 606 
(1861 : Tucuman) ; JE, C, Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 96 (Orinoco) ; 
Sal Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 66 (1866 : Cayenne ; Demerara) ; 
Liot. Ois. trinid, p. 486 (1866) ; Scl, ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1866, 
p. 200 (Nauta) ; iid, P, Z, S. 1868, p. 146 (Conchitas), 1869, 
p. 262 (Venezuela) ; Pelz. Om. Bras, pp. 313, 458 (1871) ; Gray, 
JBand4, B. iii. p. 70, no. 10680 (1871) ; Sd. 8f Salv, Nomencl, Av. 
Neotr. p. 142 (1873); Lee, Ibis, 1873, p. 137 (Argentina); ScL 
4- Salv. Ibis, 1873, p. 309 (Upper Amazonia) ; Layard, Ibis, 1873, 
p. 896 (Para) ; Hudson, P, Z, S, 1876, p. 103 (habits) ; Taczan. 
P. Z, S, 1877, p. 329 (Pozo de Lambedero, Peru) ; Bumf, Ibis, 
1877, p. 196 (Buenos Ayres) ; W, A, Forbts, P, Z, S. 1881, 
p. 642, 647 (anatomy); id. Ibis, 1881, p. 369 (Pemambuco) ; 
White, P, Z, S. 1882, p. 627 (Tucuman) ; Berl. Ibis, 1884, p. 440 
(Angostura); Taczan, Om, PSrou, iii. p. 331 (1884); Barrows, 
Auk, i, p. 277 (1884 : Uruguay) ; Salvin, Ibis, 1880, p. 177 (Brit. 
Guiana) ; Macfarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 309 (Guayaquil) ; Sd. ^ 
Hudson, Argent, Om, ii. p. 163 (1889) ; Graham 'Kerr, Ibis, 1891, 
p. 270 (Rio Pilcomayo) ; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 206 (Rio Negro, 
Uruguay). 

Jacana, I)aubent. PI. JSnl, ix. pL 322 ; Bufff. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. 
p. 186 (1781). 

Chesnut Jacana, Lath. Gen. Hist. iii. pt. 1, p. 241 (1785). 

Aguapeazo, Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 257 (1802). 

Aguapeazo bianco de oaxo, Azara, t. c. p. 262 (juv.). 

Parra jassana. Cab. in Schomburgk's Bets. Guian. iii. p. 769 (1848). 

Parra intermedia, Sclnter, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 262 ; Gray, Hand-l. B, 
iii. p. 70, no. 10634(1871). 



5. JAGAITA. 83 

Parra epinosa {nee Z.), Ridgto, Water-B, N. Amer. i. p. 176 (1884). 
Jacana spinosa, Stejn, Auk, ii. p. 338 (1885, ex lArm.). 
Jacana jacana, ^Haty Auk, v. p. 294 (1888) ; Riker 8f CJiapm, Auk, 
viii. p. 163 (1891 : Santarem). 

Adult, General colour above rich chestnut, inclining to maroon 
•on the mantle ; wing-coverts all maroon ; baatard-wing and primary- 
coverts black ; quills sulphur-yellow, with black margins at iJie 
ends, the primaries also margined with black for the greater part of 
the outer web ; inner secondaries like the back ; rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and tail maroon-chestnut, the latter with dusky-brown 
margins to the feathers ; head all round and neck black, with a 
green gloss, extending over the mantle on the upper parts ; entire 
under surface of body greenish black, under wiog-co verts and axil- 
liaries as well as the sides of the body maroon-chestnut : ** bill 
bright orange ; wing-spur wax-yellow ; feet lead-colour, washed 
with olive-green near the feathered part ; lappets on head dark lake- 
red ; iris pale yellow " {Neutuied), Totid length 7*8 inches, culmen 
with frontal shield 1*65, wing 4'9, tail 1*45, tarsus 2'2, middle 
toe and claw 2*9. 

Young, Diflferent from the adult. Above dull bronzy brown, 
with sandy-rufous edgings to many of the feathers ; rump, upper 
tail -coverts, and tail dusky brown ; wing-coverts ashy brown, the 
•greater series edged with sandy rufous, the marginal ones chestnut ; 
bastard-wing and primary-coverts black ; quills paler yellow than 
in the adult, and with broader dusky tips ; inner secondaries like 
the back ; head dusky brown ; neck blackish, slightly overspreading 
the mantle ; a broad eyebrow and sides of face white, with a black 
line skirting the ear-coverts from behind the eye ; entire under 
surface of body white, with a sandy-buff shade on the fore-neck and 
chest; under wing-coverts and sides of body maroon; marginal 
coverts and lower primary-coverts dusky brown edged with white : 
" upper mandible green, the lower one yellow ; legs verditor ; iris 
yellow " {E. L, Layard), 

Hah, South America, from the Argentine Bepublic north to 
Ecuador and British Guiana. 

a. Ad. St. South America. Purchased. 

b. Ad. St. British Guiana. Sir R. Schomburgk 

fc.i. 

c. Ad. sk. British Guiana. Col. Strachan [PJ. 

d. (S ad. sk. Carimang River, British Guiana, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Nov. (H, Whitely), 

e. S &d. sk. Quonga, British Guiana, Oct. (H, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Whitely). 

f. Ad. sk. River Amazon (A, R. Wallace), Salvin-Godman ColL 

g. cJ ad. sk. Para, Nov. (W, Harrison), Vov. H.M.S. 'Ame- 

thyst.* 
A, t. (^ ad. et Para, Dec. (E. X. Layard), Tweeddale Coll. 

juv. sk. 
k. Ad. sk. Maranham {R. Wendebom), Salvin-Godman Coll. 

/. Ad. sk. River Tocantins, Sept {A, R, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Wallace), 

e2 



5. JACAMk. 85 

Ftora nigra. Gm, S^d. Nat. i. p. 706 (1788) ; Lath, Ind, Om. iL 
p. 762 (1790) ; VietU. M Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvL p. 450 (1817) ; 
Orojf, List GraOtB Brit. Mug. p. 112 (1844) ; 8ckL Mug. P^g-Bag^ 
RaUi, p. 66 (1865). 

Parra hypomebena, Gray^ Gen. B. ilL p. 589, pL dix. (1846) ; 8eL 
P. Z. 8. 1856, p. 283 (Bogota, Carthagena, Chiriqui) ; Satjoim^ 
P. Z. 8. 1870, p. 218 (Calobre) ; Wyatt^ Ibis, 1871, pp. 116, 388 ; 
8cl. ^ Salvin, NomencL Av. Neotrop. p. 142 (1873) ; tid. P. Z. 8. 
1879, p. 546 (Antioquia) ; Berlepsek, J.f. O. 18M, p. 320 (Lake 
PatDTia, Bucarramanga) ; id. J.f. 0. 1889, p. 320 (Ucayali &). 

Jacana nigra. ElUot, Auk, y. p. 296 (1888). 

AduU male. General colour above greeniBh black, with more or 
less of a cbocolate-brown tinge on the wings, scapolarB, and inner 
-secondaries ; bastard-wing and primary-covertB black, quills sulphur- 
yellow fringed with blackish at the ends, the outer primaries also 
•edged with blackish; the innermost secondaries like the back; 
head all round and entire under surface of body black with a 
greenish gloss, including the under wing-coverts and axillariea. 
Total length 7*5 inches, culmen and frontal shield 1*65, wing 5, 
tail 1*7, tarsus 1*2, middle toe and daw 2*9. 

Adult female. Similar to the male but larger. Total length 
10 inches, culmen and frontal shield 1*8, wing 5*3, tail 1*9, tarsus 
2*25, middle toe and claw 3. 

The typical spedmens of this spedes from Bogota show little or 
no trace of dther purplish brown or chestnut-colour on the back 
imd wings. This, however, is somewhat visible in an example from 
Antioquia, but is much more evident in the spedmens from Yeraguay 
which are strongly tinged with purplish or reddish brown on the 
upper surface. 

Hab. From Panama to Colombia and Venezuela. 

M. Ad. ; b. Juv. Lion Hill, Panama (J. MeLem^ Salvin-€k)dman ColL 

sk. nan). 

c. Juv. sk. Panama. Tweeddale OolL 

d, e,f. Ad. ; y, Calobre, Veragoa (B. Arcf). Salvin-Godman CdL 
i jav. sk. 

h. $ ad. sk. Antioquia, n.S. Cobmbia ( T. K. Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salmon), 
i. $ ad. sk. Bogota (Crowtker). Salvin-Godman Ck>IL 

k, L Ad. ; m. Bogota. Purchased. 

Juv. sk. 

bladk, but no msntioD is made of the ooloar of the winga, or of the ipiir. If 
a Jaoana at all, it is probablj the Brasilisn species, but the name is too aoubtfbl 
to be quoted as a synonym, and had better be dropped altogether. Bqually 
unoertein is the name of Parra viridis of Gmelin, Wnich may perhaps belong 
really to Lmomis mariiniea. The following is tlie synonymy whieh pertains 
4oit: — 

La Jaeaoa, Briss. Om. v. p. 121 (1760). 
Jaeana vert. Buff. Hist. Hat. vui. p. 189 (1781). 
Green Jaeua, Latk. Gen. 8yn. m. pt. 1, p. 243 (1785). 
Parra viridis, Gm. S^ Nat. i p. 706 (17B8). 



6. A8A8CIA« 87 

Tarn Tidacea, Cory, BtiB. yuH. Om. Club, vi. p. 130 (1881). 
Jacana gymaostoma, Ridgw. Jfon. N. Amer. B, p. 183 (1887 : Lower 

Rio Grande). 
Jacana spinosa {nee X.), JBllioi, Auk, t. p. 297 (1888) ; Cory, B, 

W. Ind, p. 252 (1889) ; id. Cat. B. WeH IndieM, p. 92 (1892) ; 

Eickm, Proc U.S. Nat. Mus. zvi. p. 530 (1893: Nkaiagua). 
Jacana Tiolacea, Cory, Auk, t. p. 51 (1868). 

Adult maU. Dark maroon-chestiint on ihe back and wings; 
the throat and chest greenish black ; remainder of the nnder surface 
dingy maroon, sooty blackish in the centre of the breast, abdomen, 
and thighs ; under wing-corerts deep maroon-chestnut, those 
round the edge of the wing blackish : *' bill, alar spurs, and 
frontal leaf bright yellow; upper base of bill bluish white, the 
space between it and the nasal leaf bright carmine ; feet greyish ; 
iris dark brown " (SumUhroMt MS,, teste Lawrence). Total length 
7*5 inches, culmen and frontal shield 1*8, wing 4*8, tail 1*5, tarsus 
2-1, middle toe and claw 2*8. 

Adult female. Similar to the male but larger. The inner second- 
aries are like the back, but those adjoining the yeUow primaries 
are purplish brown, and most of the rufous secondaries hare purplish- 
brown bases ; the greater coverts also are purplish brown edged with 
rufous, or rufous with brown bases. Total length 8*5 inches, culmen 
with frontal shield 1*9, wing 5*1, tail 1*7, tarsus 2*3, middle toe 
and daw 2*7. 

Mr. Cory says that the bare skin at the base of the lower mandible 
is pale bluish white. As, however, the plate represents this white 
skin at the base of the upper mandible, Mr. (Jory probably intended 
to refer to the latter. The colour of the feet, moreover, differs 
frtHU that observed by Mr. Sumichrast, as Mr. Cory writes "• legs 
and feet dull olive." The S. Domingo bird may yet be found to 
belong to a distinct species. 

Nettling. Covered with down of a remarkable pattern. The 
crown orange tawny ; the nape and hind neck dusky black ; the 
mantle and back orange-tawny, the latter a little the darker, and 
having a line of black on each side of the central tract, this being 
followed by a broad band of ochreous buff down the sides of the 
back, this being again enclosed by a broad black band, which joins 
at the tail ; wings orange-tawny, the manus white ; a narrow 
frontal line, sides of face, and under surface, covered with whit« 
down ; a black line extending from behind the eye and joining the 
black of the hind-neck ; the downy wing with black edgings, and a 
zig-zag line of black on the flanks, and the upper part of the thighs 
also black. 

Bab. From Southern Texas throughout Central America to Costa 
Bica. Cuba ; Porto Bioo ; S. Domingo. 

ii-dL S sd; e,/, Brownsville, Texas, March to Salvin-Godman ColL 

y. Jav. sk. July {F. B. Armuirony). 

k. Ad. sk. Mexico. Purchased. 

i, PoU. sk. Mexico. J. GK>uld, Esq. 

k, L AdL et imm. '^f*f*?tTi Capt. KeDett A: LieuL 

sk. Wood [P.]. 



88 PABBlDJfi. 

HI. (^ ad. ; 11. $ Mazadan, Dec {A. Forrer). Salvin-Godman ColL 

jay. sk. 
o. d ad. ; p. ? Pineaidio, Feb. (A. Fairer). Salyin-Godman OolL 

juv. ak. 
q. 6 ad. ; r. $ Zapodan, Jalisco, Dec. ( W. B, SalTin-Godman Coll. 

juv. ak. lUchardBon). 

s, t. cTad. ; «, v, Tepc, June ( W. B. B.). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

w» Q. ad. ^k t 
X, y. cT ad. et Santiago, Tepc, May (IT. -5. -R.). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

mm. ak. 
c. cf ad. ak. San Bias, Topic, April ( W. B. Salvin-Godman ColL 

R). 
a'. Ad. ak. Acapulco, Guerrero, Nov. {A. Salvin-Godman ColL 

H, Markham), 
V^\ (^ ad. et Altamira, Tamaulipas, March, Salvin-Godman ColL 

imm. A'-in'.$ 'iAhy {W, B. Biehardaon), 

ad. et imm. sk. 
n\ cJ jnv. sL Tampco, June ( W. B. B,). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

o'. S ad. sk. Santa Ana, Jalapa, Nov. (Fer- Salvin-Godman Coll. 

rari-Perez), 
p*. S ad. ; q^f r'. Jomotla, Vera Cruz, June {M. Salvin-Godman ColL 

$ ad. sk. Tn^iUo), 

s'. S ad. sk. Teapa, Vera Cruz, Jan. (D. W. Salvin-Godman ColL 

Smith), 
t. c^ ad. sk. Yucatan {O. F, Oamner), Salvin-Godman Coll. 

«'. Ad. sk. Buctzotz, Yucatan (Q, F, Gaur 

tner). 
v*-d\ Ad. sk. Cozumd Island, Feb. {O, F. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

d'\ Ad. sk. Orange Walk, British Hon- Salvin-Godman Coll. 

duras (F, Blancaneaux), 
e*\ (^ ad. sk. Belize River, British Honduras, Salvin-Godman ColL 

April (jP. Blancaneaux), 
f'\ Ad. ; ^\ $ Huamuchal, Guatemala, Feb. Salvin-Godman ColL 

ad. sk. (O. Salvin), 

A". cT ad. ; t". Lake Peten, April (O. 8,). Salvin-Godman ColL 

Ad. sk. 
A"-n". cT ad. sk. Momotombo, Nicaragua, May Salvin-Godman ColL 

( W, B, Bichardwn). 
o"^ p*\ q'', d $ Escondido River, Nicaragua, Salvin-Godman ColL 

imm. sk. Nov. (C W, Bichmond), 

r". Ad. sk. Honduras. D. Dyson fC.]. 

m'\ $ ad. flk. Costa Rica (J, Canmol). Salvin-Gooman CoU. 

€'. Imm. sk. Haiti, W. I. Baron Maltzan [C.]. 



7. mCROPAEEA*. ,,,_ 

Type. 

Microparra, Cab, J, f, 0, 1877, p. 349 M. capensis. 

Aphalus, Ellioty Auk, v. p. 301 (1888) M. c^>ensis. 

Bange, Confined to Southern and South-eastern Africa. 



* In Key, p. 69, for Aphalus read Miohoparra.. 



7. MIGBOPABBiL 88 

1. Microparra capensiB. 

Psrra capensis, Smith, 111 Zool, S, Afr,, Birds, pi. 82 (1839 : Algoa 
Bay) ; Gray, Oen. B. iii. p. 689 (1846) ; Bdchenb, Grail. Taf. czi 
fig. 1122 (1862) ; Hartl Om. W,-Afr, p. 240 (1867 : Ashantee) ; 
Ayres, Ibis, 18(54, p. 60 (Natal) ; Gumey, t. c. p. 860 ; Layard, B. 
S. Afr. p. 886 (1867) ; Finsch ^ Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 788 note 
(187()) ; Gray, Hand-L B. iii. p. 70, no. 10636 (1871); Gum^ m 
Anderss. B. Dam. Ld. p. 330 (1872 : Lake Redoiis) ; Sharpe m 
Gates's MatabeU Land, App. B, p. 324 (1881) ; Holub <$- wm POx. 
Beitr. Dm. Sudafr. p. 297 (1882 : Pantamat«nka River) ; Sharpe^ 
ed. Layard^s B. S. Afr. p. 649 (1884) ; Tristram, Ibis, 1888, p. 286 
(Shir6 River) ; Shellev, Ibis, 1894. p. 474 (Lake Shirwa, Feb.). 

Microparra capensia, Cab. J.f. 0. 1877, p. 860; Beichen. JB. Raimb. 
Wissensch. Anst. x. p. 8 (1898 : Quilimane). 

Aphalus capensis, EUiot, Auk, v. p. 801 (1888) ; Sharpe^ Ibis, 1891, 
p. 646 (Lake Naiwascha). 

Advlu General oolour above brown, the inner seoondaries like 
the back; wing-coverts brown with hoary-whitish margins ; primary- 
<!overts and bastard-wing blackish with slightly paler tips ; qoillB 
blackish, browner at the ends, the secondaries with broad white 
tips forming a band ; crown of head bright chestnut, followed by a 
broad black patch down the neck, which becomes shaded with 
purple on the mantle, and flanked with a patch of bright chestnut 
on each side of the latter ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
bright chestnut, the plumes of the lower back long and parti-ooloured, 
being either edged or tipped with purplish brown ; tail-feathers 
bright chestnut, with obsolete sub-terminal spots of blackish ; lores 
.and base of forehead golden yellow ; a distinct eyebrow, sides of 
face and throat white, washed with golden yellow on the sides of the 
neck and sides of the upper breast ; the remainder of under surface 
white ; axiUaries and sides of body bright chestnut ; under wing^ 
^soverts black : *' bill and claws yellowish brown ; feet livid greenidi 
yellow" {A. Smith): ^'bill bright brown; tarsi and feet light 
greenish brown; iris light hazel" (T. Ay res). Total length 6 
inches, oulmen 0*8, wing 3*4, tail 1*2, tarsus 1*35, middle toe and 
•daw 2*1. 

Ilab. South Africa, north to the Lake Regions and the Zambesi, 
■extending to the Shir^ River and Lake Naiwascha in Central East 
Africa. 

M, b. Ad. et Ejngwilliamstown. Major Trevelyan[0.]. 

imm. sk. 
4. Ad. st NataL J. H. Gumey, Esq. 

[P.]. 
42, J ad. sk. Natal. Tweeddale ColL 

^,/. Ad. sk. Makalaka Country (Dr. ^rodls^tr). Shelley Coll. 
£. Ad. sk. Fantamatenka River (F. Gates). W. C. & C. G. Gates, 

E8ar8.[PJ. 
JL Ad. sk. Zambesi {Dr. Mdler). Tweeadale ColL 

iL cf ad. sk. Lake Shirwa, Nyasaland, Feb. Sir H. IL Johnston^ 

{A. Whyte). [P.], 



90 CHABAJ>BIlDiB. 



Family IV. CHARADRIIDiE. 

Palate schizognathous. 

Nostrils schizorhinal. 

Basipterygoid processes present. 

Dorsid vertebraB opisthocoelous. 

Spinal feather-tract forked on the upper back. 

Toes webbed or onwebbed. 

Hind toe present in some, absent in others. 

Tarsus usually reticulated^ but sometimes scutellated. 

Nest a slight structure of grass, or none at all. 

Eggs generally four in number, pear-shaped : of yarious colours ^ 
usually of a clay-brown ground-colour, with numerous blotches,, 
spots, and lines of black. 

Nestling covered with thick down of various patterns and colours,, 
and able to run in a few hours. 

Key to the Subfamilies. 

a. Toes not laterally scalloped ; no serrated 
edge to the planta tarsi. 
a\ Nasal groove not extended beyond half 
the length of the culmen ; tarsus reti- 
culated on the hinder aspect. 
tf. No dertrum or markect swelling of 
the bill at the tips of the maDdioles 
a"'. Tarsus transversely scaled in 
front, reticulated on its hinder 
aspect ; toes without any con- 
necting-web 1. ARENARIINJEji^.^l^ 

If". Tarsus reticulated .on both front 
and hinder aspect; the angle 
of the genys situated far back 
near the base of the bill, its 
distance from the tip of the 
lower mandible being twice as 
great as the distance from the 
angle to the base of the man- [p. 105.. 

dible 2. HjEMATOPODINjE, 

V\ Bill with the dertrum always more 
or less conspicuous, 
c'". Tarsus transversely scaled in [p. 122. 

front, but reticulated behind. . 3. LOBIVANELLINAE, 
et". Tarsus reticulated, or with hexa- 
gonal 8cales both in front and [p. 145. 

behind 4. CHARADRIINJE, 

e"'. Tarsus transversely scaled both [p. 307. 

in front and behind 6. PELTOHYA TINjE, 

c". With no dertrum at all ; the bill 
straight or curved upwards; feet 

extremely long when outstretched, [p. 309. 

far exceeding the tail 6. HIMANTOPOnlN^, 



1. ArnxsriEiA. 91 

h', NftMl groore cxtendinfr alonir the 
irrMt«r part of the uuper mandible. 
d^'. Tanus ivticiiUted in fmat and 

behind 7, iniDORHyyCHINjE, 

#". Tamua with trani^Teiw pUtea both [p. 38K. 

before and behind. 
f". With a web connecting both toet 

with the inner one 8. T0TAyiyA^,^.Sa7. 

$'\ Tiiea not webbed at all, but cleft 

to the bane 0. SCOLOPACIN^, 

h. Toea with m acalluped web, and with a [p. 6201 

■crrmtion along tne pUnta tani (aa in 

Oiehra) 10. PHALAMOPINjE, 

[p. 083. 

Subfamily I. ARENARIINiE. 

1. AREHABIA.* rjyp^ 

Aienaria, Briu. Om. ▼. p. 132 (1700) A. interpret. 

M.^rinrUa, Mtftr j- Wolf, TtucAenb. Vby. 2)euUchL'± 

p. 3KJ ( 1810) A. intarprea. 

StietMnlan, lUigfr, Pri»dr, p. 26:1 (1811) A. intarprea. 

CiacW, Gra^, List Oen. B, 1841, p. 85 {ex MoMHuj^) . . A. intaipres. 

Hantje, CoHmopolitan. 

.' . . . 
it 





Ti4 11.- FrjaI upict uf Urmit of Fig. 12. — Side view of taniu of il. 
J»#— >K tmtfrfm, U» ■liow pattrni intfryrra, to tluiw reticulatioii 

t4 acaluif . tt( ptanta tarsi. 



Jmkmm fMgfa, often eoniidrrMi to be • Tunutoiie. in a Plofer, </l 
It. Joara. Morph. ii. pp. 31 1 -Ml. pi. iir.. et iVrd. p. 2 




1. ABBlfARIA. 93* 

Cayman) ; Towns. Auk, iv. p. 12 (1887 : Eowak R., N. Alaska) ; 
Dmght, t. c, p. 16 (Cape Breton) ; Nelson, Nat. Hist, Alaska^ 
p. 128 (1887 : S. Mathew*8 Isl. ; S. Lawrence Isl ; breeding) ; 
JUdffW, Man. N. Amer. B. p. 180 (1887) ; Warren, B. Pennsylv. 
p. 237 (1888 : Lake Erie on passage) ; Smith 8f Palmer, Auk, v. 
p. 147 (1888: R. Columbia) ; Sennett, t. e. p. 110 (Texas ; July) ; 
Stejn. Proc. U.S. Nat Mus. xii. p. 381 (1889 : Kauai) ; Corvr 
Auk, vi. p. 31 (1889: Cayman Brae) ; Duteher, t. c. p. 129 (Little 
Gull Isl., N.Y.); ScoU, t. c. p. 159 (Gulf Coast of Florida; S. 
John's Pass, June) ; Cantwell, t. c. p. 240 (Minnesota) ; Reichen, 
Syst. Verz. Vbg. DeutscM. p. 62 (1889) ; Cory, B. W. Ind. p. 231 
(1889); Scott, Auk, vii. p. 309 (1890: Dry Tortugas) ; Bagle 
Clarke, t c. p. 221 (Ft. Churchill, Hudson's Bay) ; Allen, Auk, 
▼iii. p. 164 (1891: Nova Scotia, summer migrant); Ridgw. t. c. 
p. 337 (Watling Isl., Bahamas, March) ; Cory, t c. pp. 361, 362 
(Magna Isl.; Anguilla Isl.); Scott, Atik, ix. p. 16 (Jamaica); 
Cory, t. e. p. 48 (Maraguana) ; Scott, t. c. p. 212 (Florida) ; 
MeuJcay, t. e. p. 306 (Nantucket) ; Rhoads, Auk, x. p. 17 (Wash- 
ington Terr.). 

Charadrius cinclus, Pall Zoogr. Rosso'Asiat. ii. p. 148 (1826 : Siberia ; 
Kamtschatka). 

Tringa oahuensis, Bloxham in ByrorCs Voy. ' Blonde,* p. 261 (1826). 

Strepeilas borealis, Brehm, Voy. Deutschl. p. 569 (1831). 

Strepsilas littoralis, Brehm, t. c. p. 560 (1831). 

Cincius morinellus. Gray, List Gen. B. p. 86 (1841). 

Cinclus interpres, Gray, List Gen. B. p. 86 (1841) ; Riipp. Syst. 
Uebers. p. 118 (1846); Gray, Gen. B. ui. p. 549 (1846); id. Cat. 
B. Trop. Isl Pacific Ocean, d. 48 (1869) ; id. P. Z. S. I860,, 
p. 363 (E. Gilolo) ; id. List Brit. B. p. 143 (1863) ; Layard, B. 
S. Afr. p. 301 (1867) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 22, no. 10068 
(1871) ; Gumey in Anderss. B. Dam. Ld. p. 276 (1872 ; Walvisch 
Bay) ; Heugl. Om. N.O.-Afr. iii. p. 103/, iv. p. clxxxiii (1873 : 
Egyptian Sea-coast ; Red Sea ; P breeding) ; Hume, Str. F. i. 
p. 233 (1873 : Karachi ; Mekran Coast) ; id. op. cit. ii p. 292 
(1874: Andamans; Nicobars). 

Strepsilas minor, Brehm, Voyelf. p. 286 (1866). 

Strepsilas collaris vulgaris, etc., etc. (I), A. E. Brehm^ Verz, C. L. 
Brehm, p. 12 (1863 ; teste Dresser). 

Charadrius interpres, Seeb. Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 12, pi. 24. figs. 1, 3 
(18851 

Morinella interpres, Stejn. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. v. p. 34 (1881). 

Arenaria cinerea, Olphe^Galliard, Contr. Faun. Om. Eur. Occid. 
fasc. xii. p. 47 (1889). 

Strepsilas interpres, lUiger, Prodr. p. 263 (1811); Leach, Syst. Cat. 
Mamm. ^ ^. p. 29 (1816) ; Audub. B. Amer. pi. ccciv. ; Swains. 
4- Rich. Faun. Bor.-Amer., Birds, p. 371 (1831 : Hudson's Bay to 
76® N. lat. ; breeds) ; Jard. ed. Wilson's Amer. Om. ii. p. 324, 
pL 67. fig. 1 (1832) ; Naum. Voy. Deutschl. vii. Taf. 180 (1834) ; 
Audub. Om. Biogr. iv. p. 31 (1838) ; Keys. Sf Bias. Wirb. Eur. 
pp. ixxi, 209 (1840) ; Gould in Darwin, Voy. « Beagle; ii. p. 132 
(1841) ; Audidf. B. Amer. v. p. 231, pi. 323 (1842) ; Selys-Longch. 
Faune Beige, p. 122 (1842) ; Eraser, P. Z. S. 1843, p. 118 (ChSi) ; 
WM ^ Berth. Om. Canar. p. 34 (1841) ; Hetcits. Eggs Br. B. ii. 
p. 263, pi. Ixxi. (1846) ; Gosse, B. Jamaica, p. 333 (1847) ; Cab. 
in Schomb. Reis. Guian. iii. p. 761 (1848); Peale, US Expl.Erp., 
Bird$,j^. 822 (1848) : Gould, B. Austral, vii. pi. 30 (1848) ; Reiehenb. 
Vog. NeuhoU. p. 206 (1849) ; Thomps. B. Irel. u. p. 177 (1860) ; 



1. ABElfAKIA. 07 

p. 492 (Barbados, Auf?., Sept.) ; PlettJu^ Mfm. ArxttL hnp, Sf. 
rifersb. (7) ixxvi. p. (A) (18^ : THfthinan, HtruU) ; JCu^mfi, Joum. 
Straits Branch Asiat. Soc. \hH^), p. 2()o j i//. h /. M, lH>-tl, p. 2-^'* 
(Palawan) ; Milne-Edwardt ^ (Just. N, Arch. Mm. (*2) x. p. 'J^M 
(1889: Anjouan Isl.) ; Saundi^fi, Man. p. r>n (I88J>) ; Oujt.Artf, 
Ital. pt. 1, p. 579 (1880), pt. 2, p. mi (I«X)), pt. », p, 517 
(1891); Brwina, Motr. (Om. Crf»afica)^ y. HA (XHW)):, Srj^>. li. 
Japan. Emp. p. iSl (1890: Kuril^, proV^iMy hr«:<j'iiiijr; H, JafiAN^ 
winter) ; Whtteheadj IhU, WM), p. o9 ( Palawan, H«rpt.) ; SharjH-^ t. f.. 
pp. 14^3, 284 (La was River, April, May); drani, i. c. p, iVZ 
( Madeira; ; EagU Clarke, Z/tfA. J ^M)^ p. J :^ (Jan May#jr» ) ; Htft-rCf 
lAd B. ^ Mamm, Philipp. p. 20 (\hi¥): \\\iv\a,iiSi/), }i*'irrh%} ; Komifj, 
J f. O. 1891, p. 3Ki (Canaries) ; Jiu/:klffij if Unrxu-. lin^um, Faun. 
Orkney Itl. p. :>04 ( 181^ : hrnhdm^f ; .VA/ir/A?, /4m. 1 89 J , p. 1 1 .'W Fa/i, 
June); Saund4tr3i, i.e. p. 187 (Switz^riand) ; Sit]fan, t t-.. p, ♦^'j'l 
(Lower Yan^zej, p. //Jl f.Shan^rh'ii, Mav^; trirnUUhj^ Ac. Ilvjuj, 
p. 125^1891;; Hharpt,!^fi.IU9.'lruiYark.MuH.^.V»1*){\Ki\'. Nub/A 
Valler, ^>rt.> : MacfarlaM, I*rf^.. f.'.S. Sat. Mwi. xiv, p, 4*'/)(\''M\ ) ; 
Salmd. Agg. Om. Pof/wuiia, pt. iii. p. 1I>^. fl'^'fl): Scfuil/ztf:, J.f. O, 
1^1, p. li-y*: WigU^v:. AhhawU. Mwt. J}rt:Ad. \^,. % p. <V5 N89l^ ; 
6^r». /?rM. 18irJ, p. ll.> rMadA/tM/A.";; lOrfuUill, t. t:. y. 'Z'/** 
(Gambia I : Zm X/j T'^wM, t. r. p. i'/7 ' fVxrh^/w ; Hw»V/w, ••>pt,; ; 
Sc<At' li'iU^m ir E^om, AttM JImr^xv^ru^j(, pt. iii. fV'^^If : ISariMM, 
Pas. IWi, p. 170 ^Vdftr.; : Mtad^lVMo, f. ^. p. 'J>i ((:*!JLr>^j ; 
Hart^!Tt. t. c.y. ''fft LKt^a, : St»jan,t.c, p. %'*A ^Miuttsu.f -. Munn^ 

I Norway: tr^^idiiz;. 

AdMklt maU \A \r"jJ\v^j^£^Mrnqt, Ge-r^Tii ':%l'^*r %V/T<r hlv;3f, 
mixed wi:L cr.e-t^-: cr i^r.lT ci<i«:::v feiiLAT* ^r. *.:.*: *Mu\t*z *A 

psrt wiiwfe : Tr.^r ^kIl''.r.•*r:■* olv.k- t!v: >/r.r*r ';f,»:t ;-;■-.'«? 
€iiz<^ -rri wi>Jt. iift tl*«-. 'J^v^ L.*3tr tiv: «<jr* ^^ VVr v.;-.;f ; 

till wfLT-i -.>L«SI V- -ii* 'i^ZjKT : -..V..L---*.^, r.V, «i^l(AOCV/">A i',^ 

•ait 3L-JK }iir: "rijTr:. '.Lbik-fi v,Ti-r'-t *.-..* v.-^'^* '.-f *m-^ itJkt».i,»rn, 
^i£K liiiktk ZLsy^r-iff iie!r»arfviT rri(C:.vJ.; v.-Tftz-u v-* ;:i.'.«^ 

iLmc -wxi -Fxr^ :««»»*, iZ :i-j: •!•* !iki'«:* •^w-<»3U'.'.t»n t "»>•.< rrsi 
■at xnz^i? j^arijsr*- ▼iiiin ir* vjdsjusi 'wijyt •r-«ri -/ tiwii wui 

\w a uuxit id ▼nr.A- ▼'iu'jl i-ir>A irz'JL t ir-jbt »7»*'.«r.tF tsut it 



^8 n TTA-RA-nitTTn ^, 

from the white loral patch by a narrow line of black, which nnites 
the frontal band to a square black patch beneath the eye, which is 
also joined to a malar line of black, which is connected with the 
sides of the neck and with the fore-neck and sides of breast, all 
these parts being black, but nearly divided by a semi-lunar band of 
white, which reaches from the sides of the neck almost to the breast ; 
throat white, as also the rest of the under surface of body from the 
centre of the chest downwards ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
also pure white ; quills below ashy whitish along the inner web : 
** bill black ; feet deep orange-red, claws black ; iris hazel " (J". J. 
Auduhon), Total length 8 inches, culmen 0*9, wing 6-2, tail 2*3, 
tarsus 0*95, middle toe and daw 1*1. 

Adidt female in breeding-plumage. Much duller than the male, 
and having the same pattern of black and white about the face, but 
never developing the same amount of chestnut about the back, the 
head and hind neck being brown, mottled with blackish centres to 
the feathers. Total length 8*5 inches, culmen 0*9, wing 6*3, 
tail 2*45, tarsus 0*95, middle toe and claw 1. 

Young. General colour above dusky brown, all the feathers 
edged with sandy buff or rufous ; wings and tail as in the adult ; 
crown of head dark brown, streaked with sandy buff, the margins 
of the feathers being of this colour ; tail-feathers white, with a 
broad sub-terminal band of black, decreasing in extent towards the 
outermost feathers, all the feathers tipped with sandy buff ; throat 
and under surface of body white ; the lower throat, fore-neck, sides 
of neck, and sides of breast mottled with dusky blackish centres to 
the featherSy marking the black pattern of the adults, even the 
semi-lunar neck-band of the adidts being indicated by a broad 
erescentio band of sandy buff in the young. 

Winter plumage of the adtdU Above nearly uniform dusky brown, 
but not lowing the tawny-rufous margins to the feathers of the 
upper surface, the edges being ashy brown. The head is uniform 
brown like the back; the hind-neck and sides of neck are ashy, 
mottled with dusky centres to the feathers ; sides of face brown, 
with more or less white on the ear-coverts ; the black markings on 
the cheeks and throat as in the breeding bird, but the white semi- 
lunar band on the sides of the neck replaced by a patch of light 
brown. 

The difference between the winter plumage of the adult and the 
Jirtt fuU plumage of the young birde consists in the sandy-buff 
maigms to the feathers of the upper surface, which are very 
distinct in the latter at first. Afterwards they become abraded, 
and then there is scarcely any distinguishing mark between the 
winter plumages of the adult and young. In the spring the red 
plumage is very rapidly acquired, and I believe that it is gained 
quite as much by the change in the pattern of the feather as by a 
direct moult 

Hab. Nearly the whole of the world. 



1. kVKmkWk. 99 

Specimens from the Old World, 

a. Ad. sk. Faeioe lalAiidfl (S. MuUer). H. Damfordf Esq. 

b, e. Ad. ; d. Jr. st BftTlinfthinrh, Iroland. C. Coninghwiiy Esq. 

tf. Ad. fik. Great Britain. Hume ColL 

/. JuF. ak. Orknev Islands, Aug. 29 Tweeddale CoD. 

p. Ad. ak. StromnesB, Orkney (Dumi). Seebohm CoU. 

A. Jut. ak. Island of MulL Lord Colin Campbell 

I. c^ imm. ak. Island of Tiree. Colonel Irbr f P.]. 

k. Juv. ak. Isle of Grain, Sept 8 (B. G. Tweeddale 'CoVL 

W. R.). 

/. Ad. sk. North Berwick, Not. (J, JET. Seebohm CoIL 

TuU), 

m. c^ ad. bJl Beadnell, Xorthumberland, J. E. Hartmg, £aq. 

May 18. [C.]. 

n. $ imm. ak. Xewbiirgen, Xorthumber- Hume ColL 

bind; .\ug. 1876 ( W. K 

Brook*). 

o. 2 ad. sk. Wells. Norfolk, Feb. 31. RRSharpc^aq.T.] 

/», ^. cfT ad. ak. Great Yarmouth. AUy 2L Hume Coll. 

r. c^ ad. fik. Great Yarmoutb, May 21. Seebohm ColL 

#. Imm. fik. Aldeburgh, Suffolk, Aug. Theodore Piaher, 

Esq. T.l. 

/. Imm. aL Aldeburrh, Sept. 12. Colonel TWnr [P.^ 

■. Ad. sk. Banks of the Thames. Salrin-Godman CoOL 

r. cf JHT. ak. Romnev Marsh, Kent, Aug. H. B. Sharpe, Eaq. 

[P.j. 

IT. Ad. St. Komner Marsh, Sept. R." B^ Sharpe, Eaq. 

X. 2 ad. sk. Paffham, Suaeex, July 90 Hume ColL 

(R. B. S.). 

J. d ad. ak. Pac-ham, May 14 (J. E, Seebohm CoD. 

Parting), 

z. Ad. St. Pagham. B. B. Sharpe, Eaq. 

a", b% e\ Jut. eL Pagham, Aug. r JZL B. &). TWeeddale ColL 

^. 2 imm.; e'^'. Parham. Aui-., SepL 3u B. B. Sharpe, &q. 

juT.sk. " ^ y.\ 

g\ 2 imm. sk. Christchurch Hazbonr, R. Bl Sharpe, Esq. 

Hants. S*^t- 9. "P.". 

A*. Ad. ik. ChrifichuTck, Hanta, April Sc^tbcilim ColL 

17 (^. Ton BSigd). 

r. 2 jnr. fik. Instjw. North Deroo, Seebohm ColL 

Sept. 23. 

i^ . t. e jvT. : m. St. Bride's. Sonth Wales, Hon. W. Edmdea 

2 ad. : a*. 2 jnr. Dec, ApriL ^P.^ 



«'• ^'. f 2 ftd. ak. Bodo. Nonrar, Juzie 15 Sakin-Godmaa CcIL 

f '. Ad. ak. North Rusaa. MoeecrwMuflraiirP.j. 

r . cf ad. ak. Sberia. Sw;b..hm ColL 

«", f ', ■'. Ad. dc Japan. Tir«*i>ddale ColL 

v'-s'.Ad.etimmjlc. Yokohama, Mar (2L /Vyar). See^^hm ColL 

h2 



100 CHARAPKTTDJ;. 

a^'j b", d', Imm. Kurile lalandsy Aug., Sept. Seebohm CoU. 

sk. {Sftww), 

<f '. Ad. sk. Amoj, May (IL Stcinhoe). Seebohm ColL 

e". ? juv. sk. YarkaDd, Sept. 2 (Dr. Hen- Hume ColL 

derson), 

f". <S jr. ftk. Poegam, Yarkand, Sept. 6 Hume Coll. 

{fir. Henderson). 

ff\ 2 imm. sk. Algeciraz, Spain, March 20. Colonel Irby [P.]. 

k\ imm. sk. Marocco. Seebohm Coll. 

t". Juv. sk. Marocco. Tweeddale ColL 

A/'. cJ ad. ; T', m". Flores, Azores, May {F. D, Salvin-Godman Coll* 

Ad. sk. Oodman). 

ft", c^ imm. sk. Near Funchal, Madeira, W.R. Ogilvie-Grant. 

April 26. Esq. [P.]. 

o'\ Juv. sL Gambia. Seebohm CoU. 

p". Ad. sk. Gambia. Old Coll. 

j^',/'. Ad. at imm. Gold Coast Seebohm ColL 

sk. 

«". c^ imm. sk. Mouth of Swakon River, Tweeddale ColL 

Damara-land, !Dec. 27 

(C J. Andersson). 

f. Juv. sk. Lake Nyasa. Sir J. Kirk [C.]. 

t«", Imm. sk. Gloriosa Island, May (Dr. Voy.H.M.S. * Alert. 

Coppinger). 

p". (S inmi. sk. Seychelles, March (Dr. Voy. H.M.S. 'Alert' 

Ooppinger). 

vf'. cj ad. sk. SeycneUes. Seebohm Coll. 

jr",y",s". cJimm.; Rodriguez. " Transit of Venus " 

a%6'. $ imm.sk. Exped. 

<?. S imm. sk. Aden, Oct. 16 (B. L. Layard). Seebohm Coll. 

d*. Ad. sk. Khora Muska Creek, Aden, Hume Coll. 

May 6 (Major Yerbnry). 

e*. S ad- sk. Damietta, Egypt (Philippont). Tweeddale Coll. 

/*. Ad. sk. Fao, Persian (julf, June 18. W. D. Camming, 

Esq. [P.]. 

g*. cJ imm. sk. Sonmiani, Mekran Coast, Hume CoUl 

Feb. 24 ( W. T. Blanford). 

A'. Imm. sk. Ormarra, Mekran Coast Hume Coll. 

(E. A. Butler). 

*•-?'. d" $ ad. sk. Karachi, Feb. (A. O. H.). Hume Coll. 

g^, r*, i^. $ imm. Karachi, April 14 (E. A. Hume ColL 

sk. Bidler), 

^. Ad. sk. Balacherry,Kathiawar,Oct.24. Col. Hayes Lloyd 

u*, 7^,v^. cJ 5 ad. Sambhur, Sept, Oct. (R. M. Hume" Coll. 

sk. Adam). 

x*. Ad. sk. Madras. Gould Coll. 

y*, 2^, a*. <^ ad. sk. Betrapar, Laccadives, Feb. Hume Coll. 

{A. O. H.). 
6*. cJ ad. sk. Bingaroo, Laccadives, Feb. 21 Hume Coll. 

(A. O. H.V 
c*. 5 ad. sk. Cardamom Is., Laccadives, Hume CoU. 

Feb. 18 (A. O. H.). 
d*. (S ad. sk. Cherbaniaoi, Laccadives, Hume CoU. 

Feb. 12 (A. O. H.). 
f*. S sd. sk. Paumben, Laccadives, Hume CoU. 

March 15 (A. O. H.). 



1. AlBVARIA. 101 

/*, p*. 9 ad. tk. N.W. coaat of Cevlon, R. R Sharpe, Esq. 

March 10 ( H'. V, tegge). [P.! 

A*. 7 imtn- *k. S.K. o>it^t of Cevlon, Sovboimi Coll. 

Mairh I'iJ ( W. V. Legqt). 

iV T a.1. *k. Pegu. Sept. 23 (-E W, d). Gates Coll. 

ft*, x ad. »k. Gri'at Cocoa lalaoda, Hume ColL 

March 24. 

/*. 9 ad. ftk. South ADdamanJS Feb. 14 Tweeddale ColL 

{R. O. If. R,), 

M*. 7 ad. ftk. .Xbenlevn, S. Andamaiuiy Ilume ColL 

.Vpril 21) ( H: IhtvtMm). 

M*. 9 ad. »k. Montahull IM., Nicoban, Hume Coll. 

Manh 14 (A. O. JL), 

<*,/'*. 9 ad. ak. Camona, Nicttban, Feb., Hume ColL 

March ( W. DaviM/m), 

q*. X a<L »k. Pr<*i>ari!« IMiind, Nicobars, Hume ColL 

March (A, O. H,). 

r*-v*. ^ ad. ; t*-!*. Jen>me, 5>nlangon*, I>ec., Hume ColL 

', ad. »k. March* .Vug. ( H'', I).), 

k. f. .\d. »k. Sumatra (.Sir 6*. Rajfflet). India Museum. 

m\ n, </. .\d. tk. Labuan. Oct, Jau., Feb. A. H. Everett, Esq. 

(--1. H, E,). [P.l 

/**> /■ ':f ? mL tk. N. R>hoL Philippines, Not. Tweeudale ColL 

(A. JL Brerett). 

rV Al *k. F. (;il«)lo. Wallace ColL 

#* I »1. *k. N. ( Vram. WaUace ColL 

t^, m\ cf ; ad. ik. lUiDf Inland. Voy. H.M.S. 'Chal- 
lenger.' 

r*. *^. Ad. fk. Qui'enMand (J, T. O^ckertU). Salvin-QiMlman ColL 

x'. Ad. pk. N.E. coMt of Australia. J. H. Jukes, Esq. 

'P.l 

y\ z\ Ad. fk. W. Australia. J. Gould. Esq. \Q.\ 

«-. ; a«L »k. Tn.ujrht.m Inland, X.W. \oj. 1I.M.S. * Pen- 

.\uHtnilia. Aug. (Dr, guin.* 

liaMttt Smith), 

i' 'ail. ok. ImU-IU Mand, ISass* Straits, Gould Coll. 

Jan. 12. 

c' i ad. fkk. AniMt«'um, NVw II**bridoii, Voy. H.M.S.* Rattle- 

Sepi. 27 {J. MatyUUtntjf), snakt'.* 

^.e * ».l. ik. Admiraltv Lilands. Voy. H.M.S. 'Chal- 



lt.»nsr«»r.' 
I>r. roi»pinger fP.]. 
Voy. H.Sl.S. *Chal- 



' \ %ti *]i. Tofijrataljoo, Nov. 

5* A'l. *k H<itiuiia ULuid {R^v. G, 

Hn^K'tt). lengvr.' 

Sjt€cimfn§ from the Sfw World. 

A', r Ad. -k. (ir^nland. May. Hum** ColL 

« . •• ' »1. ; Hi', IHjiTiiv.Tv llav.'June, .\ugait Vov. 1I..M.S. * Diaoo- 

n...' Jr Ilk. (H. (\ Hnrt). very.' 

■ ' *.! Pk. Arrtir Am-ricm, Ut. m2« 32* V«>v. ll.M.S. ' Alert' 

(//. H: Feildfn), 

a' I^::. fk. IWllot Mand. Aug. 13 Voy. H.M.S.' Alart* 

( //. W. F. ). 

¥* \ S •« lAbrmtir (.lAiriwA/^r). St-b<>hm (^oll. 

/ \i •<. IjahrtVr \f\ lAmlen: Jientk, Salvin-(iodmao ColL 

fW/.K 

r. tf'. Ad. et imm. ICrpulw Ikj. Dr. lUe [P.]. 



102 OHABADBIIDJE. 

«•, «7*. Ad. sk. N.W. America. Capt. Collinson [P.], 

x^y y*. Ad. et jr. Alaska (Hensh. CoU,), SaLvin-Godman CoU. 

sk. 
^, a', S ad. sk. St. Mlchaers, Alaska, July, Salvin-Godman ColL 

Aug. (E, W. Nelson: 

Heruh. CoU,). 
h"^, c'. d" ad. ; tT* St. George's lai,, Alaska ( JJ. Salyin-Godman ColL 

2 ad. sk. W. Elliott : Hensh. ColL). 

0^ $ ad. sk. Eotliky Alaska, May 19 Salyiii-Gk>dmaii ColL 

(E, W. NeUonx Hensh. 

ColL). 
f. Ad. sk. Pikmiktalik Kiver, Alaska, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Aug. {E. W. Nelson: 

Hensh. Coll.). 
g'. Juv. sk. Albany River, Canada. G.Branston,Esq.[P.]. 

X'. Ad. sk. Nevr Jersey. Hume Coll. 

•\ c^ ad. sk. Massachusetts {Hensh. Coll.). Salvin-Godman ColL 

k''. Ad. sk. Inswich, Mass. Seebohm ColL 

r. Ad. sk. Fhiladelphia (C Drexler). Salvin-Godman ColL 

9n% n', c^ ad. sk. Waukegan, Illinois, May 24 Salvin-Godman ColL 

{E. W. Nelson: Hensh. 

CoU.). 
(Py^. iS ad. sk. Ainsworth, Illinois, Sept. 17 Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(E. W. Nelson: Hensh. 

CoU.). 
q'. Ad. sk. Pennsylvania (/. Krider). Seebohm ColL 

r^ 2 ad. sk. Cobb's Island, Virginia, Salvin-Godman ColL 

Aug. 1 (JT. W. H.). 
s', f, u'. <Jad. ; »'', Corpus Christi, Texas, Nov., Salvin-Godman Coll. 

vP. 5 ad. sk. May {F. B. Armstrong), 

x^. $ ad. sk. Cedar Keys, Florida, Nov. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

{Kensh. CoU.). 
f/', z', a^. Imm. sk. Bermuda, Dec. Capt. Savile Eeid 

rfc.]. 

5*, c^. c^ ad. sk. Mustique Island, W. I., Salvin-Godman Coll. 

June 7 (I). W. Stntth). 

<?. Juv. sk. Anguilla, March 26 ( W. E. West Indian Com- 

EilioU). mittee [P.]. 

eP. Ad. sk. Barbados. Sir R. Schomburgk 

rc.]. 

/*. <J ad. ; ^, A®. Indefatigable IsL, Galapagos, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

5 ad. sk. Aug., Sept. {Dr. Habel). 

ft^-ti^. Ad. et imm. Cozumel Island (G. F. Salvin-Godman ColL 



sk. Oaumer). 

^r". Ad. sk. Mugeres Island {O. F. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Gcnnner). 
y", «•. 6 2 ad. sk. Saw-pit Key, British Hon- Salvin-Godman ColL 

duras, May (O. S.). 
«•. cJ ad. sk. Tumeflf Laud, British Hon- Salvin-Godman ColL 

duras, May (O. S.). 
b*. (^ ad. sk. Chiapam, Guatemala, Jan. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(O. S.). 
&. Ad. sk. Veragua {ArcS). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

cP. Ad. sk. Bahia (I>r. Wucherer). Salvin-Godman ColL 

c*. Ad. sk. Bahia (Dr. Wucherer). Seebohm Coll. 

/•. Ad. sk. Bahia. 

^. Ad. sk. Cajutuba, Brazil (/. Nat- Salvin-Godman Coll. 

terer). 



1. AMESAMIA. Vy3 










J-jcjL h*j, Eaq. ^P/, 



#* r» ^>*^^f.r»_ r"--- 






il^or : Cv.^mr Sr im:ki«i. X. H. WtaiL 7«r. p. 254 .'jyj : 






£ z:- J- ±1 ai." 1 ■•.♦3> 1 rTI . 
Stt^^ftUiW invr^py*. tut, iieiazjussciAl-W- C'm^m, Xky 3". ^:iwr 5. 

at. r. X ir 1*77 : 3»a. * Jtr-.oiai: laL ; Ci^ifit, C<fcsc«-^ 3*. -4.iwr, £r, 

X l-^i I?^ . R.tUfc Jife:f. y A-lier. ^ i- 1^1 1^" : T-asru^^ 
Cmr.' y. H. A^iUM, z. I'l" lfr*r : irwsiiir : -Vei^inu -Vc jGTjtfL 
C>»L A-MiMUL, z. Uf '. rrr,- ^z^ 3£j*nib»i'* l-L ; Li:nr*r Vix;a; 

'ZTiiU'-b!— Tu* zifciasj:»5"3iiiuis, "a»»i. ^IV. 3-r. ^. iL 3 li lifcT . 



lOT" ▼iuii- -Frii I LiTs: "ir:^-^ ^ar»sn. la -^i* nan . uiii« 1^ nzn^ 

wiSL "vair-t iLi-Tia.t - . iitKr ^mids. laii ▼•xJ. "riir-i ^Ili^a *a*t i%(f«B 
rf iZ. Tins ;i:Il* 'r:iirii. xtn-a. ni'r^atiia la *iii5 ufnoiiaruM ▼liLft "ju 
jri^f X nujiir xiaiiai?!i»»*. ill "in* nt^i.in KisnixiLir:r*A ir» ••nr.ruj 
▼an*: -aue zmaaiair i^:-:»ijLir:HS wrn Tx^ isA vuik: mlL^ 
wriLKS 'iri** l. lam^i"- ^isr^ ■rrii lOir* ir -je T:n iml -r-'rii i 

1BSMC LusL inwa. 32:1117 Ti; tut ^H3.:h<£3 if "Si* ^iiiriji ;r rm* iivk. 
ftoDB-aeek. lad ■sar-ao^^'ra 4n«".rrf*i -rail -raire. jnnar*.n^ » iKnsuLoi 
mwanmxz 'se isirjufn ir -iiti xpocr irsac iii:o!ain<r ':nft innm 
5in-riHdc leinir Yam* -r:ci seoOBi if icn^va. ir iiir«*-4iuie ustsia 
.]f ae sme suuar : frmna^ immet un vimsdd v^ "vaitje : 1. aiark 



104 



CBABADBIULE. 



behind the tipper part of the eye and a large loral spot white ; all 
the rest of the underparts from the lower breast downwards pure 
white, except the thighs, which are brownish. Total length 8 
inches, culmen 0-95^ wing 5*7, tail 2*4, tarsus 0*95, middle toe and 
daw I'l. 

Adult female in hreeding-plumage. Similar to the male. Total 
length 8 inches, culmen 0*9, wing 5*9, tail 2*4, tarsus 1, middle toe 
and claw 1*15. 

Young male after first moult. Differs from the adult in having 
broad white edgings to the scapulars, wing-coverts, and inner 
secondaries, and in having a streak of whity brown behind the eye, 
without any sign of white spots on the head or sides of neck. 

According to Ridgway, the old and young birds in winter plumage 
" have the anterior parts of the head smoky-brown, much lighter 
than the body, with no trace of white markings about the head and 
jugulum.'' 

Hah. Western North America from Alaska to Monterey in Cali- 
fornia. 



a. Ad. St. 

b. Ad. sk. 
c-g, iS ^. 6t 

juv. sk. 

h, $ ad. sk. 

t. c^ ad. sk. 

k. Ad. sk. 

L Ad. sk. 

m, n, o. Ad. sk. 
p, $ imm. sk. 
9, r. Ad. sk. 
«, t, (S ad. sk. 
t«. Ad. sk. 
v-y, (S ad. sk. 

z, '^ ad. sk. 
a', (S ad.&k. 



N.W.America. 
N.W. America. 
St. Micbaers, Alaska, June, July, 

Aug. (J?. W. Nelson: Hensh, 

Coll). 
Xotlik, Alaska, May 20 {E. W. 

Nelson : Hensh. Colh). 
Camp Simiamu, Nov. 19 (C B. 

Kennerly), 
San Juan de Fuch. 

Fort Steilacoom, Puget Sound, 

Aug. 29(G«. iSuckley). 
VancouTer Islaud. 
Esquimau, Aug. (G. Matheic). 
Esquimalt Harbour. 
San Francisco, California, Aug. 
San Francisco {Hensh. Coll.). 
San Luis Obi«po, California, Oct. 

(H. W. Henshaw). 
San Miguel Island, California, 

Aug. 2 {Capt. Homey : Hensh. 

CoU.). 
Farallone Islands, California 

(Hensh. Coll.). 



Purchased. 
Purchased. 
Salvin-Godman CoD. 



Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Capt. Kellett & Lieut 

Wood [P.]. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 

J. K. Lord, Esq. [C.]. 
Seebohm Coll. 
J. K. Lord, Esq. [C.]. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 



Salvin-Godman ColL 



Subfemily 11. H^MATOPODIX^. 

2. EdUTOFUS. 

^trJew,^™.. On.. V. p. S3 (1760) H, osttSgiu. 

fteiMt^na. Zuw. &tf. Sat. i. p. 2-57 ( 1704) H. r^trmlwM. 

Meknibyi. Seu-Atmi. ^al. Syil. fog. p. lii ah&i) .... H. moqiuiu. 




* . With wkhe«l:£i;s*'nn*rw*fc-.f ^JM^jiirM 



106 CHARAPRTTPJt. 

b'\ No white eztendinff on to the outer web of 
the first to the fifth quills ; sixth ^uill with 
a little white adjoining the white shaft- 
mark ; upper tail-coverts white, tipped with 

black osculoM, p. 111. 

h'. Qmll-lining blackish^ with no white markings 
on the inner webs of the primaries. 
c'\ Back glossy black like the head; edge of 
wing black. 
a"\ Lower back and rump pure white like 
the upper tail-coyerts, the latter broadly 
tipped with black; some of the inner 
secondaries edged with white, but none 
of them entirely pure white ; feet pink . . lofigirostru, p. 112. 
b"'. Lower back and rump black like tne rest 
of the upper surface ; upper tail-coyerts 
pure white with small black tips ; median 
secondary quills pure white; feet yel- 
lowish leueopuSf p. 118. 

Back brown, contrasting with the black head. 
c'". With some of the median secondaries en- 
tirely white ; white band on wing very 
broad and formed by the greater wing- 
coverts, which are abnost entirely white; 
thighs pure white, 
a*. A distinct white eye-spot ; under wing^ 
coverts almost entirely white, with duskv 
tips to the lower primary-coverts ; sixth 
and seventh pnmaries marked with 

white on the shaft paUiatus, p. 114. 

b^. White eye-spot less distinct or absent ; 
under wing-coverts mottled with black 
along the bend of the wing; lower 
primary-coverts almost entirely dusky ; 
sixth and seventh primaries not marked 
with white ; chest mottled with black 

spots /razari, p. 117. 

a' . None of the median secondaries entirely 
white, but always marked with blackish ; 
white wing-band much smaller and nar- 
rower ; thighs marked with black, 
c*. Upper tail-coverts white, mottled with 
brown ; inner greater coverts white 
with brown bases ; no white eye-spot ; 
under tail-coverts pure white ; axillaries 
pure white; a large patch of black 
above the lower primary-coverts, which 
are dusky ; bend of wing mottled with [p. 1 16. 

black ffolapoffensiSf 

cf*. Upper tail-coverts entirely brown like 
the rump, the lateral ones with a little 
white near the base; no white eye- 
spot; under tail-coverts white, with a 
great deal of sooty brown towards the 
ends, the longest ones almost entirely 
sooty brown ; axillaries white, mottled 
with brown; bend of wing black, as 



2. EXlIiJvPVi. l'''T 

fci*'. t AtT'j' Tiai'jL abvv- tijt 1 t.-.j: 
rhiLi '.iri -'.■.-• rn - ; v l : : t ■. l v.- :l.- T-r*. 

' . * ■ 

i.m..i^' i. UiL.. u'r. .'■" 111-. -. .:.,• . . . srv-Ti/.-T;- :. ..T 
tLr fa: /.- ::l-. ,--i;- .-.-.■ ■..•....-:-.. i:«i'x.'.- : 1 . - 

. . Nit'S^. --..■.'...- ^'A.,'.-: :" •..?.'.-: 1 ■_;.■ ,' '.•■ ' .' ', '.I:'. 

d'. lifc-7k Lr V :, .. ::;-..v.:-,- v :.: .;-:....,■.■ .-. 

^ . iilll - IL- V : i.- -.-L-.-.v .-. . ;■-■ ■ V.J. ; 

strti-j-i: ::.■ t. /.• <-.<:'.■ ; ■.■■-.■ ■ '. /;•,«" ;. .j'. 

k . Bill ■■-:.';■ ■.•:■■: :.■.■ *:: /.i- .■ ■.■ ;■■.;.■■ 

iLV"*-— ■ ■ " V J.* f ■ ■.. »■•■ *■ /"'.A" • 



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108 CHABADSIIDiB. 

Jerd, B, Ind, iii. p. 669 (1864) ; Schl. Mus, Paw-Bos, Cuwores, 
p. 70 (1865 ; Holland) ; Oigl Ibis, 1866, p. 69 ; More, t c. p. 482 ; 
l)effl. et Gerbe, Om. Eur, ii. p. 161 (1867) ; Loche, ExpL Set. 
Algir,, Ois. ii. p. 283 (1867); E, C. Taylor, Ibis, 1867, p. 69 
(Suez) ; Blyth, t c. p. 166 ; Baird, t c, p. 282 (Iceland & Green- 
land) ; Smm, Ibis, 1868. p. 463 (Portugal) ; Borggr, Vogelf. 
NorddeutschL p. Ill (1869) ; Doderl, Avif. Sicil, p. 179 (1869) ; 
Elwes ^ Buckley, Ibis, 1870, p. 830 (Gulf of Salonica) ; Fritsch, 
Vog. Eur, tab. 34. fig. 9 (1870) ; Oouid, B. Or, Brit, iv. pi. 46 
(1870) ; Finsch ^ Hartl, Viig, Ostafr. p. 666 (1870) ; Salvad. 
Faun. Ital,, Uec, p. 207 (1871) ; R. Gray, B, W. Scotl. p. 268 
(1871) ; Saunders, Ibis, 1871, p. 887 (S. Spain, winter) ; Gray, 
Hand4. B. iii. p. 21, no. 10067 (1871) ; Harting, Handb. Brit. 
B. p. 46 (1872) ; Shelley, B, Egypt,ja. 243 (1872) ; ffeugl. Om. 
N.O.'A/r, ii. pt 1, p. 1039 (1873) ; BTume, Str. F. I p. 234 (1878 : 
Karachi ; MeKran Coast ; Muscat) ; Severtz, Turkest. Jevotn. p. 69 
nL873) ; Alston ^ Harvie-Broum, Ibis, 1878, p. 67 (Archangel) ; 
Brooke, t. c, p. 338 (Sardinia) ; Hayes Lloyd, t. c. p. 416 (Kathia- 
war) ; Burn/, Ibis, 1874, p. 397 (N. Frisian Isl.) ; Saxby, B. 
Sheti, p. 172 (1874) J Itiy, Om. Straits Gibr. p. 163 (1876); 
Fallon, Ois, Belg, p. 149 (1876) ; Banf. ^ Harvie Broum, Ibis, 
1876, p. 420 (Transylvania) ; Le Messurier, Str, F, iii. p. 880 
(1876: Manom Point) ; Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 329 ; Blanf, East. 
Pers, ii. p. 281 (1876 : Hormuz Isl., Persian Gulf) ; Seeb. ^ Harvie- 
Brown, Ibis, 1876, p. 290 (Ust Zylma, breeding) ; Dresser, B, 
Eur, vii. p. 667, pi. 633 (1877) ; Finsch, Ibis, 1877, p. 49 (Semi- 
palatinsk) ; Tacz, Bull. Soc, Zool. France, ii. p. 166 (18/7 : Poland) ; 
Butler, Str. F, v. p. 212 (1877: Mand!avee) ; Bogdanoff, B. 
Cauc. p. 164 (1879) ; Finsch, Verh, z.-b. ges. Wien, xxix. p. 246 
(1879: Irtisch); Hume, Str. F. viii. p. 112 (1879) ; Butler, Cat. 
B. Sind etc. p. 60 (1879 : Sind ; Cutch ; Kathiawar) ; id. Cat. 
B. S. Bomb. Pres. p. 74 (1880 : Bombay ; Ratnagiri) ; Vidal, Str. 
F. ix. p. 83 (1880: S. Konkan); Legge, B, Ceylon, p. 987 
a880 : N. half of West Coast) ; Se^ohm, Ibis, 1882, y, 222 
(Astrakhan) ; id, t. c. p. 380 (Archangel) ; B. 0. U. List Brit, B. 
p. 162 (1883) : Seebohm, Ibis, 1883, p. 29 (Caucasus) ; Severtz, 
t. c, p. 74 (Pamir-Alichur, near Boolma-Ku^ ; Irby, t. c, p. 187 
(Santander) ; Saunders, ed, YaireWs Brit, B, iii. p. 294 (1883) ; 
id. Ibis, 1884, p. 389 (Bidassoa R., Dec.) ; Bogd. Consp. Av. Imp. 
Boss. p. 77 (1884) ; Baird, Brewer, ^ Ridgw, Water-Birds N, 
Amer, i. p. 110 (1884); Badde, Om, Cauc, pp. 44, 423 (1884: 
S.W. of Caspian ; Lenkoran ; breeding) ; Seebohm, Hist, Brit, B. 
iii. p. 4 (1885); Yerbury, Ibis, 1886, p. 21 (Aden); Gigl, Avif. 
Ital. p. 378 (1886) ; Salvad, Elenco Ucc, Ital, p. 214 (1886) ; Tmt, 
Ibis, 1887, p. 387 (Portugal) ; Saunders, Man, Bnt, B. p. 648 
(1889) ; Beichen, Syst. Verz. Yog, Detdschl, p. 63 (1889) ; Lilford, 
Ibis, 1889, p. 339 (C>T)rus) ; Gigl, Avif. Ital, \st Besoc. p. 680 
(1889), '2nd Besoc, p. 652 (1890), Srd Besoc. p. 512 (1891) ; .S^- 
bohm. Ibis, 1890, p. 409 (Great Saltee Isl.) ; Brusina, Motr, etc, 
(Om. Croat.) p. 88 (1890) ; Turle, Ibis, 1891, p. 6 (Blasket Isl., 
breeding) ; Gdtke, Yogelw. Helgol, p. 514 (1891) ; W. Evans, 
Ibis, 1891, p. 80; Sharpe, t. c. p. 114 (Fao, Oct.); Madardsz, 
Ausst, Ungar. Vogelf. p. 104 (1891) ; Frivaldsky, Aves Hung, 
p. 125 (1891) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1892, p. 24 (Heligoland) ; Hartert, 
t, c. p. 517 (E. Prussia) ; BamcM, Ibis, 1893, p. 170 (Aden) ; 
Bhgg, t, c, p. 355 (Shetland) ; Blaauw, Notes Leyd, Mas, xv. 
p. 226 (1873 : Holland). 
Scolopax pica. Scop. Ann. I, p. 95 (1769). 



•s 



L"Hiii=Ki. Z^^uifmrm^ P* Xi*^ is. Tu- tSr*; J;i.j^. ^iC. A'c:. :'»». 

Piec .nrsi-srsai-jirc. Z-a:/.. tr-fc S/n;- iii tc I. t.. ilf^ 34". >i !?>* . 
Cw2iiJ4srfc jiiSL. 2».iuK I^uL. A'fdL . i. i^ IT A .. 

Tilt {.n-turtS-ESiuiiC Jc—<i,.« J.-t:. i.. iL T.. 4-:li l>».r . 

A.d'u'i iftcli ih r'^^-'f .■>i.---*Tiin.o;i!, GcdctlI :*:u:-T:r i'Tcre £:3»'»s?t 
lilftek: iivar tnux- run:, tzii "E:T}er t:*£Z-e:Tcr:5 vii:* : Tinij- 

pBKi eici'jBLat^i i.tJLT tilt baSr : " rizLLTief "I'liL-k, xritl Tie creiU-r 
'pt:r^ rf lilt iiiLitr t*':- vii:»e, ex is?:.: ijt.Lr lir e:.£5 ir^i fcT s.'^r:ie 

ftreai. "mixiiz^ ir.:-:' b itjoI -BriiTc: ^■:ri'-"k 01. :ir iudct T«rlr:i&r3«^ 

"whi t»lbti tiiif. iLe c«i:'2tJ ci«* "B-LiT-e, :be Idni: initr c-::es biari: 
tail -B-iat*, viLL lie T-emiiia* iiir- :*-:£. ::'nzi2ii: j r-raad aana : 
bead &11 ro:iiki Triih iLt entire tixcia: l-lick : :iiidrr the ere 3 vhiie 
pp«; rensdn-aeT of iLiiicr FTuliJce of l^ccv. from the lover ihrt>at 
dv^TBward*. Z'Zr^ vilz^-. tLt feathers of ihe for>e-netk whioh 
adjoin tire bla^it thr'jit being hilf -while jrd bilf bbci. lo corre- 
gpond viih the a^i;ii«-t Tl::ia3^ ; 112 der wiTur-covcr:* andaiilLirits 
wldvt : " bill TerToiliia, tiiizt^i with Trliow as f ar oS the end of the 
nasal groove, the ane-'^it-esi jurr d;ill yellow ; fe«c-i pale like or 
purplish red: edge* of the ejelii? vennilion: iris enmson" \^Vr. 
MwsgUUxTa^j y Total length !•> inches, culnien i^'9, wing 5*-7, 
tail *&iK tareus V^o. 

AdvJlt ftmojl^. Similar to the mile in jdnmage. Total length 
17 inches, cnlmen 3-3, wing 10*1, tail 4, tarsus if. 

T<mnni, Browner on the back than the adult*, and with moit^ or 
lew sandT-brown Termiculations and margins to the ends of the 
feathers ; across the middle of the throat a broad band of white ; 
qnills with a larger expanse of while, the white on the outer web 
of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth quills continuous with the 
white on the inner web. 

The white band on the throat is lost during the fii^t winter, dis- 
appearing iooner in the females than in the males. In Eastern 
birds this white on the throat not only persists longer than 
in European birds, but is much more extended on the thront, 
being spread over the whole throat up to the chin. Every one 
of the young birds from Karachi shows this (peculiarity. A bird 
obtained by Colonel Butler in August, with a perfectly black thn>at 
and with no trace of immaturity about it, has the white patches 
on both webs of the quills united ; but as some of the latter show 
indications of the black extending down the centre of the quills, it 
is eridently impossible to find specific differences between European 



110 CHABADBIIDiB. 

and Indian Oystercatchers ; though I expect to find my views as to 
the greater persistence of the white on the quills in Eastern birds 
confirmed by further material. There is considerable variation in 
the white shaft-markings and white quill-lining. In the adult 
female, however, described from Wales, there is an absence of white 
on the inner web of the first primary, as is usual in H, osculans ! 

Nestling, Clothed with down of a sandy-grey colour, not much 
mottled with black, of which two lines run down each side of the 
back, with a single narrow line down the rump to the tail, and a 
lateral stripe along the lower flanks ; the head has some irregular 
black stripes and patches ; throat dusky black ; remainder of under 
surface of body white, as also the edge of the wing ; thighs dusky 
blackish. As the bird increases in size the plumage becomes 
darker, and is strongly barred with sandy-buff tips and edges to the 
feathers, but the black dorsal patches are retained in full force for a 
long time. 

Hob. Europe generally, extending south in winter to Egypt and 
the Bed Sea, eastwards to Central Asia, wintering in N.W. India. 

a. Pull. sk. Orkneys. Gould Coll. 

b. Pull. sk. Orknevs, June 26 (J, H. Ihmn). E. Hamtt, Esq. [P.]. 

c. d. Ad. sk. St. Andrew's, N.B., Sept. (-R. G. Tweeddale CoU. 

W.IL), 

e, (S ad. sk. Lincolnshire, Sept. 14. J. H. Caton Haigh, 

Esqjp.i. 

/, y, h. Ad. sk. Romney Marsh, Kent, Sept. Dr. K. B. Sharpe 

f. S Bd. sk. Pagham, Sussex, Sept. 6. Dr. Ghinther [P.]. 

k. $ ad. sk. Pagham, Sept. 20. J. E. Harting, Esq. 

[P.]. 
l,m. ^ ; n, 2 S. Bride's, S. Wales, April. Hon. W. Edwardes 

ad. sk. n?.]. 

0, p. 2 ^* sk. Bodo, Norway, May 7 {F, D. O,). Salvin-Godman Coll. 
q. $ juv. sk. Heligoland, Sept. 26 (iJ. B, S,). F. Nicholson, Esq. 

[P.]. 
r. Juv. sk. Morocco. J. E. Harting, Esq. 

[P.]. 
s. Juv. sk. Suakin, Red Sea. Surgeon-Capt R H. 

Penton fP.]. 
t, Tmm. sk. Erzeroum (Huet de Pavilion), Qould ColL 
u. S ad. sk. River Volga, May. Tweeddale Coll. 

V, c? juv. sk. Fao, Persian Gulf, Oct. 15. W. D. Cunmiing, Esq. 

[P.]. 
«^> ar. cJ; y-«'. Karachi, Sind, Feb. (A, O, S,), Hume Coll. 

9 luv. sk. 
b', Aa sk. Karachi, Aug. (E. A. Butler), Hume Coll. 

c'j d, c? imm. Karachi, Feb., March {E, A, B,), Hume Coll. 

sk. 
e',f. Juv. sk. Kutch, Jan. {F, Stdicska). Hume Coll. 

g\ Juv. sk. Balacherrv, Kathiawar, Oct. 16. Col. Hayes Lloyd 

[P]. 
h'. Juv. sk. Nepal. B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

[P.]. 

a, Juv. sk. Patna. Pinwili Coll. 

&'. Skeleton. England. Purchased. 



2. EJEXAIOPTS. Ill 

f. SknIL EDfrlazid. Jolin Rav, Eaq. T*.''. 

m\ Stenmm. England. G. Ingsilf, Eaq. 'P.t 

■'. Bones of XepaL B. H. Hod4rsoii,"Eflq. 



P. 



2. Hsmatopos oseolanfl. 



Hffinmtopqg hirpDleuca, Pall. Zr^Mjr, RcM.-Adat. iL p. 159 (1311, pU 
Kamtcnatka : Karile IsL ). 

Hxxiia&>piii c«trale;?us i nee Z. ). Middend. H^nte SiHr., ZorJ. iL p. i!13 
a>51: Gt. Shantar liL, Au^.) : Owin. Pr. Acad. yat.Sci. PkiL 
!>>*, p. 19r> ('Japan': ^hrtmck. Rev. AmurL p. 413 (1>50: 
UaBoriKiTeT: Amur River >: SKtnh. IbU, 1S6I). p. 6:):i^. IhU, 
l«l.p.i>61»TalirnBaj .p.:«2iTakow:Pekin : Prztit. Putexk. 
r'jMMn. no. lo7 i I'^rO' : LiytA^ B. Burm. p. 154 ( l!?7o: Ankan; ; 
0»rf«. ^. Brit. Burm, iL p. 377 (1^2^). 

H gma topua lon^nro^tm (nAr F.i. Sicmk. Pa*. 1S63, p. 406 (Ape'j 
Hfll Crwk. Form, sa) : ui. P. Z. S. 1:?*B, p. 310. 

Hapmaropaa otJCxilaM. S*ri/iA. P. Z. S. l'*71. p. 405 : Pieib. Fct-A. s.-6. 
Vtr. Wign. 1S73. Eitrahert, p. 6: SkctAh. Ibti, 1^74, p. 436 
(Oudoij): iii. PA*, 1S75. pp. li*9. 45:3 iHak>iadii: Tacz. BuU. 
Soc. Zcijl.JFrmux, L p. i>4t» flS7»5j : 2><ij-«/ J- Owf. OU. Chirm^ 
p. 432 il^* « : X. Cliina, espj?ciallv near Chefi>j» ; BlakUt. Sr Pryer^ 
ibu, 1S7^, p. 219 (Yezo. iok:'hamai: Siieh^km. liu. 1S79, p. :26 
(Yokofaama: : Blakijit. Jr Pryir. Tran*. At. S^. viiL p. 19-'} ( lSS*)i ; 
iid, oo. n/. I. p. VyO I lS?2 : Tacs. Bull. Sec. Z*;/. France. viiL 
p. 33» a?^3 1 : ^oil-uf. .:f jTkmiM Ziif^ ^. Jap. p. 11 . 1?^ : Japan 
?«aieralIjK *^"n. BuU. U.S. Xat. J/«w. no. ?.:*. pp. l'». 138 • l^o : 




« tr^j: A^upi-e l-l : lezo : lojs'nainai : on/an, i'sw. irs:»i. pp. *JU, 
504 TLower Yan^tse. wirter > : CcimpMl. Pa*. l<*i?. p. 24^5 1 Corsa;; 
Z>ff Xa Towehe. t.c. p. 4'.>7 i F:-Oi.*h'j"ai- and Swato-ari. 
Hjtnia&:pa§ ■:«tralegxu ccoulanj^ Stejn. Bvll. CS. XaL Jftu. no. 29, 
p. lOO I l»5i. 

Jdmtt BuZf. Similir to J7. ottraleavs. bnt with a decidedly lonser 
bill, and difCxngnisLed by the white partem of the primary quillBy 
the ihafis of which are white towanls the ends^ as in ^. oitrtd^tpu, 
bat the white bezias to extend on to the cater web of the quill only 
from the surtA onward*. The difference of the white occurring on 
the Mtcomd qmR is not constant, as we have seen European birds 
which hjre the £m primary endrely dark on the inner web, as in 
H. 69cwknkMz "bUI bright orange^ed: legs fine pink, with pale 
brownish daws ; iri« crimson, eyelid bright orange-red ** (B^ 
Sitakoet TgUI length 15 inches/cuhnen 3-S, wing li>3, tail 4-2, 
tarm 1*^. 

Jdmli female. Similar to the female of JET. ottraIe^r*ij but di^ 
tingnished by the white markings on the qnilLs. the white extending 
on to the ^rnler web from the white shaft-streak onlr from the sixth 
qaSH onwards. The first primary has no white on the inner web. 
Total lengdi IS inches, culmen 3*7. wing 1(>4, tail 4*2, tarsus 2. 

Tmn^, DifEen from the adult in baring the black feathers mar- 
gined whfa wlnte, and in baring a white patch acnvs the throat, 
tfaou^ Dr. Scepicger states that the joang birds procored by him in 



Kamtohatka had no white bar aoroes &e throat : " bill orange-red, the 
tip dusky ; fe«t pale bluish flesh-colour ; iris raw-nmber ; naked 
eye-ring orange" (Dr. St^neger). 

Sab. Eastern Siberia and Eamtcbatka, Bonth to China and the 
Burmese prorlnces in winter. 

a. $ ad.ak. Corea, 

A. $ ad, sk. Yezo, Japan {Admiral 

St. JtAn). 

0. Ad. ik. Shanghai. Oould Coll. 

A Ad. ak. Fokiun. Gould CoE 

e. (f ad. sk. Naab River, Arakan, Oates Coll. 

Jan. 16 (Shoplandj. 

3. Hsmatopos loi^jioBtris. 

Hsmatopua longiroatria, VteiU. y. Diet. d'Hitt. Nat. xr. p. 410 
(1817 L Australia) j Orau, List Grallie Brit. Mu$. p. 72 (1844) j 
Ooald, B. Austr. vi. pi. 7 (1845) ; Gray, Voy. Erdi. ^ Terror, 
Birds, p. 12 (1846) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 547 (1846); Reichenb. Vog. 
HeuhoU. p. 30, no. 311 (1840) ; id. Handb. GraO., Noait. tab. cljii. 
fim. 2412-14 (1851) ; MacGiUiv. Vot/. BaUlem. ii. p. 358 (1852 : 
tTE. Australia; Torres Straits); Bp. C. E. sliiL p. 420(1856); 
Gray, F. Z. S. 1868, p. 197 (Aru Is.) ; Set Jmm. Proc. Linn. Soc., 
ZoJ. ii. p. 109 (1858 : New Guinea) ; Gray, Cat. Mamm. ^ Birds 
ifiw Ouin. pp. 61, 62 (1859) ; id. P. Z. S. 1801, p. 438; W. Ibis, 
1862, p. 235 ; SoMiib. Xat. Tiidschr. Nederl. Ind. iit. p. 253 
(1863) iid-Jf. O. 1864, p. 136 (Xew Guinea; Aru Isl.) ; Goaid, 
Bandb. B. Austr. ii. p. :il5 (1865) ; Finich, Neu-Guinea, p, 181 
(1806); Schl. Mw,. Pays-Bat, Cursores, p. 73 (1865; Oetanata); 
Soienb. Beie naar Zutdoostereil. p. 53 (1867 : Aru Isl.) ; Sutton, 
Ibit, 1870, p. 398 (Auckland); Gray, Uand-t. B. iii. p. 21, 
no. 10062 (1871) ; Fimch, J.f. O. 1874, p. 194 (New Zealand) ; 
Sarvie-Broum, Ibit, 1874, p. 96 (Otauo R., K. Z.) j Biaaib. 
Beiitocht. Getlvinkb. p. 9 (18i5: Ternate) ; Sharpe, Voy. Ereb. ^ 
Terror, Bird; App. p. 30 (1876) ; D'Alb. Ann. Mu». Gen. x. p. 20 
(1877) ; id. Ibit, Ib77, p. 372 (Hy Kiver) ; Matta-t, l^oe. Linn. Soc. 
N. S. W. i. p. 60 (1877 : Cape GrenTille & Cocoanut Isl.) ; Bamtay, 
t. c. p. 187; id. op. dt. ii. p. 107 (1878: Australia generally); 
Boeenb. Malay. Archip. pp. 373, 563 (1878-79 r Aru M.) ; D'Alb. 
f Salcad. Arm. Mug. Gen. liv. p. 128 (1879 : Katau) ; Salvad. op. 
at. iviii. p. 323 (1882) ; id. Om. Pap. iii. p. 287 (1882) ; Sharpe, 
Bep. Zool. Coll. Voy. 'Alert; p. -Jr (1884: Wednesday M); 
Mathew, Proc. Linn. Soc. JV, S. W. s. p. 254 (1886 : Claremont 
Is.); Seebokni, Geogr. Dittr. Charadr. p. 304 (1888); Ranuay, 
Tab. List Altar. B. p. 19 (1888: uearlv the whole of Australia) ; 
Buller, B. JS'em Zeal. 2iid ed. ii. p. 10 (1&88) ; North, I'roc. Linn. 
Soe. N. S. W. (2) iii. p. 1778 (1889 : Cumberland, N. S. W.) ; id. 
NetU §■ -^jft Auatr. B. p. 2S)i) (1880) ; Salvad. Agg. Om. Pap. 
iii. p. 198 (1891) ; Walker, Ibis, 1892, p. 257 (Adele Isl., N.W. 
Australia) ■ 

Htemfttopus picatus, Vigort in King't Voy. Amir, ii, App, p. 420 
(18261 ; Gray in Dieffenb. Trav. N. Zeal. ii. App. p. 196 (1843: 
New Zealand) ; Mman, Zool. 1861, p. 7469. 

Hsmat^pus auatralaeianus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 156. 

Hsmatapus ostralceus (nee L.), S. Mull. Verb. Land- en Volkenk, 
p, 22 (1830-44: New Guinea). 



2. HJEXATOPITS. 



lia 



Adult male. Similar to ff. oftrctUgus^ bat having no white on the 
inner webs of the primaries ; the back glossy bla^ like the head, 
and the edge of the wing black ; lower back and romp pure white, 
like the upper tail-K^overts, the latter broadly tipped with black ; 
some of the inner secondaries edged with white, but none of them 
entirely pure whit« : **' bill and eyelash deep orange-scarlet ; feet 
light brick-red ; iris crimson " (J. Gould). Total length 17 inches, 
colmen 3*4, wing 10*1, tail 4, tarsus 1'95. 

Adult female. Similar to the male. Total length 17 inches, 
colmen 3*4, wing 10*5, tail 4*4, tarsus 2'05. 

Hah. Australia, New Zealand, and the Papuan and Moluccan 
Islands. 



a. Ad. sk. 
6, e. Ad. sk. 
<^. c^ ad. sk. 

e. Jut. sk. 
/. Ad. sk. 
y, h. Ad. sk. 
t,^ Ad. St. 
/. Ad. sk. 
m. Ad. ek. 
n. Ad. sk. 
o. Ad. sk. 
p. Ad. sk. 

q. Ad. sk. 

r. $ ad. sk. 

ty f. Ad. sk 
«. Ad. sk. 
V. Skeleton. 

WjX. Skulls. 



New Zealand. 

Oomaru, N. Z. 

Hummock Isl., Bass' Straits 

(F, M, Bayner). 
Green Island, Bass' Straits. 
Australia. 
Australia. 
New South Wales. 
S. Australia. 
S. Australia. 
S. Queensland. 
Queensland (J. T. Oockereil). 
Dunk Island, N.E. Australia 

(J. Macgillitray). 
Sandy Island, N.E. Australia 

{J, B. Jukes). 
Wednesday Island, Torres 

Straits {Dr. Coppinger). 
Port Essington. 
Aru Island. 



New Zealand Co. 
Hume Coll. 
Voy.H.M.S. 'Herald.' 

Purchased. 
Old ColL 
Gould Coll. 

AustralianMuBeumfP.]. 
Dr. Woodward fP. J. 
Sir G. Grey [P.]. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Saliin-Godman Coll. 
Voy. H.M.S. * Rattle- 
snake.' 
Voy.H.M.S. 'Fly.' 

Voy. H.M.S. * Alert.' 

Capt. Chambers [P.]. 

Wallace CoU. 

Voy. IL3i.S. 'Chal- 
lenser ' 

Voy. h'jM.S. 'Rattle- 
snake.' 



4. Hsmatopfiu leucopiu. 

Hsmatopus leucopodus, Gam. Ann. dee Set. Nat. yii. p. 47 (1826 : 

Falkland Islands) ; Bidgw. Man. N. Amer. B. p. 182 (1887). 
Ostralega leucopus, Gam. 8f Lees. Voy. CoquiUe, i. p. 721 (1^6) ; 

Less. Man. d^Om. ii. p. 301 (1828) ; id. Traiti, p. 548 (1831). 
Hsmatopus luctuosus, Cue. B^gne Anim. i. p. 504 (1829); SeJd. 

Mus. Pays-BaSf Cursores, p. 74 (1865: I^lkland Is.); Gray, 

Hand4. B. m. p. 21, no. 10058 (1871). 
Hsmatopns arcticus, Jard. ed, WilimCs Amer. Om. iii. p. 35, pi. 




Hsmatopus leucopus, Cfrayy List GraBa Brit. Mus. p. 72 (1844; 
Tierra del Fuego) ; id. Gen. ^. ilL p. 647 (1847) ; Scl. P. Z. S. 
1860, p. 386 (Falkland Is.) ; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 156 (Falkland 
Is., breedmg) ; Sd. ^ Sale. NomeneL Av. Neotrop. p. 143 (1873) ; 
iid. P. Z. 8. 1878, p. 437 (Penguin IbL); Swrpe, P. Z, & 1881, 
TOL. XXI?. Z 



114 CHAEABBIIDJfi. 

p. 15 (Cape Sambo, Trinidad Channel ; Tom Bay ; Hugh Bay) ; 
Scl. & 8<Uv. Voy, ' Challenger,' ii. p. 108 (1881 : Penguin IsL : 
Elizabeth Isl. ; Tom Harbour) ; Seeb, Geogr. Distr, Charadr, p. 806 

S588) ; Ridffw. Proc. U,S, Nat, Mus. xii. p. 136 (1889 : Elizabeth 
.) ; Oust Miss. Sd. Cap Horn, Ois. p. 121 (1891). 

AduU male, Blaok with a white belly, like ff. ostraUgus and its 
allies, but distinguished by its black lower back and rump, the 
upper tail-coverts and base of tail being white ; the greater part of 
the under wing-coverts also are black ; primaries entirely black, 
without any white along the shaft or on the inner web : '^ bill 
orange-red ; feet grey ; iris and eyelid brilliant yellow " (Dr. Cop- 
pinger). Total length 16*5 inches, culmen 2*8, wing 10*2, tail 3'8, 
tarsus 1*65. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour : ^' legs and feet 
flesh-coloured, daws black; iris bright yellow; eyeUd yellow'' 
(Dr. Coppinger). Total length 16 inches, culmen 2*7, wing 10, 
tail 4, taxsus 1*7. 

Young. Similar to the adults, with a white breast and abdomen, 
but more dusky black, with rusty margins to all the feathers of the 
upper surface. 

ffah. Falkland Islands and Straits of Magellan. 

a. Ad. sk. South America. The Admiralty [P.]. 

d. Ad. sk. Tierra del Fuego. Sir W. Burnett & 

Capt. Fitzroy pp.]. 

€, d. 9 ad. et Tom Harbour, Straits of Ma- Voy. H.M.S. ^Chal- 

pulL sk. ffellan, Jan. 6. longer.' 

«. d ad. sk. Ehzabeth Island. Voy. H.M.S. < Chal- 
lenger.' 

/l c^ ad.sk. Penguin Island, Messier Voy. H.M.S. <Chal- 

Channel. longer.' 

g. Ad. sk. Hermit Island, Oct. 11 (Dr, AntarcticExpedition. 

McCormick), 

h, t. e ad. sk. Tom Bay, Jan. 10 (Dr. Cop-- Voy. H.M.S. * Alert.' 

pinger), 

A. cJjuv.sk. Hugh Bay, Feb. 27 (Dr, Voy. H.M.S. ' Alert' 

Coppinger), 

I. Ad. sk. Cape Sambo, March 8 (Dr. Voy. H.M.S. ' Alert' 

Coppinger), 

m. Juv. sk. Falkland Islands'. AntarcticExpedition. 

n. Ad. sk. Falkland Islands. Tweeddale (5oll. 

0, p. Ad. sk. Falkland Islands (Leconte), Salvin-Godman ColL 

q, Juv. sk. S. Salvador Bay, F'alklands, McCormick Bequest 

Dec. 

r. Ad. sk. Berkeley Sound, Falklands, Antarctic Expedi- 

May (Dr, McCormick), tion. 

s. Skeleton. Patagonia. Dr. Coppinger [P.]. 

5. HsBmatopus palliatus. 

The American Oystercatcher. 

The Oystei^catcher, Catesby, Nat, Hist, Carol, i. p. 85, pi. 85 (1731). 

Haematopufl ostralegus (nee Z.), Wils,Amer, Cm, viii. p. 15, pi. Ldv. 

^, 2 (1814, nt nee tab.). 
Hiematopus palliatus, Temm. Man, d'Om, ii. p. 532 (1829) ; Auduh. 



2. H^MATOPUS. 115 

B. Amer. pi. 223 (c. 1826) ; Neuuned, Beitr. Naturg, Bras. iv. p. 746 
(\mi) ; Audub, Om, Biogr, iii. p. 181 (1836), v. p. 680 (1839); 
Gould, Voy. ' Beagle; Birds, p. 128 (1841 : Rio Plata) ; Audub. 
B. Amer. v. p. 236, pi. 324 (1842) ; Jard. ^ Selbi/, III. Om. (n. 8.) 
pi. 7 (lase : Florida Keys) ; Oiratid, B. Long Jsl. p. 222 (1844) ; 
Gray, List GraHa Brit. Mus. p. 72 (1844) ; td. Gen. B. iii. p. 647 
(1847); Lemheye, Av. Cuba, p. 104 (1860); Bwm. Th. Bras. iii. 
p. 366 (1856) ; Gundl. J, f. O. 1866, p. 423 (Cuba) ; Cassin in 
Baird's B. X. Atner. p. 699 (1868) ; Bryant, Proc. Bast. Soc. viL 
p. 121 (1859: Bahamas); Brewer, t. c. p. 808 (1860: Cuba); 
Newton, Ibis, 1861, p. 115 (St. Thomas) ; Salvin, Ibis, 1863, 
p. 190 (Guatemala) ; Schl. Mtis. Pays-Bo^, Cursores, p. 74 (1866 : 

?t.) ; Dresser, Ibis, 1806, p. 34 (Galveston Bay) ; Gundl. Repert. 
^isico-Nat. Ctd>a, i. p. 358 (1866) ; Scl. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 339 : 
Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. p. 141 (1868 : Costa Rica), p. 21() 
(Yucatan) ; Sundev. (Efv. K. Vet.-Akad. Fork. 1869, p. 688 (St 
Bartholomew) ; Pelz. Om. Bras. p. 298 (1871 : Matto Grosso ; 
Cujutuba) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 21, no. 10059 (1871) ; Coues, 
Key N. Amer. B, p. 246 (1872) ; Scl. (J* Salv. Nomenrl. Av. Neotrop. 
p. 143 (1873); Gundl. Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. vii. p. 379 
(1878: Cuba); MerriU, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. i. p. 160(1878: 
Padre and Brazos Isl., Texas ; breeding) ; Sennett, Btdl. U.S. GeoL 
Surv. iv. p. 63 (1878: Texas); Maynard, B. East. N. Amer. 
p. 366 (1879); Cory, B. Bahamas, p. 160 (1880: resident); 
MerriU, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. iii. p. 198 (1880); Belding, 
Proc U.S. Nat. Mus. v. p. 627 (1882 : Coronados Is.) ; Zeledon, 
Cat. Aves Costa Rica, p. 30 (1882) ; Coues, Check-l. N, Amer. 
B. p. 98 (1882); BeUting, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vi. p. 361 
(1883: Lower California); Cory, B. S. Domingo, v. 146 (1884); 
Coues, Key N. Amer. B. 2nd ed. p. 606 (1884) ; Batrd, Brewer, ^ 
Ridgw. Water-Birds N. Am^r. i. p. 112 (1884) ; Brewster, Auk, 
u. p. 384 (1886 : Massachusetts) ; Turner, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
viii. p. 246 (1886 : Labrador) ; A. O. U. Check-l. N. Amer. B. 
p. 165 (1886); Evermann, Auk, iii. p. 92 (1886; Ventura Co., 
Califomia) ; Dutcher, t, c. p. 439 (Long Isl.) ; Cory, Auk, iv. 
p. 230 (1887 : Bahamas ; Cuba ; Haiti ; S. Domingo ; Porto Rico ; 
St. Bartholomew) ; Scott, t. c. p. 270 (Florida) ; Ridgw. Man. N, 
Amer. B. p. 182 (1887) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 806 
(1888) ; Scott, Auk, vi. p. 100 (1889 : Florida) ; Cory, B. West 
Indies, p. 230 (1889) ; Salv. Ibis, 1889, p. 379 (Cozumel) ; NoHhrop, 
Auk, viii. p. 76 (1891 : Andros Isl.) ; Witmer Stone, t. c. p. 246 
(Delaware) ; Cory, t. c. p. 297 (Caicos Isl.), p. 334 (Abaco Isl.), 
p. 861 (Inagua) ; id. Auk, ix. p. 48 (1892 : Maraguans) ; Scott, t. c. 
p. 212 (Florida) ; Berlepsch, J.f. 0. 1892, pp. 104, 121 (Curasao 
18.); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. B. p. 96 (1892: Greater and Leoser 
Antilles; Bahamas); Dutcher, Auk, x. p. 272 (1893: Long 
Island) ; Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 308 (Aruba), p. 326 (Cim^ao). 

Hfematopus brasiliensis, Licht. verz, Doubl. p. 73 (1828); ^ 
BuU. Amer. Mus. ii. p. 271 (1889). 

Ostralega palliata, Less. Traits, p. 648 (1881). 

The Gjster-catcher, Nuttall, Man. Om. ii. p. 16 (1884). 

Adult male. General colour above earthy brown from the U 
neck downwards, and including the lower back and romp ; the riii 
of the latter and the upper tail-coverts pure white, the latter ixpg, 
with brownish ; tail white, with nearly the terminal half Uaddii 
brown, forming a very broad band, deoreasiDg in extent tov 



116 CHARADRIIDiE. 

the outermost ; wing-coverts like the back, the greater series pure 
white, with only black at the extreme base ; bastard-wing feathers 
broadly tipped with white; primary-coverts and qnills blackish 
brown, the^ first five quills unmarked with white, the remainder 
with white near the end of the shaft extending on to the outer web 
in a longitudinal patch, the base of the inner web white ; second- 
aries pure white, the innermost ones brown like the back ; head 
and neck all round black ; a white spot below the eye ; remainder of 
under surface of body from the fore-neck downwards pure white, 
including the under wing-coverts and axillaries : " bill (in life) rich 
vermilion ; legs and feet pale dull fleshy white ; eyelids rich ver- 
milion ; iris bright yellow " (Baird, Brewer, 6f Eidgway). Total 
length 15-5 inches, culmen 3-3, wing 9-7, tail 3*9, tarsus 2*1. 

Adult female. Similar in colour to the male. Total length 17 
inches, culmen 3*2, wing 10, tail 3*9, tarsus 2-2. 

Young. Marked as in the adult, but the whole of the dark 
feathers tipped or margined with rusty-buff spots or bars ; the 
white upper tail-coverts also tinged with rust-colour ; black of the 
head and throat dusky, with rusty edgings to the feathers of the 
crown ; the chin white. 

Hah. North America, the West India Islands, and Central 
America, as far as Southern Brazil in Eastern South America. 

a,b. <Si c. $ ; Cobb's Island, Vimnia, July, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

d,e. PulL sk. Sept. {H. W. Henahatv), 

f-l. (5 $ ad.et Corpus Christi Pass, TexsA, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

imm. sk. May, June {F. B. Arm- 
strong), 

m. Ad. sk. Mexico. Purchased, 

n, 0, p. Imm. Cozumel Island {O. F. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

»k. Gaumer). 

a. r. Ad. sk. Chiapam, Guatemala, Jan. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(a 8.). 

B. Ad. sk. Veragua (F. Ard). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

t, $ ad. sk. Santa Catarina, Brazil (H. Salvin-Godman ColL 

Bogers). 

6. HsBmatopuB galapagensis. 

Hfiematopus palliatus (nee Temm.), Scl. 8f Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 823 

(Indefatigable Is.) ; Sundev. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 125 (Galapagos) ; 

Salv. Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 502 (1875 : Indeatigable Is.). 
HsBmatopus galapagensis, JRidgw. Auk, iii. p. 331 (1886 : Chatham 

Is.) ; id. Proc. 17.8. Nat. Mue. ix. p. 325 (1886) ; id. Man. N. 

Amer. B. p. 187 (1887) ; id, Proc. U.8. Nat. Mus. xii. pp. 116, 

128 (1889: James Is.). 
Hsematopus leucopus galapagensis, 8eebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. 

p. 307 (1888;. 

Adult male. Similar to H, palliatus^ but much darker and more 
blackish above, with the tail almost entirely blackish except for a 
little white at the extreme base, and a white edging to the outer 
feather ; there is no white shaft-mark on ang of the primaries, and 
none of the secondaries are pure white, as all of them have some 
dark markings near the ends; the upper tail-coverts are very 



2. H^SICATOPUS. 117 

broadly tipped with dark brown ; nnder wing-corerts aod axillaries 
white, but the lateral ones near the bend of the wing and the oater 
lower greater coverts black ; the lower primary-coverts sooty 
blackish ; the enter aspect of the thighs blackish : ^ bill red ; feet 
paleflesh-colonr; iris golden yellow; eyelids red" {R. Ridgway)* 
Total length 15 inches, cnlmen 3*5, wing 9*9, tail 3*5, tarsus 2-15. 
Hah. Galapagos Islands. 

n. c^ ad. ; 6. $ ad. Indefatigable Island, Qala- Salvin-Godman CoIL 
sk. pagos, Sept. 18 {Dr. A. 

Habei). 
f . cf ad. sk. Indefatigable Island, QbIbt Dr. A. Habel [C.]« 

pagos. 

7. Hasmatopnfl firazari *. 

Hsmatopns palliatns {nee Temm.), Scl. Sf Sale. Ibis, 1870, p. 499 
(Straits of Magelkn) ; Tacz. P. Z. 8, 1877, p. 748 (Peru) ; 8alv, 
P. Z. 8, 1883, p. 4^ (Paracaa Bay) ; Tacz. Om, Pirou, iii. p. 360 
(1886) ; Macf. Ihvi, 1887, p. 205 (San Lorenzo Is., Peru) ; Brewtter, 
Auk, V. p. 86 (1888 : Isabella IsL, W. Coast of Mexico, Tehnan- 
tepee). 

Haematopus frazari, Brewwter, Auk, v. p. 84 (1888 : Carmen Is., Gulf 
of Cal&omia) ; Tfnctuend, Proc, UJS. Nat, Mwt. xiiL p. 138 (1890: 
Concepdon Bay). 

Adult male. Similar to H. jpatliatus, but much darker brown on 
the back and with no white on the primaries ; the axillaries and 
nnder wing-coverts white, but mottled with spots of black along 
the edge of the wing and showing a small blackish patch above the 
lower primnry-coverts, which are dusky like the quill-lining; cheat 
mottled with black spots forming a kind of band : ''*' bill dark 
carmine ; legs pale flesh-colour, in skin " ( IF. Brewster). Total 
length 17 inches, culmen 3'15, wing 104, tail 3'd, tarsus 2-15. 

ffah. S. California, and probably the whole western coast of 
Central and Southern America to Chili. 

A $ ad. sk. Ties Marias lalands. West ^vinrGodmaa ColL 

Mexico, March 17 (A. 

Forrer). 
ft. <; sd. sk. Arauco, Tarspaci, Aug. 10 Berkeley James CoQ. 

(Z. Lane). 
r. $ ad. sk. Paiacas Bay, Peru, Oct. {A,H. SalvinrGodman CoIL 

Markham). 
tLf^mLA, Prov. Santiago, (niili(J>y6o^. Sahin-Godman CoIL 

#-A. Ad. et imm. Central Chili. Berkeley Jaiaes CoIL 

A. 

d. HaRnatopas dsmfordi (Plate VL) 



Hsmatopus palUatua < jue T^imm.), Dum/. iSw, 1^78. p. 403 (Tuako 
Pointy Chupot River Mouth : breeding) ; 8eL ^ Hud4. ArgenL Orm, 
xL p. 176 (1880 : Tambo Point). 



I httf* nefCT sesn » radly tvpicml ELfrruari from 9oatiwm CaXManat^ 
I opict cfaal the flpednuna j&m cBiniMfmfiid will l» found to hAomg to 



118 CHABADBIIDJB. 

Adult, Very similar to jET. gdlapagerisis and of the same dark 
chocolate-brown colour, but with a remarkably small bill. None 
of the inner primaries white-shafted, agreeing in this respect with 
H. gdlapagensis and ff, frazaHf but differing from both in the 
colour of the upper tail-coverts, which are blackish brown, and of the • 
under tail-coverts, which are smudged with sooty brown for the 
greater part ; the greater coverts are tipped with white only, 
forming a very narrow band, and none of the inner secondaries are 
entirely white, but they have on the contrary a great deal of black 
at the ends on the outer webs : *' bill dark pink ; legs and feet 
greenish yellow ; iris light orange " (H, Dumford). Total length 
16 inches, culmen 2*55, wing 9*7, tail 3*6, tarsus 1-9. 

Hah. Patagonia. 

a. Ad. sk. Tambo Point, Patagonia, Jan. 3. H. Dumford, Esq. 

[C.]. 

9. HsBmatopuB nnicolor. 

Hasmatopus unicolor, WagL Isis, 1832, p. 1230; Forster^ Descr, 
Anim, p. 112 (1844) ; Gray, List GralUs Brit, Mus, p. 78 (1844) ; 
id. Voy. Ereb. ^ Terr,, Birds, p. 12, pi. 10 (1846) ; id, Oen. B. 
iii. p. 647 (1847) ; Bp, C. B, xliii. p. 420 (1866) ; Gray, Ibis, 
1862, p. 236 (New Zealand) ; Schl, Mus, Fays-Bas, Cuisores, 

L76 (1866 : K.E. Australia) ; Button, Ibis, 1870, p. 898 (Auck- 
d) ; Gray, Hand-l. B, iii. p. 22, no. 10063 (1871) ; Finsch, 
J,f, 0, 1872, p. 170 (New Zealand) ; Buller, B, New Zeal p. 226 
(1878) ; Felz, Ibis, 1873, p. 120 ; Harvie-Brawn, Ibis, 1874, p. 96 
(New Zealand) ; Sharpe, Voy, Ereb, ^^ Terr,, Birds, App. p. 30, 
pi. 10 (1875) ; Ramsay, Froc, Linn. Soc, N, S, W. ii. p. 187 (1878) ; 
BuUer, B, New Zeal, 2nd ed. ii. p. 18 (1888); Seebohm, Geogr. 
Distr, Charadr, p. 308 (1888) ; liamsay. Tab. List Austr, B, 
p. 19 (1888 : Australia generally) ; North, Nests 8f Eggs Austr, 
B, n. 300, pi. XX. ^%, 2 (1889) ; Forbes, Ibis, 1898, p. 646 (Chatham 
IbL). 

Hfiematopus fuliginosus, Gotdd, B, Austr, vi. pL 8 (1846) ; Gray, 
Gen, B. iii. p. 647 (1847); Beichenb. Vog, Neuholl, no. 319 
(1849) ; Gray, P. Z, S, 1868, p. 197 ; id. Cat, Mamvi, ^ B, New 
Guin. p. 62 (1869) ; Gould, Handb, B, Austr. ii. p. 217 (1866) j 
Masters, Froc, Linn, Soc, N. S. W, i. p. 60 (1877 : Pahn Isl.) j 
Ramsay, t, c, p. 187 ; Walker, Ibis, 18^2, p. 257 ( Adele IsL, N.W. 
Australia). 

Hsematopus niger (nee Fall,), Ellman, Zool, 1861, p. 7469 (New 
Zealand) ; Ftnsch, Ibis, 1882, p. 899 (Wanganui, N. Z.). 

Haematopus opthalmicus, Castelnau 4* Ramsay, Froc. Linn, Soc, 
N,S. TV, i. p. 385 (1877 : Bountiful Lsl., N. Australia); Ramsay, 
op. dt. ii. p. 187 (1878 : Gulf of Carpentaria) ; id. Tab. List Austr, 
A I). 19 (1888). 

Melanibvx fulig'inosus, IIei7ie Sf Reichen. Nomencl. Mus. Ilein, p. 837 
(1882-90 : W. AustraUa). 

Adult male. Entirely glossy black above and below, including 
the wings and tail : " biU and eyelash extremely rich orange-yellow > 
legs and feet dull brick-red ; iris red " {J, Goidd), Total length 
18 inches, culmen 3*3, wing 11*5, tail 4-4, tarsus 2*1. 



2. KSMATOPUt. 



119 



AtMi female. Simibr to tho malo but somewhat more sooty 
brown unci not sDf^lomv black. Total length 17 inches, culmcn3*2« 
winir 1 1'2, tail 4'7, tarsus 2. 

yoHiuj, More ditoky than the adults, and mottled with sandy 
edirifiKi^ to the feathers. 

IlaK Australia and New Zealand. 



m. Ad. »t. 

i. A 1. »k. 

c. Atl. A. 

d. e ad. nk. 

#. /. :^ ad. et 2 

imm. 'k. 
y. £ ad. sk. 

k. Ad. fik. 
I. k, -f ftd. sk. 
/ Ad. *k. 

m. Ad. »k. 
a. .^d. »k. 
». Ad. %\. 

p. Jut. St. 
f . 9 ad. fJc. 

r. «, f. .\d. »k. 
■. ^ ftd. pk. 

r. Skui:. 



New Zealand. 

Now Z«*aland. 
Now Zoaland. 
New Zealand. 
Hardy Day, Derby Is., N. Z. 

Flinders* Is., Bass' Straits 

(/: M. Hayner). 
Tanmania. 
.\i»tnilia. 
New Suuth Wales. 



Per^ Earl, Esq. 

New Zealand Go. 
Sir E. Home [P.]. 
Seebohm ('oil. 
Voy. n.M.S.'Chal- 

ienger.* 
Vov.II.M.S.'IIerald.' 

Seebohm Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Au5itralian Museum 

Hume Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Sir Cu Grey [P.]. 



New South Wales. 

STdney. 

South '.\uiitralia. 

South N., Houtmans'.'Vbrolhos. (tould Cull. 

Kt>ttn«M Is., W. Australia, Gould Coll. 

AuK. 12. 
Que^UfOaud (J, T, Cbckerell). Sal^-in-Godman Coll. 
Tmu/hton Is., N.W.Australia. Dr. Bassett Smith 

Voy. ri.M.S.' Rattle- 
snake.* 



lo. HsBmatopna moqaini. 




V jr«iirtii. |». 7«i (1»^1-"*, j>t.) ; CKttpman^ Tnic *V. Afr. ii. A pp. p. 4lti 



t l->«t. 



(»•*.- a]- )M r;k]i»-n-i". l.i'kt. Vrrz. I)tfU>J, p. 7i\ {\*^2''\: w*m. nudum). 

Ii • :i.iit>>|'U« »i»j» i.-i-. firtty, Urn. Ii. iii. ]> o47 ( l'^" ) ; Skatjn', «/. 
l^yanft Ii. S. Afr. p. «;72 M-^M); Mrtui^-Wahln, Jhu, Jh«9, 
Ml' i:i. r^Jt- [CmiMTy U), IHK), p. 4:J7, IKKI, p. L'04 (('aiiiirj' Is., 




. li. I'Jii ( I ^ 
l.f»'«li!./« ; llrmji. Orn. X.O.'A/r. ii. pt. I, p. lOlI ( 1^*7.*$) ; Koem^, 
J f O l"*!**. p J'.*7 iMaiiiMra).' 
^':^^}.yx u.««|uiui. lUkkrmh. Urull. pi. ICH. fi^*^. 1042-43 (1^1). 



120 CHATiABBTTPiB. 

Hffimatopus unicolor (nee WagL), ImM, NomencL Av. Mua, BeroL 

p. 93 (1854 : Kaffemland). 
Melanibyx capenas, Seine ($* Reichen, Nomend. Mua, Mein, p. 837 

(1882-90). 

AdiilU Similar to H, unicolor^ and scarcely to be distingiuBlied 
'firom it, but the nasal groove not quite so prolonged and extending 
only just beyond the angle of tiie genys, the feet being more 
purplish red in colour : '^ bill orange-red ; feet carmine-red ; iris 
bright red; ring round the eye orange-red" (C, J, Andersson). 
Total length 20 inches, culmen 3, wing 11*6, tail 4-7, tarsus 1*9. 

Hah, South Africa, to the Bed Sea on the East, and Gaboon on 
the West coast ; Canaries ; Madeira. 

a, h. Ad. sk. Oape of Good Hope. Sir A. Smith [0.]. 

4!. Ad. sk. Cape Colony. J. E. Harting, Esq. [P.]. 

d. Skeleton. S. AMca. Eyton Coll. 

11. Hamatopus niger. 

HcematopuB niger, Pall, Zoogr, Rou^-Adat, iL p. 131 (1811 : Eurile 
& Eodiak Is.) ; Cass, in Baird, B. N. Amer, p. 700 (1868 : 
Alaska ; California) ; Schl, Mus, Pays-Bas^ Cursores, p. 76 (1865, 
pt.) ; Brown, Ibisj 1868, p. 424 (Vancouver Is.) ; Ball ^ Bonn. 
Tr. Chic, Acad, L p. 290 (1869 : Sitka ; Kodiak) ; Gray, Hand-L 
B, iii. p. 22, no. 10067 (1871) ; Coues, Key N. Amer. B, p. 246 
(1872 : Pacific coast) ; DaU, Notes Avif. Aleut, Isl, p. 4 (1873 : 
breeding) ; Streets, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 7, p. 17 (1877 : S. 
Martin's Island, Lower California) ; Coues, Ch^-l. N. Amer. B, 
p. 98 (1882) ; Bean, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. v. pp. 163, 173 (1882: 
Alaska) ; Bdding, t. c. p. 528 (Lower California) ; Baird, Brewer, 
4- Ridgw. Water-Birds N. Amer. i. p. 116 (1884) ; Coues, Key 
N. Amer. B. 2nd ed. p. 607 (1884) ; Seebohm, Qeogr. Distr. 
Charadr. p. 310 (1888) ; id. B. Japan. Emp. p. 313 (1890 : Kurile 
IsL) ; Rhoads, Auk, x. p. 17 (1893: British Columbia). 

Hsematopus bachmam, Audub. B. Amer. pi. 427. fig. 1 (c. 1826) ; id. 
Om. Biogr. v. p. 245 (1839) ; id. B. Amer. 8vo, v. p. 243, pi. 325 
(1842 : Regent^s Sound) ; Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 547 (1847) ; Stefn. 
BuU. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 29, p. 102 (1885 : Aleutian Is.) ; A. O. U. 
Check4. N. Amer. B. p. 166 (1886) ; Evermann, Auk, iii. p. 92 
(1886 : Ventura Co., Cal.) ; Turner, Nat. Hist. Alaska, ii. p. 151 
(1886) ; Blake, Auk, iv. p. 329 (1887 : Santa Cruz Is., Cal., 
breedmg) ; Ridgw, Man. If. Amer. B. p. 183 (1887) ; Nelson, Nat. 
Hist. Alaska, Birds, p. 130 (1887). 

Melanibyx ni^er, Heine 8f Reichen. Nomend. Mus. Hein. p. 337 
(1882-90 : Kodiak Is.). 

AdtdL General colour above dark chocolate-brown, including the 
wings and tail, which are blackish towards the ends ; head and 
neck all round black, scarcely contrasting with the brown of the 
rest of the body, but more conspicuous than in the Old World Black 
Oystercatchers : " bill vermilion, fading to yellow towards the end ; 
foot white, slightly tinged with flesh-colour ; claws yellowish, dusky 
towards the ends ; edges of eyelids vermilion ; iris yellow " (J. J. 
Aitdulon). Total length 17'5 inches, culmen 2*9, wing 10'5, tail 
4-1, tarsus 2*1. 



2. HJSMAT0PU8. 121 

Hah. N.W. America, from the Aleutian Islands and Alaska, sonth 
to California. 

a. Ad. fit. N.W. America. Purchased. 

b. Imm. sk. Aleutian Islands ( Wo^sne- Seebohm Coll. 

sensky), 

c. Ad. sk. Puget Sound {Sm, Inst.), Salvin-Godman Coll. 
<f. Ad. sk. DenmanlsL, Straits of Georgia. Dr. Lyall fP.]. 

e. Ad. sk. Haro Channel. Dr. Lyall [P.J. 

/. Ad. sk. San Juan de Fuca. Capt.Kellett&Iieut. 

Wood [P.]. 

^. $ ad. sk. Santa Cruz Is]., California, Salvin-Godman ColL 

June 4 {Heruh, Coll.). 



12. Hfldmatopns ater. 

Hsematopus niger {nee Pall.), Quoy 8f Gaim. Voy. * Uranie^ Zool. 
i. p. 129, pi. 24 (1824 : Falkland Is.) ; Cuv. Begne Anim. i, 
p. 504 (1829). 

Hsematopus townsendi, Audub. B, Amer. pi. 427. fig. 3 (c. 1826) ; 
id. Om. Biogr. v. p. 247 (1839) ; id. B. Amer. 8vo, v. p. 245, 
pi. 826 (1842) ; Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 547 (1847). 

Ostralega atra, Less. Traiti (TOm. p. 548 (1831). 

Hcematopus ater, Vieill. et Oudart, Gal. Ois. ii. p. 88, pi. 230 (1834) ; 
Cass, tn Baird'8 B. N. Amer. p. 700 (1858 : Coast of Chili) ; 
Scl. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 380 (Falkland Is.) ; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, 
p. 155 (Falkland Is.) ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bos, Cursores, p. 76 
(1865, pt.) ; Sd. P. Z. 8. 1867, pp. 331, 339 (ChiU) ; id. ^ Salv. 
Ibis, 1870, p. 499 (Port Laguna) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 22, 
no. 10066 (1871); Scl. ^ Salv. Nmnencl, Av. Neotrop, p. 148 
(1878) ; Salvin, Ibis, 1875, p. 377 (Masafuera IsL) ; Dumf. Ibis. 
1878, p. 403 (Tambo Point) ; Scl. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 438 
(Elizabeth IsL) ; iid. Voy. * Challenger; ii. p. 109 (1881) ; Sharps, 
P. Z. 8, 1881, p. 15 (Port Henry) ; Salv. P. Z. 8. 1883, p. 429 
(San Lorenzo Is., Peru) ; Tacz. Orn. Pirou, iii. p. 351 (1886) ; 
lUdgw. Man. N. Amer. B. p. 183 (1887) ; Macf. Ihis, 1887, 
p. 205 (San Lorenzo Isl.) ; Scl. <$• Huds. Argent. Om. iL p. 176 
(1889 : Tambo Point) ; Bidgw. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xii. p. 136 
(1889 : Elizabeth Isl.) ; Ltwas, op. cif. xiii. p. 130 (1890) ; Oust. 
Miss. Sd. Cap Horn, Ois. p. 119 (1891). 

Hsematopus unicolor (nee tVagl,), Gould, P, Z, 8. 1859, p. 96 
(Falkland Is.). 

Hsematopus niger ater, Baird, Brewer, ^ Bidgw. Water-Birds N. 
Amer. i. p. 109 (1884) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. SIX 
(1888). 

Melanibyx ater, Heine «$* Beichen. Nomend, Mua. JSeui. p. 8S^ 
(1882-90: Chili). 

Adult, Similar to H. niger, and with a brown baok. In 
darker on the under surrace than that spedes, thebn 
black like the head and neck. The bill, howeyer, ii v 
deeper and is compressed towards the end, almoflt to 
extent as the Scissor-bill {Rhynchopi). The angle of tlM , 
very strongly marked, as is also the dertral portion of the k 
** bUl dark pink ; legs and feet greenish yellow ; izii daik i 



122 OHABADBIIDiB. 

(jy. Dumford). Total length 16 inches, culmen 2*8, wing 10*7, 
tail 3*7, tarsus 2. 

Toung. Much browner than the adult, but the head and neck 
all round and the breast sooty black, the whole of the brown 
plumage, including the breast and abdomen, mottled with sandy- 
buff edges to the feathers. 

ffab. Falkland Islands, S. America to Tambo Point on the east^ 
and to Peru on the western side. 

a, b. Ad. sk. Falkland Is. (Leconte). Salvin-Godman Coll* 

c, Imm. sk. Falkland Is. Gould Coll. 

d. Imm. sk. Johnson Harbour, Falkland Is., McCormick Bequest. 

May. 
e,f. Ad. et imm. Berkeley Sound, Falkland Is., Antarctic Exped. 

St. ; ff, h. Ad. et May 19 {Dr, McCormick), 

imm. sk. 
•.Ad.sk. Tambo Point, Patagonia, Jan. 3. H. Dumford, Esq. 

rc.i. 

*. $ ad. sk. Elizabeth Isl., Straits of Magel- Vov.H.M.S. <Chal- 

lan. lenger.' 

/. $ ad. sk. Port Henry, Straits of Magel- Voy. H.M.S. 'Alert' 

Ian, Jan. 29 {Dr, Coppinger), 

m-p. Ad. sk. Central Chili. Berkeley James Coll. 

q. 2 ad. sk. Chili (E. C, Reed), Seebohm Coll. 

r, «. Ad. sk. Masafuera Isl. {Leybold), Salvin-Godman ColL 

f, 11. $ ad. sk. Callao, Peru. Seebohm Coll. 

V. Ad. sk MoUe, S. Peru, August (JET. Seebohm ColL 

Saunders), 

w. Ad. sk. Sau Liorenzo Isl., Peru (A, JJ« Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Markham), 

X, Skeleton. Chili. Purchased. 



Subfamily III. LOBIVANELLINiE. 

Key to the Genera, 

a. With no spur on the wing, and no facial 

wattle ; toes with scarcely any con- 
necting web. 
a'. No hind toe ; Inll very long and slender, 

with the dertrum scarcely indicated ; 

bill longer than inner toe and claw, 

the nasal eroove produced for more 

than half the bill, as in Totanus .... 3. Orkophilus, p. 123. 
b'. Hind toe well-developed ; culmen long, 

equal to the middle toe and claw ; [p. 124. 

dertrum scarcely evident 4. Eeytiibogonys, 

c', A well-developed hind toe ; toes very 

long, the middle toe and claw nearly 

twice the length of the culmen ; der- 
trum swollen 5. Defilippia, p. 126. 

b. With no spur on the wing ; a wattle on 

the lores. 
d', A tufted crest; no hind toe; wattle 

minute 6. SABCiopnonus, p. 128. 



[i. ORBOPHILUB. 123 

#'. No CTMt ; DO hind toe ; wattle hm , . 7. Lobipluvia, p. IdO. 
/*• No cr««t ; a iimall hizid tou and <9aw ; 

wattlr minute d. Micbobascops, p. 133. 

<u With a •mall spur od the wing ; no facial 
wattle on the bppet ; no hind toe. 
/. Tamil Tery lonjr, double the lengrth of [p. 185. 

the middle toe and claw 9. Hoploxtptbbus, 

k\ Tar»iu shorter and stouter, not twice 

the leDffth of the middle toe and claw. 10. PriLOSCBLU, p. 187. 
A With a wifU-devcloped spur on the wing ; 
a distinct facial wattle or lappet ; a small 
hind toe 11. LoBiVAirxLLUt, p.l88. 

3. 0EE0PHILU8. j^^^ 

Oivophilus, Jard, j- Selby, IB, Om, iiL pi. 151 (1835). . O. ruHcollis. 
Drolnicu^ Leu, Echo du Munde JSapant, 1844, coL 616. . O. rufiooUis. 

Bangt. Uplands of Patagonia, Chili, and Peru ; Falkland Iilands. 

1. Oreophilnt rnflcoUii. 

ChanKirius ru&vllis, Wnyl. Isi\ 1829, p. 653 {ex Licht, in Mu$, 
Brroi. ) ; Burm, Tk. Bnu, iii. p. 361 (1856 : Coast of Southern 
finuil). 

Oreophilu.4 totanirostris, Jard. ^V &^, ///. Oni. iii. pi. 151 (1835 : 
And«f« of Chili); OouU in Dartcins Voy,' B*agle; Bird^^.Viry 
(IMI: Maldonado; Valpanu»o) ; Fra$er, P, Z. 8, 1843, p. 117 
(Chili) ; Uray, Urn, B, iii. p. 537 (1844) ; liud*, P. Z. A 1872, 
p. :>4l» (Kio Ntyro, Patagonia); Cab. J,/. O. 1878, p. 199 
(>ierrii deCurdnva, Ar,r. Kep.). 

Drjiuica* Ir^^soui, Jjest. Echo du Afund^ Sarant, 1844, col. 617. 

Ilopl'ij'l'Tus nitit*olliH, Orny, (ten, B. iii. p. 542 (1844). 

Ori:*'ptiiiu<4 nititN'lh!*, Licht. SomtttvL Av, Mu». Berol. p. 94 (1854) ; 
Up r. B. \hi. p. •>»: (1nV>); .V/. P. /. S. 18«7. pp. ;W1,339; 
At;. A .Nd/r. /. c. n. 1>M> (Irlttv, IVru) ; lid, p. Z, A*. 1^68, p. 570; 
tui. lU*, l'^*.^, p. VlMS.uuiv lUv) ; iid. Ibisy 1>70. p. 4W (Gallegiw 
l:i\.r ; (inn/, Jltrnd-i. U\ iii/ p. 19, ».». ltX)4<) (1871); ScL ^ 
Siii ^',mr,tU. Ar. \rfj(rop. i>. 1 l.J (1-^73); Taczan, P. Z.S. 1874, 
p. •>>» I Juuui) ; Ihtrnf, YAm, l^77, p. A'2 (Chiiitat), p. 197 (BuenuM 
Air*'; Ta^zam. Orn. PeruUy iii. p. ,*U7 (In*^: Junin); ScL 
P. /. .S. 1 "••*••, p. lUJ (Tuni(a(a); id. \ lluds. Anjrnt. Orn. ii. 
p 17 J 1 1"^**'.*: Ki'» N«vr«>^ I ()u*t. MiM, Si. Cap JJurn, Oi*. p. 116 
\ l-l»l • : ILJlmd. /Am, IkM. i*. Hi; id. Ihiit, lb92, p. 210 (Ksiancia 
l-l^i^rtilU.; Juwir., ^rw lAst Chiiian litrds^u. 11 (lW»2). 

H « r.!.* ..u< t"taiiiri>*tn!*, Shi. Mus, i'(fy«-/>'<i«, L ur8ort*<>, p. 47 (18G5 : 

I*harm4lr:u<« t'tiUar<>«tno, *SrfbtAm, On-gr. IHitr. CKaradr.^. Ill, pi. 4 

( 1 "^ - ' . 

A'imlt ii.'i//. (M-niTiiI rt tloiir al>>ye sandy buff, l)ro:idly streaked 
with bLifL ( • tjtfvn tit thi- li'atlu'fH, which hare sundy-whito margins : 
hiofi-nnk and m.intjf m<tr<* a^hy gri'y, the former uniform, the 
lattrr «tth MicL nutn-* tn the f«*ntherrt ; le^?K'r and median covert'* 
Lkr th<- Nv Ik ; gn at«T < <ivirts dark brown, margined with aandy 
Vaff, i&cliniiig to whitii^h at the end oi \\\v feathers, and forming an 



124 chasadbudjb. 

indistinct wing-bar; edge of wing white; bastard-wing and 
primary-coverts dark brown ; quills also dark brown, the primaries 
white along the inner web, wiUi narrow white fringes to the ends 
of the quills and with conspicnous white shafts, the white confined 
to the shaft alone on the outer primaries, but on the inner ones 
accompanied by a patch of white, at first longitudinal and 
increasing in size on the inner primaries ; secondaries dark brown, 
tipped with white and with white bases; the inner secondaries 
externally sandy bufE and reuembling the back; lower back and 
rump ashy olive-brown ; the lateral upper tail-coverts sandy bufE^ 
with indistinct dusky cross-bands; taU-feathers slaty grey, with 
tawny-buff bases, and a band of pale buff at the ends, before 
which is a black band, wider and more distinct on the outer feathers, 
which have also more tawny at the bases ; crown of head uniform 
ashy, with an olive tinge ; base of forehead and a broad eye- 
brow white, tinged with tawny, especially above the ear-coverts, 
where the superciliary band almost forms a nuchal collar ; a black 
streak from the base of the bill, traversing the lores and passing 
through the eye ; chin and fore part of cheeks white, the ear- 
coverts ashy ; remainder of cheeks and throat bright orange- 
chestnut ; lower throat and fore-neck light ashy, tinged with olive ; 
remainder of under surface, from the fore-neck downwards, creamy 
buff, becoming whiter on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; on 
the breast a large patch of black ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
pure white : *' bill black ; feet fiesh-colour ; toes and claws black " 
(H, Dwmford) ; " iris dark hazel-brown " (Jelski). Total length 
9*5 inches, culmen 1*16, wing 10'3, tail 2'7, tarsus 1*95. 

Hah. Falkland Islands; Patagonia to the Rio de La Plata; 
Chili; Peru. 

a. $ ad. sk. Falkland Is. {Dr, McCar- Antarctic Expedition. 

mick), 

b. Pull. sk. Tambo Point, Patagonia, H. Duruford, Esq. [0.]. 

Jan. 8. 

c. c?. Ad. sk. Chuput, Patagonia, Sept, H. Dumford,Esq.[C.]. 

Nov. 

<?,/. Ad. sk. Rio Negro, Patagonia ( W,H, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Httdson), 

g. Ad. 8t. La Plata. M. Bravard [C.]. 

A. Ad. sk. ChUi. C. Crawley, ^JP.]. 

t. Ad. sk. Chili ( Wemhaupt), Salvin-Godman CbU. 

kf I. Ad. sk. Central Chili (Jbandheck), Berkeley James Coll. 

m. cT ad. sk. Tarapac&^an. 23 (Rahmer), Berkeley James Coll. 

w. 6 ad. sk. Islay, S. W. Peru, Sept. 2 Salvin-Godman Coll. 



Tk 



Whitely), 



4. ERYTHROGONYS. ^ 

Type. 
Erythrogonys, Oouldj P. Z, S, 1837, p. 133 E. cinctus. 

Bange. Confined to Australia. 



4. EBTTHBoeoirrs. 125 

1. Erythrogonys cinctns. 

Erythrogonys cinctus, Gmdd, P. Z, S, 1837, p. 156 ; id. B, Austr, 
Ti. pi. 21 (1841); Gray, List GraU. Brit Mm. p. 66 (1844: 
Murray River) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 642 (1847) ; Reichenb. GraU. 
tab. 180. figs. 1959-60 (1848) ; %d. Vog. Neuholl. p. 32 (1850) ; 
Bp. C. JR. xliii. p. 419 (1856); Gould, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 233 
((Jentral Australia) ; id. Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 240 (1865) ; Gray, 
Handr-l, B. iii. p. 12, no. 9968 (1871) ; Ramsay, Proc. Linn» 
Soc. N. S. W. i. p. 188 (1877: Queensland; New South Wales; 
Victoria; S. Australia); id, ov. cit ii. p. 197 (1878: Gulf 
of Carpentaria ; Richmond and Clarence Rivers) ; id. op. cit, 
vii. p. 412 (1883 : New South Wales, breeding) ; id, op. cit. (2) 
i. p. 1099 (1887 : Derby, N.W. Australia); North, t, c. p. 1167; 
Ramsay, op. cit, (2) ii. p. 171 (1888: Derby) ; id. Tab. List Avj*tr, 
B. p. 20 (1888: Derby, N.W. Australia; Gulf of Carpentaria; 
Richmond and Clarence Rivers ; New South Wales ; Interior ; 
Victoria ; S. Australia) ; North, Nests ^ Eggs Austr, B. p. 307, 
pi. xvi. ^, 6 (1880) ; Cox 8f Hamilton^ Proc, Linn. Soc, N, S, W* 
(2) iv. p. 419 (1890: Mudgee Distr.). 

Vanellus rufiventer, Less. Echo du Monde Savant, 1844, p. 207. 

Erythrogonys cinctus, Licht, Nomencl, Av. Mus. Berol. p. 95 (1854 : 
Australia). 

Vanellus cinctus, Schl, Mus. Pays-Bos, Cursores, p. 69 (1866 : 
Australia). 

Adult male. General colour above bronzy brown, slightly washed 
with ashy ; wing-coverts like the back, the greater series fringed 
with white at the ends ; bastard- wing, primary-coverts, and quills 
blackish brown, the inner primaries and all the secondaries broadly 
tipped with white, forming a wide band ; innermost long secondaries 
brown like the back ; centre of lower back, rump, and median upper 
tail-coverts blackish brown, the sides of the back and of the rump, 
as well as the lateral upper tail-coverts, pure white ; centre tail- 
feathers brown, the rest pure white, with a little brown on the 
outer edge of Uie external feather ; a small patch below the eye, 
cheeks, throat, and sides of neck pure white ; crown of head and 
aides of face black, extending over the hind-neck and down the 
sides of the neck, and joining a broad band of black which occupies 
the whole of the fore-neck and chest and extends along the sides of 
the latter ; breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts white, the latter 
being streaked with brown, slightly tinged with rufous ; on each of 
the flanks a patch of bright chestnut ; sides of body, under wing- 
ooverts, and axillaries pure white, the coverts round the bend of the 
wing black : '< bill pnlpy, pink-red at base, black at the tip ; thigh, 
knee, and for a quarter of an inch down the tarsus pink-red, the 
remainder of the tarsus and the toes bluish lead-colour " («/. Gould), 
Total length 7*5 inches, culmen 0-85, wing4'3, tail 1-85, tarsus 1*6. 

Sexes alike in colour, according to Mr. Gould. Many specimens, 
with the black chest and chestnut flank-patch, have the crown of 
the head bronzy brown. It may, however, be some time before the 
full black head is assumed, as the lores are partly whitish, which I 
take to be a sign of immaturity. 



126 CHABiiDBIIDiB. 

Toung, Above brown, a little more dusky on the mantle and 
greater coverts ; quills and tail-feathers as in the adult, but several 
of the latter with brown marks near the end of the outer web ; 
sides of face brown ; cheeks and throat white ; chest-band brown, 
with a band of blackish feathers across the fore-neck ; the chestnut 
patch on the sides of the body less extended and paler ; under tail- 
coverts spotted with brown ; remainder of under sur£au)e of body 
white, the coverts round the bend of the wing dark brown. 

Hci>. Australia only. South Australia to New South Wales and 
north to the Gulf of Carpentaria, and N.W. Australia. Mr. Gould 
says that this species is a summer visitor to New South Wales, and 
Mr. Seebohm states that it winters in Queensland, on what authority 
I have been unable to discover. Mr. Eamsay does not include it 
in the Queensland list at alL 

a. Ad. sk. Australia. Gould OolL 

b. Ad. sk. Australia. Sir D. Cooper [P.]. 

c. Ad. sk. River Murray, S. Australia, Gould ColL 

Nov. 

d. Ad. sk. New South Wales. Gould Coll. 

e. Ad. sk. Boolgat, N. S. W. Lord Leigh [P.l 

/. Juv. sk. River I>EU-ling, Oct. J. G6uld. Esq. [C.]. 

g. Ad. sk. [Queensland.] Tweeddale ColL 

h, t. Ad ; k, Juv. [Queensland (/. T, CockereU),] Salvin-Godman ColL 

sk. 

/, m. cJ ? ad. sk. Derby, N. W. Australia ( T, H, Capt Bowyer Bower 

Bincyer Bower). [P.]. 

5. DEFILIPPIA. ,^ 

Type. 

Nomusia, Heugl MSS, 1859 (teste Heugl 1873: 

nomen nudum). 
Heminarra, De Filippi, Atti Soc, Ital. viii. p. 270 

(18o5 : nomen nudum) D. crassirostris. 

Defilippia, Salvad. Atti Soc. Ital. viii. p. 373 (1865). D. crassirostris. 
Limnetes, Finsch ^ Hartl Vog. Ostafr. p. 640 (1870). D. leucoptera. 

Bange. From the Upper White Nile district throughout the whole 
of Eastern Africa as h.T south as Natal. 

Keg to the Species, 

a. Secondaries blackish, with a little white at 

the extreme base crassirostris, p. 126. 

b. Secondaries pure white leucoptera, p. 127. 

1. Defilippia crassirostris. (Plate VII. ^g. 2.) 

Chettusia crassirostris, De Filippi in Hartl. J.f, O. 1856, p. 427 ; 

Antin. Cat, descr. Ucc. p. 98 (18G4 : Khartoum ; Sobat Kiver) ; 

Gray, Hand4. B. iii. p. 11, no. 9958 (1871, pt.). 
Vanellus niacrocercus, IleitgL Sgst. Uebers. p. 55 (1850: White 

Nile, from 10°S.lat.) ; id. J.f. O. 18G3,jp. 163(GazeUe River). 
Chettusia macrocerca, Bp. C. Jl. xlii. p. 419 (1850). 
Hemiparra crassirostris, De Filippi, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. viii. 

p. 370 (1865 : descr. nulla) ; Heugl. inPetenn. Mitth. 1809, p. 415 ; 



5. DiriuPFU. 127 

id. Orm, \,0.'A/r. ii. pt. 1, p. 094, pi. xxxiu. (1878 : Sobat R.; 
(JixeUe H. : I>^wor Kir K.. from 10^-7° X. lat.) ; FiscAer, J.f. O. 
1K«<>, p. 1 10 (Ttchara ; N>niruniiin). 
Defilippm cra»iroslrij», i^iiroii. Atti Soc, ItaL Sd. Nat. viii. p. 378 
(liW,). 

VftnelluA rra<«irostri8, Schl. M«$, Ptty'Daa, Cunoreii, p. 00 (1865 : 
WhiU? Nile) ; Seeh..htn, Gt^jr. Dittr. Charadr,^. 214 (1888, pt). 

ChettiuiA nivifronis (Jrjd^, Proe. Aead. Nat. Set, Fhilad. 1871, p, 106, 
pi. 1. 

limnetes crawtirodtri^ Fifcher^J.f, O. 1879, p. 206 (Wapokomo- 
Uod) ; id. A- Hrichm. t. c. p. .'137 (Tachara) ; id. Zeitschr. ge$. Onu 
i. p^893 (1885: Mawu-land, brrtniing) ; lieichen. J, f. O. 1887, 
p. 47 (Kap'hi: E. fmm Victoria Nyanza) ; id. J.f. O. 1802, p. 7 
( Murchiflim llaj, \'ictona N jansa). 

Adult. Similar to A leucoptera^ described in fall below, but 
diffmivr in the Icsm extent of tho bLick on the hind-neck, and in 
the quilln being almostt entirely black, the secondaries having a 
little white at the extreme base : ** basal half of bill riolot flMh- 
eoloar, the apic:il h:ilf blick; naked orbital skin coral-red; feet 
•earl«i, the scotOH marked with violet-black ; solos of feet vermilion ; 
tht scarlet ** {I/nvjlin). Total length 11*5 inches, culmen 1*3, 
wimr 8-2, tail a- 7, larsos 2-^5. 

Hah, N.E. Africa, from the Upper White Nile to the Victoria 
Nyaoza and eaiit to Witn. 

«. Ad. sk. Equatorial Afirica. Purchased. 

2. DefllippiA lencopt6ra^ (Plate VIL fig. 1 .) 

Chrttujiia crasflirustris {nee De FU.), Kirk, IMi, 1864, p. 331 (Kiver 

Shir^). 
LimnftM cnissiro*»tri« (nee De FiL), Finseh ^ Ilartl. T 07. 0$ta/r, 

p. iV4l ( 1^70) ; Bohm, J. f. O. Iss2, p. 184 ( Kakoma, in Ugalla) ; 

Maisekir, J. f. O. 18*<7, p. 1 14 (I'jamba I^e). 
H"pl"pteru« crawirostria (wrc i>e -f 1/.), Xtfya/t/, /6i>, 1871, p. 106 

(S. Luci iUvA). 
Liibiranfllus kll'iivpti {nee Gould)^ Holuh Sr Von Pelz. Beitr. Om, 

S^tfr. p. 240 (18^2: Znmbefti; Alb(*rt I.And) ; Skarjie, ed. 

lytyi'trdn Ii. S. Afr. jjp. (tt;7, f^'} (1884) ; Skellty, Ibi$, 1804, p. 06 

<T<<:hir»m(»; I'pjier hliir^). 
iMilippia rraMiru«trui {n^ J)e Fil.), Skarpe, ed. Laird's B. 8. Afr, 

y «Vw ( l'^4 : S. Luria IJav). 
Va?>IltM l#-ac<»pt4»ni«», Itricken. J.f, O. 1>^, p. 2<»5 (Quilimane) ; 

yi.JB. J/amb. H'iM. Atttt. p. (lM>:j); id. IV^. D^uttck. Ott-Afr. 

p. ;>KM*n. 
II^-miiiajTm rniMirr>«trii, JIartert, Kai. VogeU. Senekenb. Mus, 
p. '.'1^ (IKU : Si'iiaar). 

* I>r. Rp»<'ljrfu>« luu {vjiiitrd otit to tm* that nij IK hurn>itm is t\te Mime m» 
f.j» Vimrllm* Uw> /4eru» frntii Quiltnuune. He irriten to me ttiat tiie Berlin 
II M^us* nri?itjun« ft ■perim«fi fmiu Kakoma in UgalU, C()llect4<d bj the latt 
I<T R IVLj:i. «hirh be cutiaidiT^ to U* A >oun^ btraof I). Utu^tjtf'ra ami nut of 
//. fn^mtr-^trM. It Km the vhitr priiiiarirt and ■ecimilaries toried with bUck 
oMriior* vKfh woulii npfiarrnt!/ di^pfiear and Imre the whole of thcee 
i-il'jt wmV |>r lU'.vUm"W ar.Mml^rt it pmlnble that all i>|)eciinenj obtained 
mmOh «iltbe Panfam aixl Uir ttntlurni end of the Viot'jria Njauza will befuuud 
'jt* %donf tw V. iiwcofttera. 



128 CHjUtADRnpa:. 

Tanellns ciaanio«tna (nee De Fa.), SheSey, Ibia, 1894, p. 474. 
Defilippia buirowsii, Sharps, Buli. B. Q. 6. no. xz. p. It (Oct 1894). 
DefiUpma Uncoptara, Sharpe, BuU. B, O, C. no, zxi. [p. vii (Nov. 

Adult. Oeneral colour above light ashy brown, greyer on the 
BOapnlars ; lower back darker brown, Buoceedod by a blaok band 
ooroes the rump ; lower rump and npper tail-coverts white ; tail- 
feathere glossy black, white at the extreme base ; wing-corerta 
entirely white, as also the quills, excepting the three outer primariee, 
Thich are black, and the inner secondaries, which are brown, with a 
slight gloss of metallic green ; forehead and fore part of crown, eye- 
brow, entire sides of face, and ear-coverts white, like the throat ; the 
middle of the crown, nape, and hind-neck glossy blue-black, united to 
a broad pectoral band which occupies the fore-neck and entire upper 
breast ; remainder of under surface of body, including the under tail- 
ooverts, under wing-coverts, and axillarieB, pure white: "feet rosy 
nolet, with the lat^ scales of the tarsus blackish ; base of bill Tiolet> 
the end hlack ; eyelid bright carmine ; iris scarlet " {K. Bohm). Total 
length 11-5 inches, cnlmen 1'3, wing 7'9, tail 3-7, tarsus 3-1. 

H<A. South-eastern Africa, from 8. Lucia Bay to the Zambesi, 
and north to the Ugalla Country, and perhaps to the Pangani. 

a. Ad. flL Lower Shii£ Valley [Sir J. Livingstone Expedition. 

Kirk). 
ft. Ad. sk Elephant Msish, Shir€ Livingstone Expedition. 

VaUey, Jan. (SirJ. Kirk). 
e.AAd. sk. Upper ShirS River, Not. H. H. Johnston, Esq., 

(A. whyti). CB. rc.]. 

«. Ad. sk. TscMromo, Sept. (A. WhuU). H. H. Johnston, Esq., 

c.B.rc.]. 

/. J ad.; g~h. Lake Shirwa, May, June H. H. Johnston, "Eaa., 
Sad.sk. {A. Whyie). C.B. [C.]. (Types of 

D. hoTTOWtiL) 

6. SAHCIOPHORUS. ,^ 

Type. 
Sarciophonis, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 32 S. tectus. 

Ranije. Africa, from Sencgamhia to N.E. Africa, south to Equa- 
torial AMca ; Somali-land and the Teita dbtrict in Eastern Africa. 

Key to the SptcUt. 

a. White frontal band narrow fectug, p. 128. 

6. White frontal band broad laH/nme, p. 130. 

1. SarcioplioniB tectua. 
Pluvier du S^nSgal, DAuienton, PI. Enl ii. pi. 834. 
Le Pluvier coiffd, Buff. Hiet. Nat. Oi». viii. p. 100 (1781). 
Charadrius tectus, Bodd. Tab!. IH. Enl. p. 61 (1783). 
Hooded Plover, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt I, p. 215 (1785). 
Charadrius pileatus, Gm. Syel. Nat. i. p. 691 (17cl8) ; Wagl. Suit. 

Av., Charadrius, sp. 6, p. 57 (1827). 
Sarcionhorus pileatus, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33; Oray, Litt 

Grail. Brit. Mm. p. 60 (1844 : Abysainia) } Mpp. Syst. UAtr*. 



6. tARCIOPBORrt. 120 




dofaiu ; FinM'h, Tntn*. /. S. vii. p. 'J\Hi { IbTO: RuDiuaUi; AiUt). 
IIopl<i)iU-ru« t<N*tu(i, Orm/,Orn. li. iii. p. h\*2 ( 1H47) ; id, liand-l. B. ill. 



p. l:«, uo. in>7.i(lM71); Hf'utfL Om, S.O,-Afr, ii. pt. 1, p. 10(W 
< 1*C«3 : Tiikiih ; S>utlii*m Nubia ; not mre on A'bvMinian coa^^t-land 
and tb« i.^landit of the Uahlak Arrhip. ; on the lower Mareb and 
Takaiii^: litnriw; QaLibat ; Senaar; Kordofan : south to Sobat 
Kivr); llnrti, AfJ^andl. not. Ver. Bremen^ viii. p. ^.'U (1883: 
Kiuatirial Africa). 
llMpf.»pt«TU«i pileatu-s Rrichenh, llandh, Grail, tab. xdx. fig. 703 

5WkiMt.bi>rui pilt*atu% lleugl, Syd. l'fl>er$, p. ho (LnX): Nubia; 
Kiiru'ifan; Si'iiajir). 

l^»l*i%ai)**llu« pileatu*, .SrA/. .Via. Pay$' Bom^ VikTMix^t^, p. 65 (1866: 
S»»n»val; Nubia i. 

Sarri 'plHiru* t»vtu*, lllaHf. Geol. Jj* 'Awl. sAhiftm. p. 4**W (1870: 
An^'ba Vailed): Antin, Jj^ Salvad. Viayy. Biu/iut, p. 144(1873: 
K.rvn ; Sauih'ar; lUrka) : .Wnw, Cat. ^Strickl.' (.\Jl. p. t«)-J (1882: 
K •nl*'f.in' ; Urine if BticAm. yontend. Mtm. Ilrin. p. ii.'K (1800: 
S^-naar; Abvti-inia). 

rhfttiiiiit (Saroii»phi>ru.'«) pileata, FinscAf Pruc. Acad. Philad. 1872, 

I^>b.\an-llu« ttHlii'*. Serhohm, Ct^Hfr. DUlr. Charatlr. p. 197 (1888). 

Admit m*ilr, (iencnil ci»lour alK>ve light brown, somewhat aandy 
in tint. tb«' lt>wi*r bti'k rather murt* duHky brovin ; wing-coverU 
Lkr ihf h:iik, th<* m<*'lian m^rien with narrow white ends, the 
grt-ai* r n.vtrtrt bn»a<ily tipiK-ti with white, forming a broiid wing- 
t-ar . t<i«t,ird-wing and primary -covert a white; quills black, lioth 
|*r:ritr:e« ufi«i mi tnidariert with white bases, the S(*condurit*8 for the 
& *«'. pir whito with black ends but none of them entirely white ; 
t'.r iri:.( nn>><»t M-roiidari(*» lii:ht brown like tbc bnck ; rump, upper 
t i:.-<<>t«-ri«. and tail white, the latter with a bniad terminal bund of 
^U-k. •2"*ri*if»in;r in width on the outer feathers, which have a 
Mfr -w mh:t«* tip: cpiwn of head black, extending in a narrower 
kari'i d •iin the hiiid<nei-k (o the mantle ; a narrow frontal lino of 
»:.:!•• ; l'»rr« black ; f«»re |»art of cheeks and chin white; ear-covertA 
ar*l •;l-* of ntvk bU'-k, with a broad band of white ubovo the 
*mrr»,\,*TXmi th'o.it Mick, narnming into a band of black feathers 

• i* • h t-xt^-nd^ <»ii to the • lii"»t : ?«id«»* of forc-n«'ck and remainder of 
*jod'*r •<irf.i'f i*f Ik-Niy wbitr. inrlading the undtT wing-coverta and 
fti:il«rif*; md'-ii nf up)M*r breast light brown: ** l<»ral membrane 

• uh... fiun-if-vi in ffiMit. crimson; bill nny -scarlet, with a broad 

m 

fl- k ii;- : fe»*t bright n*^\ -crimson ; iris bright yellow " (//^i«///iiiK 
1 4 %l [• r.,:'b h» inches, culmen lU.*), wing 7*4'), tail 3'«>. tarsus 2*3. 
i I'Jt femitU. Similar to the male in plumage. Total length 10 
iw\*0^. r lUw-n I. wing "'."i, tail y*r>, tarsus 2*«t. 

iit*-. >^o«Tf^mbia ; N.K. Africa fn>m Taka and S)uthern Nubia 
1^ ♦Rr s.bi» iJifrr and Sboa. 

t.t li:t. I 



130 CHABADB1ID.V. 

Of b, e. Ad. Bk. River Gambia (Sir A, Shellej Coll. 

Moloney). 
df e. Ad. et jr. sk. Abyssinia. Dr. Riippell [C.]. 

/ 2 ad. sk. Annesley Bay, June 6. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

rc.]. 

ff, (S ad. sk. Koomayli Plain, Abyssinia, Salvin-Oodman Coll. 

June 4 ( W. JeMe). 

h. S »d. sk. Anseba Valley, July. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

[C.l 

%, $ ad. sk. Ailat, Bopros-land, June 25 Tweeddale Coll. 

( W. Jesse). 

k. Ad. sk. Sbua. Dr. Ruppell [C.]. 

2. SarcioplioniB latifrons. 

Sarciophorus latifrons, Reichen. J. f. O. 1881, p. 334 (Berbera) ; id, 
Voff. Deutsch. Ost-Afr. p. 36 (1894 : Teita). 

Similar to S, tectus, but having a broader white band on the 
forehead. 

Hah, East Africa from Somali-land to the Teita district. 

I have not seen a specimen of this species, but Dr. Reichenow, in 
answer to my enquiries, tells me that he still looks upon it as a 
distinct form, geographically well defined. 

7. LOBIPLUVIA. -, 

lyp©. 

Lovipluvia, Bp. C. JR. xliii. p. 418 (18'56) L. malabarica. 

Dilobus, Heine ^ Heichen. Nomencl. Mus. Hein. p. 335 

(1890) L. malabarica. 

Bange, The same as that of the single species of the genus. 

1. Lobipluvia malabarica. 

Pluvier de la C6te de Malabar, D'Aubent. PL Enl ix. pi. 880. 

Pluvi 

Cbaradi 

Wattled 

Charadrius bilobus, Gm. Syst. Kat. ,i. p. b91 (1788); 2>m. Traitd 

d'Orn.jt. 640(1831). 
Charadrius nivop-*, Less. Traiti d'Om. p. 546 (1831) ; Pucker, JRev, 

Zool. 1851, p. 670. 
Vanellus bilobus, Sykes^ P, Z. S. 1832, p. 166 (Deccan) ; Jerd. Madr, 

Jourfi. xii. p. 213 (1840 : India generally). 




Sarciophorus bilobus, i>tnckl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33; Grayy List 
Grail. Brit. Mw. p. 66 (1844); id. Cat. Mamm. etc. Nepal ores. 
HiHjlgs. p. 13l> (1846); BJyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. ISoc. p. 261 
(1849: Calcutta); Licht. Aometicl. Av. Mvs. Beroi. p. 95 (1854: 




(Kathiawai); BIyth, B. Bvrm. p. 153 (1875: Thayetmyo); 
Morgan^ Ibis, 1875, p. 82.S (S. India, breeding); Saltin^Cat 



7. LODIPLVTIi. 131 

Siriekl. CoU. p. 602 (1882) ; Murray, f'rrt^r. Faun, Sind, p. 330, 

Stn'it'ph'TU-* finrm, ll'ulgn. lam. iHrH. m Brtt. Mum., Grail, pi. 60. 

n<i. ^U); id. in (irn/» ZotJ. .l/wr. p. 8'* (1844). 
II-»pl<>ptt*rM< iiialAb.iriou<«, //ray, Gm. li, iii. p. 542 (1S47) ; Mf. 

Iland4. H. iii. p. 12. do. iH^r.i < lr<7l). 
II«iplopt«'nifl iiiyop^, Gra^^ fien. B, iii. p 542 (1847). 
J^-iUpluiia bill* Ha, Up. (\ R. xliii. d. 418 (l8.'j<)). 
I>>hi\iiDoIlu4 bilobui*, *SrA/. Mum, i^/y«- //<u, ("unores, p. 64 (1865: 

N**pa! t, 

SarritiphuruA nuiIalMricu?*, Iloltinr. P. Z. f*. 1872, p. 472 (Cevlon). 

Lobt(>]u%iA iiulAbarirA, Hume, Xe*fA ^ EffpM Jmd. li. p. 577 (1873); 
HmU, Str. K ii. p. iUM (1^74: Chota Na^iir) : /^ Meuurier, 
>(r. F ill. p. 41H \\<rn Sin.lhl; liutter if Hume, Str. F ir. 
p. N {K*\: .Mt.uiit .Vbo.»; N. (luxiTti); liutter, Str. F v. p. 232 
(r'*r7: I»»'f^, ik'X. to M<in*h): Ihicidfun ie U'mdfH, Str. F viL 
|i H^ j|**r>: iK'.raii) ; /»«//, ^ c. p. 227 (Ciunp*.-* to (i«idaverv); 
y/nw^. .Vr. f: \iii. p. 1 12 ( l'*7l») ; />W/^r. (\if. li. Sind, etc. p.' 59 
(l-*::*! ; id. <\ft. li. S. liomh. iWf. p. 74 (IS-^M; l^f^t/r, li. Oylon^ 
i.i. p. *>•-» |I**H»»; IWii/, Str. F IX. p. ^*2(1^<0:*S. Konkan); 
liut{er,t.r. p. 4i'7 ( I »»Nvan ) ; Parker, t.c. p. 4**2 (N.W. Cevlon, 

/^iM(/<./M. r. r. p. ;»!'.» 1 1'*'^2 : \\Vf«t Klian«i««i«h, hre-dinfr) ; Hume^ 
t r. p. A\:\ iHsJ: M\jMin); Oife^, Hand/,, li. lint, liunn. ii. 
p. :i7."i (I •*"{!; Strin't-e A* liarnfn, Ihi/t, l^*^"*, p. l.'W (Mhow 
il;«i:». 1 1 ; r>nd"r, Sfr. F. X. p. 4»*h) < l****7 : Mauz»MT.ib:i<l. Mwk>re); 
ni'r*, rt. Hum-'* \riif< A- Fii't* Ind. li. iii. p. 'Mo (IxJH)). ' 
L hn.r>liu« inalalmrtou'*, Serf^>hm, tit'njr. DiMr. Charadr. p. 193 

1>: ■•' I- tn.il:ib;iri.Mi«. Hrine if Reirhen. yotneml. Mu». Hein. p. 335 

A '"■!.'/ m.i^. <f«n»'r:il o«»lt>nr aK)vo li:;ht brown, the lower back 
Ta-'f** -i .•iw) br»»wri ; win;;-rovcrts rath«T iii*»rf» asliy brown than the 
S» fc. !r.f m*-!i.iTi nfrirs v\ith narrow white e.liriiii^H; the f^reator 
f i.r** \%",it»'. with hr»wii hri.v> ; ha«*tar«l-winj^» priinary-c.»vert«, 
ATi : . i i • Nl.i.k. lhi» j»ri!ii;irio> white :it thi* base of the inner web; 
»•■'•-.: If.' * \%lu!»- .it t!.<' h.i^i* i)i ]n»th wi'bs, the wliit-.* incrc'l^«lnf^ 
*. n xri'» «li*» iiiTuT ^•■»• »!ul irir*i, until the bla«'k lorini onlv a 

m 

f'ii«i!]\ •limitti-tliini; tnrirk at t(.<* eii'l, an«l tiiially (IiMip|M-are, 
i' J. r.^» *':if inn#T ii'iili-* ot'tlii^ siTit-s rntiirly whitr; th«' iiint-nnost 
w. ■•. :ir:. * > r"w:i Uk** ll.«' h-n-k : rump nii'l upp«T t iil-ei»Vfrtj* puro 
»' •• . t i:l-'*-ith« r-% I'lr thf iijmM pirt purr whitr, thi» crntre 
?•■*•*.• r« witli :i nn- i: in ^!^ i-h* nl" liu'ht hntwn, foll(»\^riI bv ft 
'r I't ' t »■ k triml it'ton* tin* tip. wliii-h in uN) li^ht brown ; 
r»:ji» 'J :tr .i* ih«» t.iil-ti i''!i»r«. pun* wiiii<», an<I with hr«ii«l white 
»• :• '.-('•'•• «bii'*i \\.t' |i|.|ik baM'l i"* nmrt* «»r h-.*** htri»n;:ly deve- 
« - 1. b jf <iirii!!ii»'i*'* in I'xi.'ii* t'lwanit tli»' outiT tfathcrx, the two 
■ .•*-•:;-• Iw iti;; iMitirrly whiti- ; crown of h«*a«l and najM» ^loMV 
? » *. . •: |.* ot I.HV. ^i«l—» oi ni-''k. throat, and ftin* mck li;:ht a^hr 
"• 'lr»'» 'if.iwn ; i n irr«»w bund of while ah.»vi< the rar-eovertu; 
r* :•. r.Ii k, rxt.-'idin? A littlf w ly on thf up|M'r th:>»a? : tho brown 
«*f •.:••• i r*-ni-«k li-'f-h-rM In-1'»w by a Iwnd of bhuk ; remainder of 
vairr »'irf4''r of bofl% pure m'bit«*, inrl tiding the uniii-r win{;-<*overt« 



132 



CHABADRIIDJ5. 



and axillaries : " bill black, pale lemon-yellow at base ; feet, 
wattles, and eyelids pale lemon-yellow ; iris brownish grey " 
{E. A. ButUr). Total length 9'6 inches, culmen 11, wing 8-1, 
tail 3*1, tarsus 2*55. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 10 
inches, culmen 1*1, wing 8*2, tail 3*3, tarsus 2*55. 

The adult male described from the Futtehgurh district certainly 
has the two outer tail-feathers pure white ; but this does not seem 
to be always the case, as other birds, equally adult, have the outer 
feathers brown along the outer web, while the band is represented 
on the penultimate tail-feathers by two dots, which are also 
sometimes seen on the outermost feathers. 

Youiuj. Pale brown like the adult, but the whole of the upper 
surface mottled with transverse dusky bars, the feathers with pale 
sandy margins, the central tail-feathers also barred with brown and 
sandy colour at the extreme tip ; a streak behind the eye slightly 
indicated ; chin white ; throat ashy. 

The wint-er plumage is apparently exactly like the full plumage, 
with the exception that the head is brown and the throat ashy 
brown, paler on the chin, which is whitish. 

The young bird, when full-grown, resembles the adults, but shows 
remains of the sandy margins of the upper surface, the sides of the 
crown being marked with blackish ; the wattles arc also smaller 
than in the adults. 

liah. Indian Peninsula generally, and N.W. Ceylon. 



a. Ad. sk. 

b. Ad. sk. 

c. d, $ ad. sk. 

0. c^ ad. sk. 

/. Ad. sk. 
g^ h. Ad. sL 

t, kf L Ad. et imm. 

sk. 
m, n. Ad. sk. 
o-r. Ad. sk. 
9-x. cJ 5 ad. sk. 

y. Ad. sk. 
2, a'. Ad. sk. 
b'. Ad. sk. 
c'. Ad. sk. 
d', cJ ad. sk. 
«'. cJ ad. sk. 
y, ff'. Ad. sk. 
h'. 5 imm. sk. 

t'. 2 ad. sk. 

k'f /'. (S ad. ; m'- 

p', 2ad. et imm. 

sk. 



India. 

Below Mount Aboo. 

Umbnla, Jan., Nov. {Dr. 
Scvtt). 

Siwalik Distr., March (i?. C. 
Beavan). 

Delhi, May. 

Oudh, Jan., Feb. (A. An- 
derson), 

Oudh. 

Lucknow, May 14. 

Etawah, Dec. 

Futtehgurh Distr., Jan., Feb. 

(A. Anderson), 
Benar. 

Nepal (B, H. Hodgson). 
DcujilinjT (Col. Sharpe). 
Dacca (Co/. Tytler). 
Kaipur, Feb. 15. 
Nagpur, April 13. 
Saugor {Ilooper), 
Mhow, Dec. 2S. 

Dhulia, Kbandeish, July 15. 

Ahmednuffgur Distr., Nov. 

to April (aS'. B, Fairhank). 



Purchased. 
Hume CoU. 
Seebohm CoU. 

Tweeddalo Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Pinwill Coll. 

Colonel Way [P.]. 
Hume Coll. ' 
Hume Coll. 

Hodgson Coll. 
India Museum. 
Seebohm Coll. 
India Museum. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
India Museum. 
Colonel Swinhoe 

[P.]. 

Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 



8. MICROS A BC0P8. 



133 



f . r . « . A J. tk. 
r. A.J. •k. 
■ . ^ Ad -k. 

r 2 td. <ik. 

r'. X ftd. ftk. 

r . Ad. Ilk. 

p . • Bd. *k. 

z I ad. *'k. 
- . Ad. »k. 
i i «d. •ik. 

<• Ad. «k. 
^ /ad. »k. 

* . i ad !kk. 
y Ad ^k. 



lUndipiir. MyM>rt», May 24 

( ir. I)avi»on). 
.SH»Ln»r»», F..'b. 22 ( H'. 

Ihcinon ). 
Sultan*f« liatterv, Wynaad, 

Jan. li\ { H'. lianMot^). 
Haninilon*, April 4 (R. G. 

ir. /?.). 

S^^cunderabiid, (K*t. {O. M, 

S/auf/ktrr ). 
MmlniN June (/?. ^. JV. IL). 
Mndra*«. 
itt'ljraiiin. April 15 {E, A, 

Hutier). 
Aujan>n^, Tnivancjie, l>ec. 
TivvaiHlnini, June 20 (/'. 

liiturtiiW'H). 
Kolathul. J nil. 2'). 

(Vvlon iXrrili). 

s. MICROSARCOPS. 



Indim Museum. 
TwetMldale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

S(H*bohm Coll. 

Twee<ldale Coll. 
Twooddale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume C^nll. 
Hume Coll. 

F. W. Iloiirdillon, 

RhI fC.l. 
Twt'«Hiifale Coll. 
India Museum. 



lUtvjt, Eastern Siberin, aouth to hrittHh Burma and Eastern 

1 . M icrotarcopt cinerexu. 

Pi i\: iiiii-* iMi»T»'a. lilyth, J. A. S. limtj. xi. p. .V7 ( HJ2: Calcutta). 
L b.\aii»*Ilii* iii'tnmttiN </ir»' SvrainAA^ 7'emm. 6c Shi. Fann. Jap.^ 

.<r*-. p 1<)»J. pi. «UJ { 1^*7) ; Swinh <. Ihin, iHfJC). p. .^'ly (.\mov) ; 

liiikiU. .V Viyrt, Ihi", 1h7h, u. L»lJ» (Tokio Jinv); iifi. //. Jap. 

}• l'«^ (l>y?2: SiiMiki, T-'kin, bn-t'ilinj) : IHnkiiii, Atnettdrd List 

A J*ip p. L'.'t il'^M: nt>t I'lUiid in YfZ»i or th»* Kurile^); Taczan. 

I* / .V 1 •*-»>, p. 4-i7 (S«'oiil and ('hinmlpi>, (\)r»*a>. 
1, • XA ..-iiii. . iii-nu-. A'/vM. C'lt. li. MuA. A*. S,h\ y. 2«)1 (1849: 

♦ «.. .:!»•: Irfif/. IhiA, I'm;!, p. L'.'t-^ lOiulh); .VA/. .I/m*. Pin/n-htu, 

• I r -.:.-•. p »il» I !**!;.■> : H.-h^mI ; AniDV ; Jwpan) : Srtfmthm^firfifr, 
Ih^tr rJi/truiir p. I-*:; ( l^-H?*! ; k/, //.' Jap. Em p. p. .'til (iMM): 
^ » •*!« Mil ; .Vyi#/#. ///M, 1**!M, pp .'l.'J'», 7i<».J i I^>Mvr Yttn>rt»*»* ; 
K uk.aii.*!. H'.A. S,/tittr, IhiM, 1K»2, p *^7 (CaJrultn) ; CamjMl, 

t * p 1,'4«» >«"MlI, C.lPiNll. 

*•*- '.'MMimii- ir;-»rn.it»j*. lip. (\ Ji. xliii. p. Jl** (I'^VM. 

4 .^!!..*ia in>*ruiiU, JfW. li. Imi. iii. p. ti4»j (|S»1: Purneah ; 
I u -•*« • 

i ii«-'.!u«.A rin'-n-a, Suinh"r, /'. /. .s*. 1m».'{, p. tVHi ( Yanjrt*«» and 
< '•iitr«] rhir.a); Ultinf. Jftm, 1**70, p. 470 (liif^HHiu) ; StcinMoe^ 
/' / .S. 1*71. p. 4'»-'4 «li.ink«« nf Yanu'tJ*" ti l*«-kin ; .MnntruliA) ; 
'>r>ty, Ifami-i. U. III. p. II. no. in*.V» (1«»71); Hunte, Str. F, 
i: p 4*:/ • l'»74 : V»*, Ti'fiiu»«M«rim ) ; uL ttp. nt. iii. p. IHD (1^75: 
r./iij. ///vfA A- HW*/. //. liurm. p. 17120875: Tnn;^h<K*); //irfiui, 
•"tr F \. p .*i47 < l'»77 : .Andaman^); Iktrid iV OuMt. Ou. C%tiM>, 
p 4:rj I 1-77 I ; Humr ^ Mjii^/#i, .Vr /'. \i. p. 47>4» (lf<7»<: Teoa*> 
^tirx,\ ; frtppt, .Wr. /'. tii. p. .**K) (1h7H : Faridpiir) ; Hteme, t, e, 
I 4m3 (CalrutU); i^. Air. F. fiii. p. 112 (l»7t»); Ttraut, Oi$, 



134 CUAKADRIIDJS. 

Baue-Cochinchine, Bull. Aoric. Cttchin, (3) i. p. 146 (1870) ; Oates, 
Str. F. X. p. 238 (1882: Pejru) ; id, Handb. B. Bnt Burm. ii. 
p. 372 (18d8) ; Hume, Str, F. xi. p. 315 (1888 : Manipnr) ; Gates, 
Ibis, 1888, p. 73 (Bhamo) ; De la ToucAe, Ibis, 1802, p. 496 (Fuo- 
chow, spring). 
Chtettusia cinerea, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 1(55. 

Adult male. General colour above light brown, with a slight 

bronzy gloes ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and base of tail whito ; 

terminal third of the tail black, forming a broad band, the tips 

white with a slight sub-terminal shade of brown ; the black band 

vanishing towards the outer tail-feather, which is entirely white ; 

wing-coverts brown like the back, but a little paler ; the median 

coverts with narrow white tips, except the out<T ones, which are 

pure white ; greater coverts nearly entirely white, with brown at 

the extreme base, increasing in extent on the inner ones ; bastird- 

wing dark brown ; j^rimary-co verts and quills black ; secondaries 

pure white, the outer ones dusky near the ends, the inner ones 

externally light brown, and the innermost brown like the back ; 

crown of head, nape, and hind-neck, as well as the entire sides of 

the face and neck, throat, fore-neck, and chest light pearly grey, 

with a narrow black band across the upper breast ; chin rather paler 

grey ; remainder of under surface of body, including the under 

wing-coverts and axillaries, pure white: "basal two-thirds of bill 

deep yellow, the terminal third black ; feet dull yellow, claws 

black; edges of eyelids and lappets deep yellow '*(^. W, Oate^l, 

Total length 14 inches, culmen 1*4, wing 9-2, tail 4, tarsus 2-65. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in plumage. Total length 14*5 
inches, culmen 1*4, wing 9*4, tail 4*2, tarsus 2*7. 

Adults in winter jplumage. Differs from the summer plumage in 
having the grey of the head and throat washed with brown, espe- 
cially on the chest ; the black band on the chest obscured by ashy 
or whitish tips to the feathers. 

Younrf, Distinguished from the adults by the want of the black 
band across the upper part of the breast ; the entire head and 
throat brown, instead of grey, the centre of the chin and upper 
throat white, with dusky streaks on the sides of the throat. 

Hab. From Corea and the Southern Japanese islands to Mongolia 
and Northern China, wintering in Southern China, the Indo- 
Burmese countries, and N.E. Bengal. 

a. Ad. sk. Darjeeling. India Museum. 

b, c. Ad. sk. Dipur Bheel, Assam, Nov. Tweeddale (]Ioll. 

(A. W, ChenneU). 
d, e, f. Ad. sk. Pumeah. Pin will Coll. 

/7. Ad. St. Calcutta (E. BlytK). India Museum. 

h-x. o ? ad. sk. Calcutta, Oct. to Jun. (A. O, Hume Coll. 

H. ^ W. T, Blanford). 
y, z. Ad. sk. Dacca. Hume Coll. 

a'. 2 ad. sk. Faridpur, Feb. 4 (J. B. Hume Coll. 

Cripps). 
b'-f. Ad. sk. Manipur, March {A. O. H.). Hurae Coll. 

g'-k'. 6 2 ad. sk. Tonghoo, Nov. to Jan. Tweeddale Coll. 

{R. G. W. R.). 



9. HOPLOXTFriBUt. 135 

/. jkd. tk. SittAO^ ValUv. Dec. 1*9 Tweeddole CoU. 

m\ Ad. tk. Ua«Min, IV^u. W. T. BUuford, Em. 

■'. Ad. A. Petru, l)«»c.26( A. O. W, R.). Tweediiale Coll. 

•', /. S i Ad. tk. Lower IV'>:u,Oci. (E. IF. O.). Omies Coll. 

f '. .\d. Hk. Port Hlair, 8. .\ndAaianfl. Ilumo Coll. 

r'-r'. (f 2 Mi- *k« Tbatoue, T**D)i.vi«rini, Oct. to llutne ColL 

Dec. ( H'. Davison). 

r'-a". dT 9 «<d. tk. SitUng Uiver, Ffb.( IV, Davi- Hume Cull 

4 . .U. Ui. Yt*a)ioo, IKm*. 20 (J. Darling), Hume Coll. 

r '. .\d. Hk. Ye, Marrb ( W. Davison). Huiuo Coll. 

^ . Ad. nk. Canibodiiu M. M<»uhot [C.]. 

#' . .\d. kk. Fokifn, (Miina. (vould CoU. 

/". .\d. Ilk. rh««kianjr, .\pril. Twttnldale Coll. 

/'. Ad. tk. Shanghai. Piin*hased. 

A '. cf ad. ak. Com, Marrb 17. C. W. Campbell, Eaq. 

[P.l. 

i -m \ Ad. ak. Yokohara.i, (X;r. (//. Pryer). Seobobm Coll 

9. H0PL0XTPTSRU8. 

Typa. 
Hoploirptenis Bp C. R, xliti. p. 4H (18.56) II. cavanoi. 

Rm»tye. South America, excepting the wcdtern aud soutbem 
pvrtiona. 

1. Hoplozyptenu cayanus. 

Pliu irr arm** de < 'avennp, I/Auhent. Pi, Enl. ix. pi. fc3.'J ; Buf. 

iiui. Sat. iht. \iii. p. U>2 (17*^1). 
Spur-wiiui-d l*lo\fr, \ttr. H, htth.iien. S^n. \\\. pt. 1, p. 215(1785). 
i bmnulriua i»piDo»us Tar. 7. dm. Sy$f, Sat. i. p. lOl (17^'». 
CbArailriuv cavanus />iM. Ind, Om. ii. p. 74 J) (179iJ) ; LieAt. Vtn, 

Ih-.uhi. p. 76 (iHiTi) ; y/urw. A. iiViM. iii. p. 358 Ott.jO: L.-igoa 

SAiilai. 
Mba^mtiii amiado. Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 2><> (1805). 
r!;aralnii* 'tolatu*. ^\'a'jl. Sij^t. Av. rhuradriu^ p. 59, np. 12(1?^27). 
i':^r«ilriu< -jii!*"**"!' («rr A.), Stuu'ie>i, Britr. Satury. HroM. iv. p. 7(54 

tl-^L't: lilt* J k-lm •:!(.- ). 
I|..j.lwj»i-fU» rayaiiU", (irny. List (rrali. Brit. .\tun. p. f>5 (1844: 

."^ Aiurrirm*; ui. (Sen. //.iii. p. 542 (1*^17); Ilurti. Iiui. Aznra^ 

p Jl il*'l7i; Reuhrnh. (irali. Taf. .\ri\. Ij/. 701 (l''51); 

( 11& m .SiAi»wA. /^rM. tiuian. iii. p. 7.V» ( l**!-**) ; /.iVA/. Sonu-ncl, 

A- Mm*. Ben J. p. IC, il?v>4: Dnt/il ; (iiii.iiui); J/or.rr, i* /. S. 

1<j4«. |. ♦WJ <AK>..r Ui\.T, II..iMliir.t-i ; .V./. .V .V/Zr. Ihin, 18.'jO, 

p *.•-•- < II .ndurit-ii : Vr /. /'. /. S. I *< O, p. -Jtn.) i Ribiihov.». l':«uador) ; 

.v; J^ .Sa/i. /'. /. .V. WI«l, p. l'.«U Lovrer liMyHlif;' tW. i^ /. A'. 

1*«'*7. p. •'it«l (Soiiib haiik of l«o\ifr .\tiia/on«), p. iCi* « lVha«) ; 

Ortfw. //.]»//•/. //. i.j. p. I'J. n-i. Ol•7Jll^7h; /V/r. Orw. /?ra#. 

rp. ll^l. 451 (1^71: \ttra!f; Kio Paruna : tniiu/; ('uyal>a; 
Urra di- Kio N'Vf'»»; •*«- A «V ^/»'. Somrtici. Ar. Snttrop p. 142 
• l-7.1i; III/ P. Z. \ 1*^7.5. p. ;»»!) (.<n«t.i rriu): Atirtiun, Git. 
A'^^''»f'» R*", p •«*) <lH-»2»; fid. Pr"C. Us Sat. Mu$. r'lil 
V ll'Ml'^'^). Tarz. ^ Brrltysch, P. Z. S. Ifyjo. p. llUdUb*- 
koT>»)i Tiici. Om. P^roy, ui. p. .^15(18*^{): Sainn, Ibit, l«8rt, 
p. l77 (Boimima) ; Alkn, BmU. Amtr. Mm. Nmt. UiU. v. p. 149 
(l«Ot: Oij%U). 



136 CHARADRIIDJS. 

Hoploxypterus cayanus, Bp, C. R. zliii. p. 418 (1856). 
Vanellus cayanus, Schl, Mus. Pays-BaSf Cursores, p. 62 (18Go : 
Brazil) ; Seebohniy Geo^r, Distr, Charadr. p. 229, pi. x. (1888). 

Adult male. General colour above light brown, varied with black 
and white markings ; the mantle black ; the upper back brown ; 
the lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail white, the latter 
with a broad black band at the end, fringed with white again at 
the tip ; this black band decreasing in width towards the outermost 
feathers, which are, curiously enough, narrower than the other 
rectrices ; the scapulars white, or white washed with brown, form- 
ing a longitudinal band on each side of the back, which is further 
accompanied by a broad external band of black, consisting of the 
scapulars and adjoining feathers: wing- coverts light brown, the 
median series more ashy, the greater coverts pure white, with ashy 
bases; .primary-coverts and quills black, the outer secondaries 
white,- tipped with black, the inner secondaries pure white, and the 
long innermost ones light brown : forehead and anterior part of 
crown black, extending backwards in a broad line over the eyes and 
joining the black of the sides of the face, which is continued to the 
black mantle and prsepectoral collar ; the lores, feathers below 
the eye, and ear-coverts all black; cheeks, throat, and under 
surface of body pure white, excepting for the broad band of black 
which occupies the fore-ueck and is joined to the black of the 
mantle ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white : " bill blackish 
brown, lower mandible yellowish or fleshy red at the base ; claws 
black ; spur on wing greyish brown ; iris grey-brown ; edge of 
eyelid cinnabar-red " (Netiivied). Total length 8 inches, culmen 1*15, 
wing 5*4, tail 2*3, tarsus 1-75. 

Adult female. ^>imilar to the male in plumage. Total length 
9*5 inches, culmen 1*1, wing 5* 6, tail 2*3, tarsus 1'65. 

Hah. Central America [?] from Hondurjis*, south to South 
America, where it ranges from British Guiana to Southern Brazil. 

a. (S ad. sk. Roraima, British Guiana, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

May 11 (H.miitely). 

b. $ ad. sk. Ourumi, British Guiana, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Dec. (//. WhiUly). -; 

c. d. Ad. sk. Sarayacu, Ecuador (C. Buck' Salvin-Godman Coll. 

ley), 
«. Ad. sk. [Peru.] Berkeley James Coll. 

/iff' (^2 ^d- sl^' Pebas, E. Peru, May, Juue Salvin-Godman Coll. 

{J. Haujctoell). 
A. Ad. sk. Omega, south side of R. Ama- Salvin-Godman Cull. 

zon (A. a. Wallace). 
I. Ad. 8k. Corumba, Matte Grosso {H. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

II. Swith). 
k. cf ad. sk. Rio Parana, Brazil, April 23 Salvin-Godman Coll. 

{J. batterer). 

* After a prolonged search in the Liverpool Museum with Dr. Forbes I 
have been unable to find Le} hold's specimen, nor do the registers afford any 
clue. There is. therefore, no positive evidence tliat the specimen came from 
the "Aloor River,** Central America. 



10. PTIL09CEU8. UM 

10. PTILOSCELIS. . 

I*1jL N^vlU, /;/>. (\ Ji. \liii. |). 411» (IHTMJ) v. rvJplenilen*. 

JiftHjf, The upla:i(ls of Western South America. 

1 . PtilosceliB resplendaiu. 

C'hanulriii* iV'tplfndriH, T*rhnli, Arrh.f. .V/»/. 1>*43, p. .*ift8; id. Sr 
f'aft. FaiiH iWunn., Ar*-M, pp. 4'.*, Ifl^o (1M'» 4*\). 

Vat,f!lu» ptil>i<*<-tli!«. (t'nty \ Mitch. (Sen. It. iii. p. o41, pi. Mo 
1 1*^17 »; lirirhrnb. (irali. Tnf. c«'xcix. tij.'. 24:M (1^4^); Gray, 
ii^iiiti'/. /;. iii. p. 11, no. l«Cc> ( 1^7 1 ). 

\ tii^-llju* r»!»pl»*inl»MiP. (iray, dm. H. iii. p. tVll (lK47): Licht, 
y*»n»^HiL Ar. Mun. IffrJ. p. a'> (lH.">4 : IVru) ; Sci. V. Z. S. 1N">8, 
p. .VMM iNmiii. F>uador> : •>/. /*. /. S. \>*A%\ p. '^•J (Quito) ; id. * 
.S.j/r. /*. /. S. lHK». p. l.">i$ (TintA, IVrii); iid. Somefici. Ar. Seo- 
tn,f..\K \VJ{\<:i): Tarz. P. A. S, ls74, p. "mK) (Juiiin; Marav- 
nio I: iV/. vV lirriep*ch, P. A. S. l''^^ P. H** (hxundor); M. 
P. 'A. S. l?*«yj, p. 4(>.i iSitniiA jind Siw^ayH.TaniiMu^a) : Tacznn. Oth, 
/Vn#M. iii. p .'U'^»( 1h*m;: TuriiiiiK SeefntAm^dnH/r. Ih'*fr.Charadr. 
p. !*■> (1**^»; Sri. P. /. .V. IHJM. p. \'M\ (Tanii»aca); lierkelty 
Jamr», Srtr Lift (*hilitiH li. p. 11 (1K>:^: TarapJini). 

I^iil .iH-«'l\* if'pU-init'iJN Up. C. li. xliii. p. 41i» (Ix-'MJ). 

Adult nutU. (icn(*ral colour alnne hrown, frloMst^l with metallic 
i:rr#n or purpIiMi hronzc ; wapulun* like the hack; leaser wing- 
c-»Ti-rt* hrMun the lower row hronzy jrn»t^n ; nu*<lian cowrta hlacker, 
Adi iL 'ff (iidtiiirtlx };Io<tSi*rl with metallic | urple : greater coverta 
pure whitf, with coiiceale<l du-ky ha*»es : hastard-win*;, primarj'- 
4^>Ti*nii, iiud (|uilU hlack, the pnmarieH with concealed white baAoa, 
tut the M*^>ndarie!i white at the h.iae« increasinf^ on the inner ones', 
«L4-r«r thr white (KX'Upies quite half of the feathen), a.** well em the 
who!f of the (Miter w«'h (»f the interior quills ; the innermoiit second- 
&n«-« hr«i«n like the hack; lower hark and rump more duaky 
\'r*>%u than the rc^t «»f the hack ; nides of rump, upfHT tail-coverta, 
bn 1 t.»il v^hiti- : the tail-t«'athtT!i with a hnuid huh-tenuinul haiifi of 
I'iv k jfiff-ilnl |i\ a hrown shade, the ends of the feather?* l>eing 
m:.rr. fh*- hla«*k h.-md di^cn-a-in;; in width towards the outermost ; 
Lrvi ifiil aide^ «»f fare, throat, and sidca of neck Ii;;ht ashy hrowo, 
«*t:t A uhitf* I dlar round th«* hin<l neck; up]K*r throat whitinh ; 
ill'- li«i-r thront .md fort*-net-k rather darker a<*hv. foHowtMl hv a 
barrel* Mark hand on the rheM : reniuinfler of under surface white, 
'.t.'liiiue th«* thitrhs undi-r uiti^- and tail-coVfrt.>«, and the axil- 
lar.«-« . ** hill pink at th«* ha<»«*. nHldi<*h hrovi n at the tip; f«*et and 
tu^ pifik : r\ilid and inn pink *'(//. H7ii>r/#/). Total length 18 
ift*"?.*^, cull** n 1 •-'.'», winp > 1>. tail 4*1, taraus li'O.'i. 

A l^it umnU. Similirto th«* niah* in c<dour. Total length 13 
it'h*«. «alm«n \•'^, wing *^**, tail iJ*7. tar-^us 1*1*. 

a ih Wc^trm Siuth America, from Ecuador to Tarapaca. 

« Ad. tk. hViudor. Sahin-(iodman ColL 

* >^ aii ak. Vrumt^oT { ButkUy). Seirbohiu (^oll. 

r Ad ak Sarayaca, l-IruadorCMcAI^). Sal rin-Oodiiiaii Coll. 



138 rUARADRlIDJB. 

dy e. cJ ad. sk. Maraynioe, £cuador, May Warsaw Museum 

{JiUki), ' [E.]. 

/. Ad. ek. Peru. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

y, A. cJ $ ad. sk. Tinta, Peru, May, June Salvin-Godman GolL 

(H, WhiielyY 

if A:. cJ ? ad. sk. Tinta, Peni, May, June Seebohm OolL 

{H. WhttelyV 

^ m. (^ ; n. cf ad. Sitani, Tarapaca, Jan. {^A. A. Berkeley James Coll. 
sk. Lane), 

Of p, g. 6; r. $ Sacava, Tarapac&, Feb., Berkeley James Coll. 
ad. sk. M'arch {A. A, Lane), 

11. LOBIVANELLUS*. ^^p^ 

Lobivanellus, Strickl. P. Z. -S. 1841, p. 33 L. lobatus. 

Lobibvx, Hffine ^ Heichen, Nomend, Mus. Hein. Om, 

p. 334 (1890) L. lobatus. 

Range, Africa generally, below the deserts of the Soudan. 
Australia and the Papuan Islands. 

Key to the Species f. 

a. Sides of face and hind neck white ; throat white ; 

forehead and crown black. 

a'. Sides of chest black ; a black band also crossing 

the hinder neck above the mantle and joining 

the black crown, so as to inten-upt the white 

collar lobatuSf p. 139. 



* There is Rome difficulty about the adoption of this name, and according 
to Dr. Stejnefircr these birds ought to bear the name of Parra of Linnaeus (Syst. 
Nat. i. p. 259, 1766). This is a radical change, however, which I cannot bring 
myself to adopt ; but I have dropped the name of Parra for the Jacanas, in 
consequence of the confusion which surrounds it. 

Dr. Stejneger (Auk, ii. p. 339) has shown that the genus Parra of Linnsus 
is a composite one with 5 species, as follows : — 1. P. dominica ; 2. P. senegaUa ; 
3. P.jacana\ 4. P. variabilis; 6. P. chavaria. 

Admitting the Brissonian genus Jacana, which Is additional to Parra of 
Linnaeus, Nos. 3 and 4, which are identical, become eliminated, and the type 
of the genus Parra, L., must be sought for in Nos 1 , 2, and 5. Chauna was 
created by Illiger in 1811 for P. chavartOy and therefore, as Dr. Stejneger 
admits, the type must be restricted either to Nos. 1 or 2, which, he snys, are 
* Old World ' Charadriida. The name Parra dominica^ L., is founded on the 
'Vanneau arm6 de S. Domingue' of Brisson (Orn. v. p. 118), and that of 
P. senegalla, L., founded on the ' Vanneau arin6 du Senegal ' of Brisson {t. c. 
p. Ill, pi. X. fig. 2). My conclusion is that Lobivanellus of Strickland must be 
retained for L. lobatw, though the most typical species in his mind in 1841 
was probably L. goeima. This, however, was made the tjpe of Sarcoprammvt 
by Beichenbaeh in 1852 ; and all the other species enumerated by Strickland 
have had some generic name given to them, with the exception of Parra domi- 
nica of Linna?us, a species which 1 have not been able to identify, and for 
which I propose that the generic name of Parra , L.. now surrounded by so 
much uncertainty, shall be retained by those who wish to do so. 

t The form of the facial lappet varies somewhat in the Australian and 
African species; but the Australian birds themselves do not entirely agree in 
this respect. 



11. LOBI?A!fXLLUS« 139 

h'. Sitlcm Mf cbent bniwn; tbf» rtat of the under 

mirfjice white ; a complete white collar on the 

hind i-.eck : no bliu'k ban*! acrui^ the latter . . mt(fe#, p. 140. 

k. ^it1**« of fjuv whitiMi, ^tr«*ak<*4l with bruwu ; throat 

biM'k: a whit4> fnaiial (uitrh ; hind neck bruwu 

lii^f* the bai'k, with no whit** culUr. 

c'. Sid*4 of brwi^t and Hnnkri a^hy bn>wn like the 

bi>*a»t it.it^lf; no blui'k i»nti'b on the sides of 

th** abdoiurn ten^afut^ p. 141. 

^. A blacki?>h |mtch on the >idf(i of the abdomen . . lateraiU, p. 144. 

1. Lobivanalloi lobatnt. 

Wattl«*d Sandpiper, Lath, Om. 6yii. Sujtpl, ii. p. 318 (IdOl : New 

S«iulh Wule:.). 
Trin:;a lobata, I^th. Ind. Om. Sii/wl. p. Ixv (1801 : AuMralia). 
V«n.-nu^ h.bHtu*, I'iriJL y. Dirt, cfi/uf. Sat, xxxv. p. I'OU (lttl9)i 

id. Knc. Meth. iii. p. 1075 ( 1HJ3). 
Van^-lluA n'jT.f-hollandi;!-, Sie^tkeM in Shaw** Gen. Zuol, xi. p. 610 

M-'ll'M'.r //iM. 
C'baradrius luhatas U'at/i. Sytt. Ar. Charadriun, sp. 61, p. 70 (1827). 
< 't.anidnu« ^llinaceuii, HViy/. t. r. hp. />0, p. 7'>. 
^ «n.-llu>. ^ralhuatviw. JarJ. ^ Selhv, Hi Om. ii. pi. K4 (1829). 
b>bi%aL«llii« ^allinactMis Stricki. 'P, Z. S, 1K41. p. :Ci. 
Iy-bi\autlhi^ hdiatu*., fr'#ii/</, Ii. AuMtr, vi. pi. (1>M2); Gray, Lnt 

h'm/l hril, Mu*. p. iu\ 1 1-«44 : S. Aurtralin ; Murwv U.) ; Reivhenb, 

Graii. Taf. ciii. tirf*. 10.>7-10>M (l84M,; lip. (\ B. xliii. 

p. 41- (I>."i*m: SiM. AfHf. /^y«-/;<iii. Curson'H. p. 07 (1805: S. 

AiiMraJiM; Swlnryj; fimoJ, liaudb. Ii. Aw^tr. ii. p. 218 (1H05); 

/ *f N ** A , A rM- /tM/ Nf^f , p . 1 ^ 1 ( 1 (*• »o : N . A u.^t ftt 1 iit ) ; lia niMif, Ihu, 

l** >i. p. :i-i4 (Tort p.-iiiM»n) : ul. Ih*, 18:;7, P. 4l!». pi. \x. fijor. 3 

• •■kV» . »'/. /Vt»f. Lmn. .Vf*f. A*. 'V. If. i. pp. 1^7, lM7 ( 1877: New 
S uth Wrtl.^i ; ui up. cit. v.. p. I*.»7 { 1H^^) ; Surth, '.;*. cit. (2) i. 
p lli>* l'»>»7 I : liuUrr, Ihin, I "^^^^ p. :K\ : iV/. /*. AVir Zeal. ii. p. 13 
il"^*"*: \\ an,:auui. N.Z.); Itntnmu, Tah. Li^t Antdr. Ii. p. 19 
il*^-: K>K*kin^'hniii Jtav ; l'»»rt ]MiiM>n ; Wide Jiiy lh«tr. ; 
ISuhnittn*! anil \ 'Inrt-nf** JkixtT- ; N. S. W. ; Intnriitr ; Victoria and 
S AuoTr.ihfii : StihJtm^ Untur. Ihjttr. f/mnitir. p. 1SH> ( !?<*<?*) ; 
/. H.h'irk, Ih*, I>-»li. p. iHi7 iN.w ZciiUndi: Snrth, SrsU ^ 
Ijyj* .!«•/». //. p. lA*) (I>^l»l: iV/. InM. Linn. ^<"<\ y.S W. {'2) 
Ul p 177*« il«»*»!i : riimlMiUiid. N. S. \V.); fV^r iV JIutmttnH, op. 

• If ••-*- i\. p 4ll» I !-•.•«»: Miid;r«-»' l>i-lr.K 

C'K*-*. tif.il lohata. <»>«•/. firH. Ii. iii. p. »>4l (lf*47j; u/. Jland-L B. 

ij p 11. U'K \<^\\ 1 1**71 1. 
f 'b^-ttu^ia ^-all.nar''a, firaif^ Grn. B. iii. p. •'>4I. 
L'bitftiit-liu* |i«T^»iiAtii« {fiec (roulii)f T. If. Kirk, Ihi$^ 1888, p. 45 

(NfW /^-aUnd). 
I^ )fib\x |i»liatui>, Heine Se Jirichen. yomrm-l. Mus. Ilrin. p. 334 

<1**-J l*".«U: NfW S.iilh WuIh.). 

A i^U m lie. (irfirral cnlntir nhove liirht brown, with a aliftbt 
«\:r*' (:!■#•*; «in;;-< nvfttA lik«' th** bark, but the jjrratrr hcrica more 
«»f » dMvbpinn. nitb iin o)i<i'iIrt«* frin:^9 of wbit«' ut the cnda ; 
b««r ird-Win/. |inrii»ry covfTtft, and qiiill!! black, the M'condariaa 
drft:#-browu at ttie boav of the outer wcb and white at the ba.4e of 
lb* iborr web, the inner •ec^mdarict with k*M blacky this beixif 



140 CHARADRIID-E. 

confioed to a black terminal band ; lower back and nimp brown, 
like the back, the sides of the rump and upper tail-coverts pure 
white : tail white, with a broad black band at the end, this black 
band decreasing in width towards the outer feathers, which have 
the white band at the tip rather broader ; crown of head black, ex- 
tending backwards and joining a black band which extends across 
the hind -neck, and descends on the sides of the neck so as to unite 
with a black patch on the sides of the upper breast ; base of fore- 
head, lores, sides of face, and ear-coverts, as well as the entire under 
surface of the body, white, including the under wing-coverts and axil- 
laries ; quill-lining black : " bill pale yellow, with a horn-coloured 
tip ; tarsi purplish red ; scales black ; spur yellow ; iris rich primrose- 
yellow ; wattles primrose-yellow " (J. OouUl). Total length 14 
inches, culmen 1-4, wing 9*6, tail 4-2, tarsus 3. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 14 
inches, culmen 1-4, wing 9-2, tail 4, tarsus 3. 

Hah, Australia generally. Accidental in New Zealand. 

a. Ad. sk. Australia. Gould Coll. 

b. $ ad. sk. Australia. Seebobm Coll. 

c. Ad. sk. South Australia. Sir G. Grey [P.J. 
rf, e. (S ftd. sk. Port Lincoln, S. Australia. Hume ( 'oil. 

/. Ad. sk. Port Philip. Gould Coll. 

(7, A. Ad. sk. New South Wales. Australian Museum [P.j. 

*f. Ad. sk. New South Wales. J. Gould, Esq. [P.]. 

kj I. Ad. sk. Gippslnnd Lakes. Seebobm Coll. 

m. Ad. sk. Wide Bay, Queensland, Seebobm Coll. 

Nov. 

n,o. Ad.sk. Queensland. Salvin-Godman Coll. 



2. LobivaneUns miles. 

Le Vanneau arm6 de la Louisiane, Btiss. Oifi. v. p. 114, pi. viii. 

lig. 2 (1700) ; Bu/r. Hist, Nat. Ois. viii. p. 05 (17^1); D'Aubent. 

Fl. Enl. viii. pi. 8f']o. 
Tringa miles, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 61 (1783). 
Louisiane Sandpiper, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 164 (1786). 
Parra ludoviciana, Gm. ISyst. Nat. i. p. 700 (1788). 
Tringa ludoviciana, Lath. Lid. Om. ii. p. 727 (1790). 
V^anellus ludovicianus, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Htftt. Nat. xxxv. p. 208 

(1819) ; id. Enc. MHh. iii. p. 1075 (1823). 
Charadrius callaeas, Wagl. Syst. Av. Charadrius, p. 76, sp. 62 (1827). 
Charadiius ludovicianuS| Nitzschj in Ersch ^ Griib. Encycl. xvi. 

p. 150 (18l>7). 
Lobivauellus lu(lovicianu<>, kHrickl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33. 
Lobivancllus persomitus, (7<<m/</, P. Z. S. 1842, p. 113 (N. coast of 

Australia) ; id. B. Anstr. vi. pi. 10 (1842) ; Grat/, List Graft. Brit. 

Mm. p. m (1844: Port Essin^ton); Reichenb. GraU. Taf. riii. 

tigs. 10r>5-56 (1848); Goidd, Hamlb. B. Austr. ii. p. 220 (IbOo) ; 

I'insckj Neu-Guineay p. 181 (1805: Amboina); Bostnb. Beis naar 

Zuidoostereil. pp. 53, 82 (1807: Aru ; Kei) ; JXA/b. Ann, M us. 

Gen. X. p. 20 (1877 : Fly •fc Katau Kiver.-^) ; Bamsay^ Proc. Linn. 

^oc. A". iS'. W. i. p. 187' (1877: N. Australia); Seebohm, Geogr. 

Distr. Charadr. p. 188 (1888). 



11. LORITAlfELLUS. I II 

(*hrttuMa |M*ntonata, (rray, (irn. B. iii. p. .>ll <1847). 

C*hettu«ia iiiil»»«. ft rat/, (irn. B. iii. p. 541 (1847); id. Hand-l, B. iii. 
p. 12. no. Jn»(Ji> (iH7h. 

Loliitftnellun niiltn, /)/;. <\ R. xliii. p. 418 (iKTiO) ; iScki Mu». Pm/B- 
y/n*, i*ur!Mir»'»«, p. tUJ ( lM<M : .\riib<iinti) ; id, \rd. Tijdtchr. Iherk, 
iii. p. HIM fl^Wi: \ru W) : Ramuty^ Pn>c. Linn. St>r. A'. S. H'. i. 
p. JiM |I'^77: <iiilf of CitrpMitHria): Sharftr^ Joum. Linn. Sttc., 
'A*i4. \\\\. i». .V^l \ 1^77 : I'ort M(>n-i*b\ ) ; Rtinmajf^ IVttc. Linn. Site, 
S.S. H', ii. p. M>7 (H78: Port Uarwin); id. op. cit. iii. p. 2l^J 
<l''7l>: l«:iIoki lCi\t*r; Hoiara) ; Sharjte^ Joum. Linn. Sue. xiv. 
p. tlK** (1871»: I*nl«»ki KivtT) ; Ronenh. Mnlatj. Archip. p. {M{\ 
ll**7'* 7*.>: .\ni : Kfi) ; IfAlh. rt Saltyjd. Ann. Mh*. dm. xiv. 
p. Il*^ J lH7i»: Katnii It.); Sti/ittd. *. r. p. iUki (Kei I-.) ; Rammy^ 
J'T'^. Linn. .Vr^. s\.S. H'. iv. p. lOl (1S8'): pnrt Mont*bv ; S. 
<'t|»»»; I.-mi-iad*'!*) ; Sahwi. Ann. Mhs. (rrn. xviii. p. li*M (1^*82); 
I// Orn. hip. iii. p. :\Ot\ (I'v.^K Sri. P. /. S. Ikh.;, pn. W, Jifi) 
(I^nit, Timor Ijint) : Fwht^n, /*. /. S. IkM. p. VX\\ id. Saturut. 
Wand. JCftAt. Archip. p. *M\7 (I'^'i: Timor l^iiti; Ranwti/, Pntc. 
Jjnm.Si^. y.S. U'.rJ) i. p. 10!»l» (lS«*7: N.W. Au-trftiin); id. 
up. cit. (2 1 li. p. 171 (l-KK); id. Tah. Li*t //. p. 10 [ 1sk»<); Snrth, 
Sri4Mj\ Ijj^j* AuAtr. Ii. p. .SOl (18^0); Saltad. A*/(/. Or n. Pap. 
iii. p. 2I»1 TlKM). 

I^thib\x niil«"». Ilrtnf ic Rn'rhen. Xunienrl. .}fus. Ilrin. p. 3.'i4 (1890: 
N. .\u«tmlia). 

Adult. Similar t4) A. UhUum^ and having almost idtuitically the 
•«xnr {latt^rii of tho wiii^^H ninl tail, hut distinpiishcd hy it?* larger 
and diffi-rnitly ^haI>ed lapiK't, and hy having thf hhick of the head 
ri.ntintil t«> u cap, and not extondin); haikwanls do>%n the hind 
n«rk, a.<t in A. Utf^ttnt \ i\w black cap separated from the* brown of 
tii* bick h\ a C'llar ot white round the hind neck: ** hill lemon- 
}rii<>M .it bu«>e, hlat k at the tip; lef^s and ftM't carmine-nMl, the 
•^il«^ 111 tront bl.irki*«h jrrtfn : iii?» primrose -yellow ; watth'H lemon- 
y^'il^^w " \J. fiould). lotal length 12'7» inche>, eulmen l*."), wing 
*t». !.iil .'t-7, t.irHi.i!, 'A, 

//•i'.. Au^triihu jreni rally, New (tuiiiea, and the Papuan IhLinds 
%• I .rz;<ir 1.^1 'it. 



< 'ii|)t. i 'UnmUvrn V.'. 
.1. It. .Iiiki'^. I'..*<j. "!*.'. 



<. ,V! •* «'»!»•. York. T\vi«»-d«iali' (\ill, 

A." ,\'l »k i'n\t** Wtrk \ J. T. (*'" k^rrU). SaI\iii-<iiKtiuan Toll. 

J.' .\«i -k. I'-.rl K— iiiijloij. < 'itpt. < 'hiiinbtTH 1*. . 

/ ■ k*l -k V'*i\ K-ii >:t.»n. 

y A \.l •• \ li-t'iriu lij\i-r, N W. Au — 

tr.ili.i. 

I. I • . »i! N \\ . .\n«imhrt iT. If. ('apt. lMiu\i-r Hiwer 

• * li'tuyrr li',%r*r\, V. . 

; \ S •* r.rt .M.r. «»by. S.i;. N.-\v Mr K. Hroadb<>nt 

< illlll'A. < '. . 

•• . a.1 tk Unit. Tim..: l-ait.Spt 2t». I»r. II O. | oiIm. ('.;;. 



3. LobiTanellns senegalas. 

\jr Varir.t ail mriii*- du >ti,t'^'iil. ItriM. tint. v. p. Ill il7tl'>); Buf. 

Ih$t ,\af O,0 \iii |.tL*'l7'«h. 
Vmn% t^jtimlU. Itnn Stj»f. S'lt. i p. 'J.W (I7<1<'). 



142 CnARADRIIDJI. 

VaDneau arm^ du S^n^jral, D'Auhent. PI. Enl, viii. pi. 362. 

Tringa senegalenf-ia, P. L. S. Miill. ^yst. Nat,, Anhang, p. 113 (1776) ; 
Cass. Prov. Acad. Phil. 18(54, p. 240. 

Senegal Sandpiper, Lath. Gen.Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 160 (1785 : Senegal). 

Tringa senegalla, Lath. Ind. Oni. ii. p. 728 (1700). 

Vanellus albicapillus, Vieill. N. Diet. cTHist Nat. xxxv. p. 206 (1819) ; 
Less. Traits ctOm. p. 642 (18;il) ; VieUl. Gal. Ois. ii. p. 100, pi. 23(3 
(1834). 

Vanellus aenegalus, Vieill . N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxv. p. 209 (1819). 

Vanellus senegalensisi, Steph, in Shaw's Gen. Zod. xi. p. 615 (1819). 

Cliaradrius albicapillus, Wagl. Syst. Av. Charadrius, sp. 63, p. 77 
(1827). 

Vanellus strigilatus, Swains. B. W. Afr. ii. p. 241, pi. (1837). 

Lobi vanellus senegallus, Strichl.P.Z.S. 1841, p. 33; Blar^. Geol. 
<J- Zool. Abyss, p. 431 (1870: Agula below 7000 ft.; Anseba 
Valley). 

Lobivanellus albicapillus, Stricll. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33; Reichenb. 
Grail. Taf. c. figs. 682-083 (1848) ; Strirkl. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 221 
(Kordofan) ; Fitisch «S- Hartl. Vog. Ostofr. p. 642 (1870) ; Finsch, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. vii. p. 296 (1870: Kokai; Gabena Weldt 
Gonfalon). 

Lobivanellus senegalus, Gray, List Grail. Brit. Mtcn. p. 65 (1844 : 
Gambia) ; Licht. Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol. p. 95 (1854 : Senegal) ; 
Bp. C. i?. xliii. p. 418 (1856) ; HaHl. Orn. W.-Afr. p. 213 (1857 : 
Senegambia ; Caaamanse ; Gaboon) ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, Cui*- 
sores, p. ^ (1865 : Senegambia; Gold Coast) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1872, 
p. 73 (Plains of Accra) ; Pefz. Verhatidl. z.-h. Ges. Wien^ xxxi. 
p. 155 (1881: Magungo) ; Sharpe, Jouni. Linn. Soc.<, Zool. xvii. 
p. 441 (1884 : Kutchugali) ; Hartert, J. f. O. 1886, p. 609 (Anas- 
sawara). 

Lobivanellus senogalensis, Rilpp. Syst. Uebers. p. 117 (1845 ; Abys- 
sinia) ; Heugl. Syat. Uebers. p. 55 (1856: Abyssinia; White Nile) ; 
Antin. Cat. desrr. Vcc. p. 97 (1864: Obeid) ; Heugl. Orn. N.O.- 
Afr. ii. pt. 1, p. 1000 (1873 : E. & C. Aby.-sinia to JJogos, at 3000 
to 8000 feet ; E. Kordofan, from the Dender and Kahad rivers 
westward to Qualabat; Upper White Nile and tributaries); 
Antiti. ^' Salvnd. Viagg. BogoM^ p. 143 (1873: Anseba); Hartl. 
Ahhandl. nat. Verein. lirpmen^ vii. p. 127 (1881 : Equatorial Africa) ; 
id. op. cit. viii. p. 231 (188:i) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Gen. (2) i. p. 274 
(1884: Shoa) ; iV/. r>;>. «V. (2)vi.p.3l0 (1888: Cialalnka) : Seehohm, 
Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 191 (1888); Sharpe, Ibis, \SS)'2, p. 544 
(Victoria Nyanza). 

Chettusia senegalla, Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 541 (1847) ; id. Hayul-l. B. 
iii. p. 12, no. 90(54 (1871 ) ; Bendall, Ihi.<, 1892, p. 229 (Senegambia). 

Chettusia albicapillus, Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 541 (^1847;. 

Lobibyx senegalus, Heine 8f Rcichen. Noniencl. Mus. Hein. p. 334 

(1890: White Nile). 
Vanellus albifrons, Biipp. MSS. (teste Heuglin). 

Adult male. General colour above brown, with a faint gloss of 
olive-green, the lower back and rump slightly darker ; wing-coverts 
lighter, ashy or drab-brown, the median series with narrow whitish 
edges, the greater coverts white, with ashy-brown bases; bastard- 
wing, primary-coverts, and quills black, the primaries white at the 
base of the inner web, the secondaries white at the base of both 
webs, the white increasing on the inner secondaries till only the 



11. LOBlTAirXLLUS. 



143 



ends are black, bat there are no pure white secondaries, the inner- 
most being brown like the back ; sides of ramp, upper tail-coverts, 
and base of tail pure white ; the terminal half of the tail black, 
forming a very broad band, shaded above and below with light 
brown, the tips of the feathers white, forming a well-marked ter- 
minal bar ; forehead and centre of fore part of crown white, followed 
by a shade of uniform dark brown, which extends from above the 
lores and across the centre of the crown ; rest of the crown and 
nape ashy brown, streaked with dusky brown ; lores, sides of face, 
ear-coverts, cheeks, and throat ashy white, streaked with dusky 
brown ; in the centre of the throat a longitudinal black patch ; 
fore-neck and breast drab-brown, extending down the flanks ; lower 
abdomen, under tail-coverts, under wing-coverts, and axillaries pure 
white ; quill-lining black : '* bill yellow, the dertrum blackish ; feet 
yellow ; ioral membrane elevated beyond the forehead, thence pen- 
dulous, and ending in a point, above cinnabar-red, below yellow, 
like the bare eyelids ; iris pearly white " {Ileuglin), Total length 
12*5 inches, culmen 1*4, wing 9*2, tail 4*2, tarsus 3*2. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 12 
inches, culmen 1*5, wing 9*1, tail 3*9, tarsus 3*2. 

Young. Differs from the adult in having the head brown with 
dusky streaks, but no white frontal patch, the black on the throut 
wanting, this part being white with dusky-blackish streaks. 

Hob. West Africa : Senegambia, Accra, the Niger, and Gaboon. 
N.£. Africa, from Kordofan and Bogos-land south to the Victoria 
Nvanza. 



a. Ad. St. 
6. Ad. sk. 

c. Ad.sk. 

d. Ad. sk. 

0. $ ad. sk. 

/. (^ ad. sk. 

ff. Ad. sk. 
h. 2 ad. sk. 

t. 2 ^^' ^k. 
k, 2 ^^' ^k. 

Ijtn, (5* $ ad. sk. 

ft. $ ad. pk. 

o. (S ad. ; 
p, S juV'Sk. 



Senegambia. 
Senegambia. 
Btithurst, R. Gambia (Sir 

A, Moloney), 
Dakar, Senegal, Jan. (Z. 

Laylaize). 
Accra, Gold Coast, May 

{J, Smith), 
Accra, Gold Coast, May 

(J, Smith). 
Lokoja, R. Niger. 
Kutschugali, 5)'iam Niam 

Country. 
Cialalaka, Shoa, June 13. 
Dongolo, AbyHsinia, May 

17. 
Bogos-land, Aug. 6 (W^. 

JeMe). 
Kokai, Bogos-land, Aug. 

10 ( W. Jesse). 
[Nubia.] 



Governor Rendall [P, 
Governor Rendall "P. 
Shelley Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Sc^bohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Major Ewart [P.]. 
F. Bohndorff [CJ. 



Turin Museum [P.]. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale ColL 

Seebohm Coll. 



11. LOBITAirXLLTJB. 143 

ends are black, bat there are no pure white secondaries, the inner- 
most being brown like the back ; sides of rump, upper tail-covcrts, 
and base of tail pure white ; the terminal half of the tail black, 
forming a very broad band, shaded above and below with light 
brown, the tips of the feathers white, forming a well-marked ter- 
minal bar ; forehead and centre of fore part of crown white, followed 
by a shade of uniform dark brown, which extends from above the 
lores and across the centre of the crown ; rest of the crown and 
nape ashy brown, streaked with dusky brown ; lores, sides of face, 
ear-coverts, cheeks, and throat ashy white, streaked with dusky 
brown ; in the centre of the throat a longitudinal black patch ; 
fore-neck and breast drab-brown, extending down the flanks ; lower 
abdomen, under tail-coverts, under wing-coverts, and axillaries pure 
white ; quill-lining black : " bill yellow, the dertrum blackish ; feet 
yellow ; loral membrane elevated beyond the forehead, thence pen- 
dulous, and ending in a point, above cinnabar-rcd, below yellow, 
like the bare eyelids ; iris pearly white " {Heuglin), Total length 
12*5 inches, culmen 1-4, wing 9*2, tail 4*2, tarsus !3*2. 

Adult female, Similar to the male in colour. Total length 12 
inches, culmen 1*5, wing 9*1, tail 3'9, tarsus 3-2. 

Young, Differs from the adult in having the head brown with 
dusky streaks, but no white frontal patch, the black on the throat 
wanting, this part being white with dusky-blackish streaks. 

Hob, West Africa : Senegambia, Accra, the Niger, and Gaboon. 
N.£. Africa, from Kordofan and Bogos-land south to the Victoria 
Nyanza. 

a. Ad. St. Senegambia. Governor Kendall [P.], 

6. Ad. sk. Senegambia. Governor Kendall [P. J. 

c. Ad. sk. Brtthurst, R. Gambia (jStV Shelley Coll. 

A. Molmiey). 

d. Ad. sk. Dakar, Senegal, Jan. (L, Tweeddale Coll. 

Lofflaize). 
€. $ ad. sk. Accra, (lold Coast, Mav Scebohm Coll. 

{J, Smith). 
/. cf ad. sk. Accra, Gold Coast, May Seebohm Coll. 

(J. Smith). 
g. Ad. sk. Lokoja, K. Niger. Mnjor Ewart [P.]. 

h, 5 ad. sk. KutiK;hu«j:Hli, ^'iam Niam F. Bohndortf [CJ. 

Country. 

■r 

1. J ad. sk. Ciolalaka, Shoa, June 13. Turin Museum fP.]. 

k, % ad^ sk. Dongolo, Abvssinia, May \V. T. lilanfora, Esq. 

17. ' [C.J. 

^ m. d 2 ad. sk. Bo^os-land, Aug. 6 ( W. Tweeddale Coll. 

Jewe). 

ft. $ ad. i«k. Kokai, Bogos-land, Aug. Tweeddale Coll. 

10 ( W. Jesse). 

o. ^ ad. ; [Nubia.] Seebohm Coll. 

p, S juT.sk. 



11. LOBITA2nLLX78. 143 

ends are black, but there are no pure white secondaries^ the inner- 
most being brown like the back ; sides of rump, upper tail-covcrts, 
and base of tail pure white ; the terminal half of the tail black, 
forming a very broad band, shaded aboye and below with light 
brown, the tips of the feathers white, forming a well-marked ter- 
minal bar ; forehead and centre of fore part of crown white, followed 
by a shade of uniform dark brown, which extends from above the 
lores and across the centre of the crown ; rest of the crown and 
nape ashy brown, streaked with dusky brown ; lores, sides of face, 
ear-coverts, cheeks, and throat ashy white, streaked with dusky 
brown ; in the centre of the throat a longitudinal black patch ; 
fore-neck and breast drab-brown, extending down the flanks ; lower 
abdomen, under tail-coverts, under wing-coverts, and axillaries pure 
white ; quill-lining black : " bill yellow, the dertrum blackish ; feet 
yellow ; loral membrane elevated beyond the forehead, thence pen- 
dulous, and ending in a point, above cinnabar-red, below yellow, 
like the bare eyelids ; iris i)carly white " {Heuglin), Total length 
\2'b inches, culmen 1-4, wing 9*2, tail 4*2, tarsus 3-2. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 12 
inches, culmen I'o, wing 9*1, tail 3*9, tarsus 3*2. 

Young, Difiers from the adult in having the head brown with 
dusky streaks, but no white frontal patch, the black on the throat 
wanting, this part being white with dusky-blackish streaks. 

Hab, West Africa : Senegambia, Accra, the Niger, and Gaboon. 
N.E. Africa, from Xordofan and Bogos-land south to the Victoria 
Nyanza. 

a. Ad. St. Senejrambia. Governor Kendall [P.l 

5. Ad. sk. Senegambia. Governor liendall [P. J. 

c. Ad.sk. Bathurst, R. Gambia {Sir Shelley Coll. 

A. Moloney), 

d. Ad. sk. Dakar, Senegal, Jan. (X. Twceddale Coll. 

Lofflaize). 
€. J ad. sk. Accra, Gold Coast, May SL*ebohm Coll. 

{J, Smith). 

f, (S ad. sk. Accra, Gold Coast, May Seebohm Coll. 

(J, Smith). 

g. Ad. sk. Lokoja, R. Niger. 
h, $ ad. sk. Ku^isehugali, Niam Xiam 

Country. 

f. $ ad. sk. Cialalnka, Shoa, June 13. Turin Museum fP.]. 

k, J ad^ sk. Dongolo, Abyssinia, May W. T. IManford, Esq. 

17. [C.J. 

i, m. cf S ad.sk. Boj^os-land, Aug. G {W, Tweeddale Coll. 

Jewc), 
ft. 5 ad. pk. Kokai, Bogos-land, Aug. Tweeddale Coll. 

10 ( W. Jeste). 
o. c^ad. ; [Nubia.] Seebobm Coll. 

p, S juT.sk. 



Major Ewart [P.]. 
F. BubndorffLC.J. 



142 CnARADRIIDJI. 

Vanneau arm^ du S^n^^I, D'Atibent, PI. JSnl, viii. pi. 362. 

Tringa senegalensia, P. L. S. Miill. Syst. Nat., Anhanff, p. 113 (1776) ; 
Cass. Proc. Acad. Phil. 18(U, p. 246. 

Senegal Sandpiper, Lath. Gen.Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 166 (1786 : Senegal). 

Tringa senegalla, Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 728 (1700). 

Vanellus albicapillus, VieiU. N. Diet. d^Hist. Nat. xjcxv. p. 206 (1819) ; 
Less. Train JtOm. p. 642 (1831) j VieUl. Gal. Ois. ii. p. 100, pi. 236 
(1834). 

Vanellus senegalus, VieiU. N. Did. d'Hist. Nat. xxxv. p. 209 (1819). 

Vanellus senegalensia, Steph. in Shatos Gen. Zool. xi. p. 616 (1819). 

Charadrius albicapillus, Wayl. Syst. Av. Charadrius, sp. 63, p. 77 
(1827). 

Vanellus strigilatus. Swains. B. W. Afr. ii. p. 241, pi. (1837). 

Lobi vanellus senegallus, Strickl. P. Z.S. 1841, p. 33 ; Blcntf. Geol. 
^ Zool. Abyss, p. 431 (1870: Agula below 7000 ft.; Anseba 
Valley). 

Lobivanellus albicapillus, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33; Reichenb. 
Grail. Taf. c. figs. 682-083 (1848) ; Strickl, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 221 
(Kordofan) ; Fifisch ^ Hartl. Voy. Ostafr. p. 642 (1870) ; Finseh, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. \u. p. 296 (1870: Kokai; Gabena Weldt 
Gonfalon). 

Lobivanellus senegalus, Gray, List Grail. Brit. Mils. p. 66 (1844 : 
Gambia) ; Licht. Nomencl.Av. Mus. Berol. p. 96 (1864 : Senegal) ; 
Bp. a i?. xliii. p. 418 (1866) ; HarU. Orn. W.-Afr. p. 213 (1857 : 
Senegambia ; Casamanse ; Gaboon) ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, Cur- 
sores, p. 68 (1865 : Senegambia; Gold Coast) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1872, 
p. 73 (Plains of Accra) ; Peh. Verhafidl. z.-b. Gfs. Wien, xxxi. 
p. 155 (1881: Magungo) ; Shnrj^e, Jourti. Linn, Soc.^ Zo*tl. xvii. 
p. 441 (1884 : Kutchugali) ; Hartert, J. f. O. 1886, p. 609 (Anas- 
sawara). 

Lobivanellus senegalensis, Riipp. Syst. Uebers. p. 117 (1845 ; Abys- 
sinia) ; Heuyl. Syst. Uebers. p. 66 (1856: Abyssinia; White Nile) ; 
Anfin. Cat. descr. Ucc. p. 97 (1864: Obeid) ; Heuyl. Om. NO.- 
Afr. ii. pt. 1, p. 1000 (1873 : E. & C. Abyssinia to liogos, at 3000 
to 8000 feet; E. Kordofan, from the Dender and Rahad rivers 
westward to Qualabat; Upper White Nile and tributaries); 
Antin. ^ Salvnd. Viagg. Bogos^ p. 143 (1873: Anseba); Hartl. 
Ahhandl. nat. Verein. Bremenj vii. p. 127 (1881 : Equatorial Africa) ; 
id. op. cit. viii. p. 231 (188^) ; Salvad, Ann. Mus. Gen. {2) i. p. 274 
(1884 : Shoa) ; id. op. cit. (2) vi. p. 310 (1888 : Cialalaka) ; Seebohm, 
Geoyr. Distr. Charadr. p. 191 (1888); Shaipe, Ibis, 1892, p. 544 
(Victoria Nyanza). 

Chettusia senegalla, Gray, Gen. B. \i\. p. 541 (1847) ; iW. Hand- 1. B. 
iii. p. 12, no. 9964 (1871) ; Kendall, Ibis, 1892, p. 229 (Senegambia). 

Chettusia albicapillus, Gray^ Gen. B. iii. p. 641 (1847j. 

Loliibvx senegalus, Heine 8f Reichen. JSomencl. Mus. Hein. p. 334 

(18&0: White Nile). 
Vanellus albifrons, Riipp. MSS. (teste Ileuglin). 

Adult male. General colour above brown, with a faint gloss of 
olive-green, the lower back and rump slightly darker ; wing-coverts 
lighter, ashy or drab-brown, the median series with narrow whitish 
edges, the greater coverts white, with ashy-brown bases ; bastard- 
wing, primary-coverts, and quills black, the primaries white at the 
base of the inner web, the secondaries white at the base of both 
webs, the white increasing on the inner secondaries till only the 



11. LOBlTAJrXLLVt. 



143 



endft are black, bot there are no pure white secondaries, the inner- 
most being brown like the back ; sides of rump, upi>er tail-coTcrts, 
and base of tail pure white ; the t^Tuiiiial half of the tail black, 
forming a Tt*ry broad band, shaded above and below with light 
brown, the tips of the feathers white, forming a well-marked ter- 
minal bar ; forehe:id and centre of fore part of crown white, followed 
br a shade of uuitorm dark brown, which extends from above the 
lores snd acrnss the cectre of the crown ; rest of the crown and 
nape ai^hv brown, streakiKi with dusky brown ; lores, sides of face, 
ear-cuvorts, cheeks, and throat ashy white, streaked with duhky 
brown ; in the centre of the throat a longitudinal black patch ; 
fun-neck iind breast drab-brown, extending down the fl>inks; lower 
ab^iomcu. under tail-corerts, under wing-coverts, and axillaries pure 
white : quilMining black : ^ bill yellow, the dertrum blackish ; feet 
}ellow ; loral membrane elevated bt^yond the foreheml, thence |)eu- 
dul<»u*, snd ending in a |>oint, above cinnabar- red, below yellow, 
Lfce the bare eyelidh; iris )iearly white** (JItuglin), Total length 
iro incht^K, cuimeii 1*4, wing 1(*2, tail 4*2, tarhus 3'2. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 12 
incht-^, cuhnen Vo, wing 9*1, tail ^M^ tarsus !i*2. 

YauHtj, Differs from the aiiult in having the head brown with 
du«ky fttn*aks but no white frontal patch, the black on the throat 
Wanting, this i»art l>eing white with du#»ky-blackish streaks. 

//«/#. West Africa : Sonegambia, Accra, the Nig«*r, and (laboon. 
X.K. Africa, from Kordofan and Bogos-land south to the Victoria 
Nx^nza. 



m Ad. nt. 

I Ad. *k. 

r A*i »k. 

d. Ad ak. 

« I »d «k. 

/ \i tk 

A . All -k. 

• . •'! -k. 

A . • t •k. 



*, "• 



s<i tk. 



« ^ ad 'k. 
• • .d . 

p X J«v "k. 



St'Df-gsmhia. 
S<*ii»*^'iimbiA. 
lVithun»t, H. (tambia {Sir 

A. yitiltiHrtf). 
l^Akir, S*'n»val, J«n. {L. 

J^tt/lltiZfl 

\ccTA, <i«ild r.ia^t, Mav 

{J. Smit/t I. 
Aivru, (iiild (.'iia-t, May 

[J. Smith ). 

Li>k(tjit, H. Ni^'»'r. 
Ktit*i*liuu'»li, Ni.im Niam 

( ••iiiitr\. 
rMlilnku, Shtts, Jiim* 13. 
ll •ni.'*l<s Al>v<v»iiiia, May 

ir. 

Ik •^•••^ la 11(1, A'l^r. t5 ( W. 

K<'ksi, Hop »«- laud, Aug. 

10 ( h'. JrM*e}, 
'Nubia.^ 



Governor Kendall ^P.l 
(lovernor Hpudall ^P.j. 
Shflsev Coll. 

Twe<-ddale Coll. 

S.H'bohin Coll. 

Se«>l>oh!u Coll. 

Miijor Kwart ''V.". 

F. Hoima..rtr;c.;. 

Turin MiiMMiiu ■ r."". 
NV. T. Htniiforii, hjua. 

Tv^c^Hldale Coll. 

Twe»'d«lal»' Coll. 

S.*fb>liiu C»»ll. 



144 CHAKADR1ID.E. 



4. Lobivanellns lateralis. 



Vanellus lateralis, Smith, IlL 7a)oI. S. Afi-., Birds, pi. 23 (1839: 
U'Tugela R.); Hart/. Orn. W.-Afr. p. 213, note (1867). 

LobivaDellus lateralis. Gray, List Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 66 (1844 : 
Cape); Reichenb. GraU<e, Taf. c. fig. 084 (1848) ; Mont. P. Z.8. 
1866, p. 90 (Beuguela); Finsch 8c Hartl Vog. Ostafr. p. 643 
(1870); Giimeif in Anderss. B. Dam. Ld. p. 267 (1872: Oka- 
vango & Teougbe Rivera ; Lake Ngami ; Ondonga) ; At/res, Jfns, 
1873, p. 283 (TraD8vaal) ; Bocage, Orn. Afigola, p. 428 (1881 : 
Caconda; Huilla ; Ilumbe); Shellei/, Ibis, 1882, p. 363 (Mashona- 
land) ; Holub ^ Pelz. Beitr. Orn. SUdafr. p. 240 (1882 : Zambesi) ; 
Bohm, J.f. O. 1886, p. 39(Gonda; Urarabo) ; Seebohm, Geogr. 
Distr. Charadr. p. 193(188^); Heine 8^ Reichen. Nomencl. Mus. 
Hein. p. 334 (1890: Damara-land) ; Beichen. J. f. O. 1892, p. 7 
(Victoria Nyanza) ; id. Vog. Deutsch. Ost-A/r. p. 36 (1894: 
Victoria Nyanza; Igonda; Wualaba; Ugalla; Ussambiro; Bukdba). 

Chettusia lateralis. Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 541 (1847); Gurnet/ Ibis, 
1864, p. 3 (Damara-land) ; Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 292 (1867) ; 
Buckley, Ibis, 1874, p. 387 (Transvaal). 

Lobivanellus senegalensis (nee L.), Kirk, Ibis, 1864, p. 332 (River 
Shir^; Zambesi); Emin, J. f. O. 1891, p. 339 (Ussambiro- 
Umpeke). 

Lobivanellus senegalus inec i.), Sharpe, ed. Layard'' s B. S. Afr. 
pp. 606, 865 (lfe4) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. xi. p. 199 (1889 : 
tfpper Cunene Itiver) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1894, p. 475 (Lake Shirwa ; 
Palombi River). 

Adult female. Very similar to L. senegalus, but distinguisbed by 
its asby-blackisb flanks, whicb form a conspicuous dark patcb on 
tbe sides of the body, extending as a dusky shade across the abdomen, 
just below the brown of the breast : " bill and feet greenish, the 
tip of the bill black ; carpal spur and claws blackish ; inferior 
lobe of anteocular caruncle yellow, the superior lobule orange-red " 
(Sir A. Srnith). Total length 12 inches, culmen 1-3, wing 9-2, tail 4, 
tarsus d'3. 

Adult male. Similar to the female in plumage. Total length 
11*5 inches, culmen l*4o, wing 89, tail 3-5, tarsus 3o. 

Hab. S.E. Africa from Natal and the Transvaal, west to ficnguela 
and Mossamedes, north to the Zambesi and the Victoria Xyanza. 

a. Ad. sk. Tugela River, Natal (Sir South- African Museum. 

A. Smith). (Tvpe of species.) 

&. cjad. sk. Transvaal, Nov. 27 (T. Shelley Coll. 

E. Buckley). 

e. c? ad- sk. Transvaal ( T. Ayres). Sharpe Coll. 

d. Ad. sk. Lower Shir^ Valley (Sir Livingstone Expedition. 

•7. Kirk). 

e, f. Ad. sk. Upper Shirt? River, Nov. II. II. Johnston, Esq., 

(.4. ir/n/tf^). C.B. [P.]. 

a. 9 ad.sk. Lake Shirwa, May (^. H. II. .lohnston, t!sq., 

JVh/fc). ' C.B. [P.;j. 

//.I. J 9 ad. sk. Palombi Phiins, Shirwa II. II. Johnston, Esq., 

I)i.str.,Oct. {A.Whyte). C\B. [P.l. 

k. Ad. sk. I^npuela. Monteiro Coll. 



GRARADRIIDJ^ 



145 



Subfainilv IV. CHARADRIIN-E. 
AVi/ to the (wenem. 



[p, 14rt. 
12. X1PHIUIOPTKHU8, 



p. 148. 



With ft Uiyv spur on tb<' wing ; with a lai^ 

fmc'iMX Uppet 

With DO ikpur «iu thf winfif, but a facial 

wattli* prn«nt. 
m'. With a hiiKl tii^. 
a". Tar^UA lung, more than twict* the length 
<»f thtf miiMlt* t4H' and claw ; bare 
portion itf tibia equal to length of 

niicitilf Viv tkwi rlaw l.'i. SARCooRAiiiirii, 

I . Tar^uA jthortfr and At utor, mil twice 
thi* length f>f tho midille toe and claw ; 
tibia fcatb*'n*d almi»i»t to the tano- 

nifUtamal joint 14. TvuBYx, p. 103. 

6 . Without a hi nil tm*. 
r Inm-r MTundariit niching D*'arly to 
the i*nd<« nf thf priniHri**A ; tibia 
•lfn«elv fvatheriil alniont Ui the tan»o- 

■ 

mftatarw] joint 

J . Iun«*r Nn'i»ndari<*ft -hortrT than pri- 
niarifn, the dii^tani**- U'twet'n thi>m 
IjHiiiir gn*ati*r than tht; lt«iigth of the 
tuiddl*- tiM* and rla«' ; tibia naked, the 
barv |iart nion< than half the length 

(»f thi* tarwuti 

With a \iNbK* »pur un the wing, but no 

facial watti*'. 
^. Witig-Apur black. Torv Inng and sharp . . 
^ Wing-ppur Tirllow, large and blunt; a 
l«ing cr»^t ot rtH*ur^'ed idoud'*r feathers . . 
With n-t ppur ami n«) facial wattl**. 
« iLfi'-r MH-ikiidarieM bntad and nith the tt|Mi 
riuriilitl ; tlie di^tancl« fniiu tht> shortest 
trcitttfiMry t«i thi* tip iif tht* |inniarie(i not 



1*>. Z4>NirKH, p. 151. 



Tp. \W. 
IH. Anomalopiirys, 

[p. 157. 

17. lIoPLOHTKKUa, 

is. Hklonoitrrus, 

[p. I(i3. 



•••jual til half the Ivntfth of the wing. 
f . \\ ith ft r«x'uned creMt nf l^ng pointed 

^luiu«^ 

f Si rf**«l. 
4 Hind t(ii* |>re«MMit. 

u* I'ar-ti* \rr\ long, twice the length 

I if thf ninldlu tin* and claw 

6*. Tar*u« much nhnrteri nut twice 
thf Ifu^.'th of thf middle toe and 

I law 

'* Nil hiijil t«w 

Iri'.'f ••^••tjil^ri-'^ \*'Ty lonir and |iointed. 

!'.•- dL«taiirr fr-JU the nhorteiit m-coudar) 

t> Ui»- tifi if tht- prinmrit-N more than 

Kalf th«- !■ iiglh Iff thf wing. 

/ \ Klark thriMt or bn-aiit in summer 

^iimag« ; upp«*r iilumak^* spanglfd 

Mith g'tl'l, nf with black and white. 

^ \ Lifid tof prvBcut 

/ Nil bind tue 



HIT 



UK VAjcBLLfH, p. uny 



> 171. 

^20. Kl'KVriBNt H, 



lM. riiA:ri'hiA,p. 174. 

*A'. SlKIMUMHl'X, 

[p. 177. 



[p. 182. 

:^*i. Sql'ATAROi.'A, 

24. (*iiAiuDRitra, 

LP- I»J- 

L 



146 CHARADRIID.S. 

h". No black abdomen in summer, this 

being white; rarely a black throat; 

plumage of upper surface plain and 

mostly uniform. 

e'". Bill stout, or moderately so ; culmen 

about equal to the length of the 

middle toe and claw. 

1^, A hind toe present 25. Afhbiza, p. 208. 

d^. No hind toe 26. Ochthodbohus, 

/'". Culmen shorter, less than length of [p. 209. 

middle toe and daw. 
«\ Tibia feathered nearly to the tibio- 

tarsal joint 27. Eudbohias, 

/*. Tibia bare for some distance. [p. 234. 

a*. Hind toe present 28. Zonibyx, p. 238. 

b^. No hind toe. 
a". Tarsus long, twice the length 

of exposed culmen 29. Podasocys, p. 240. 

6*. Tarsus shorter, never twice the 
length of exposed culmen. 
a^. Tail lone and wedge-shaped, 
more than half tne length 

of the wing 30. Oxyechus, p. 242. 

v. Tail shorter and more 

Suare, not exceeding half 
e length of the wing, 
a^. Tarsus long, exceeding 
middle toe and claw in 
length, 
a®. Outer toe joined to the 
middle one by a web as 

fieur as the second joint. 31. ^Egialbus, p. 250. 
h^. Outer toe not connected 
with the middle one 

near the base 32. i^oiALiTis, p. 254. 

6*. Tarsus very short, less 

than middle toe and claw. 33. Plutianellus, 
g'", Culmen longer than middle toe and [p. £k)3. 

claw. 

^*. Bill straight, not deflected 34. Thinobnis, p. 304. 

A*. Bill deflected to the right 35. Anabhynchus, 

[p. 306. 

12. XIPHIDIOPTERUS. 

Xiphidiopterus, Reichenh, Av. Syst. Nat, p. xviii (1852) . X. albiceps. 

Range. Western Africa to the Upper White Nile district. Java ; 
Sumatra; Timor. 

Key to the Species, 

a. Head grey, forehead and centre of crown white ; 

throat grey ; wing-coverts black ; under surface 

of body white , albicepSj p. 147. 

h. Head and throat black ; wing coverts ashy brown 

like the back : breast ashy brown, the abdomen 

black cucuUatus, p. 148. 



12. XIPU IDIOFTIRUB. 147 



1. Xiphidiopterns 

Van«*llu!i alUcepm Gould, P. Z, S, 18^4, p. 4ri (Fernando Po). 

I^>lii\an«UuA nUiicp^ .SYri>A7. P, Z. S. 1841, p. .'UJ ; Hard, Om. 
H'.'Afr. p. L'14 (lMr>7: Ffrnando Po) ; CVm*. I^oe. PkiUid. Acad, 
l.HTiU, p. 173 iCnmnia K.) ; UnrtL J,f, O. iHOl, p. 2t5rt; Iteichen, 
J,/. O. 1M77, p. 11 (Loanu'o); Oust. Nouv, Arch. Mum, (2) ii. 
p. l4oilH79: River O-owt^); W. A, Furbe9, Ihis, 18K», p. ftSi 
(Kiver S'l^T); Buiiik, SoteM Leyd, Mus, ix. p. 2.i6 (1885; 
UbvriA); liarttrt, J./. O. 1H8(S, p. (K)9 (Iddah on the Niger; 
I»kn on the IWniif) ; Bii/tik, Xot^s Ijpyd, Mus, xi. p. 130 (1887); 
iittbukm, (rrit/r, Distr. Chareuir. p. 106, pi. viii. (1H88). 

Sarriophoruit aloicrpR, Frcutrr, Zool, Typ. pi. (Vi (1849). 

XiphiaiopUTUM albicop^, Rfichenh. firaiL tab. clxxxi. fig. 2432 

I KiO) ; lip. C. R, xliii. p. 418 (1856). 
Iliiplnpt4*ru>« opociosuA {nrf H'aylrr), Antin, Cat, d^tcr. Vce, p. 97 
(if^'Ai iKmler H.) ; .Sci/ixw/. AtH R, Accad, Sci. Torino, 1870, 
p. 740; Ixtyttrdf B. 6'. Afr. p. 1*VW (deacr., nee loc.); Uumeif, lbi$p 

i-^w, p. •.».->:-,. 

lIupIoptt-riH albitvpfs frrau, IIand-4. Ii. iii. p. 13, no. W74 (1871); 
lleMyl. (}m. S.O.'Afr. ii. pt. 1, p. 1007 (1873) ; Reickm. J. /. O. 
I»»77. p. 1 1 ( L.»angt> l\MUit); id. J.f. O. 1885, p. 217 (Stiuilev Pool) ; 
HAarpe, eti. IjayartTi Ii. S. 4fr. p. iW (1884 : deacr., nee foe.). 

Adult, (ienonil colour uIk)to light brown, the lower bark white 
with a black band aiTitas it ; rump and up|H.T tail-coverta pare 
whit4* : aoupulars like the back, but the outer onea white, forming a 
|Atrh : wing-coverta black ; bastard-wing and primary-coverta pure 
white : quilU for the most |>art pure white, the three outer 
prim in«*a black, with white on the inner webs, the innermost 
••^mflariea like the bu<*k, the proximal ones white, externally 
brown ; Kii«al half of tail white, the terminal half black, forming a 
Trf} broad band, decrea.*«iiig in hixe on the outor feathera ; forehead 
and (vntn* of crown whit4», bordered with blackish along the sides 
of the crumn ; a broad eyebrow, aa well as the whole of the sides 
of fiiC*-, rhe«*kK, and aiditi of neck, bluish grey, followeil by a white 
|atrh on the upiN-r {Mirt of the mantle ; centre of throat and under 
»urfuri* of Utth pure white, including the under \iing-coverts and 
aiilUrie* : ** fore half of bill black, )>a»al half dear citron-yellow ; 
thf* UpiNtt dark eitnm-yellow, with a black sjiot on the inner 
*:'lr ; fivt bright graa^-greeu ; iris clear sulphur-yellow ** (K. 
H'tri^rt). Total length 11 inches, culmen 1*!^, wing ^'1, tail 3*7, 
tanuii 2*.*. 

//ri/>. West Africa from Lil>eria to the Congo, and along that 
nver e^int wards to the l'p{>er White Nile (Dender Uiver). 

•-«. .\'l. «k. .\iikobra HiTcr. Sir K.Hurton & Capt. 

Canienm P.J. 
/ Ad ik. Uivfr Nigi«r. I>r. IWiikie [C.j. 

y. Ad. ak. Feniaoili> Po {L. Fraser). Kyton (\ill. 

(Tv|ie of speeies.) 
A Ad. •k. Frmandn Po. C'apt.'lhilton P.I. 

I { s«i. »k. <V»«k«'* Uiver. Ii. T. .\ni«el1, Esq. 

I P. . 
k A'l M. (fsboon. Purchaaed. 

l2 



148 CHARADRIIDJB. 

2. XiphidiopteroB cucnllatas. 

Vftnellus tricolor (nee F.), Horsf, Trans, Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 186 

(1820: Java). 
Charadrius macropterus, Waffl. Syst. Av., Charadrius, sp. 64, p. 77 

(1827 : ex Cuv. Mtu, Paris). 
Vanellus cucullatos, Temm. PL Col. v. pi. 506 (1830: Java; Timor). 
Tringa macropterus, Less. TraiU (TOm.ja. 542 (1831). 
Lobivanellus cucullatus, Strickl. P. Z. JS. 1841, p. 33 ; Finschf Neu- 

Guinea, p. 181 (1865 : Timor; Sumatra) ; Seehohm, Oeogr. Distr. 

Charadr. p. 187 (1888). 
Lobivanellus tricolor, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33; Bp. C. R. xliii. 

p. 418 (1866); Schl. Mus. Pays-Bos, Cursores, p. 67 (1866: 

Sumatra ; Timor ; Java) ; Vorderm. Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 

xUv. pp. 204, 248 (1884 : Java), xlvi. p. 21 (1886), xlix. p. 415 

(1889: Sumatra). 
Chettusia cucullatus, Oray, List OraU. Brit. Mus, p. 65 (1844 : 

Java); id. Gen. B. iii. p. 541 (1847). 
Chettusia macroptera, Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 541 (1847). 
Chettusia tricolor, Gray, Hand-l B. iii. p. 12, no. 9968 (1871). 

Adult (type of V, tricolor, Horsf. ). General colour above light brown, 
including the whole of the wing-coveits and innermost secondaries ; 
the greater coverts with slightly paler ends ; bastard- wing, primary- 
ooverts, and quills black, the secondaries with pale bases, light ashy 
brown on the outer web and white on the inner web ; upper tail- 
coverts and base of tail white, forming a broad band, the rest of 
the tail black, with a band of white at the end ; crown of head and 
nape glossy black, followed by a greyish collar round the hind neck, 
extending over the sides of the neck and over the lower throat ; the 
sides of the face and throat black like the head ; fore neck, breast, 
and sides of body ashy brown or drab ; centre of the breast and 
abdomen black ; thighs drab-brown, blackish anteriorly ; vent and 
under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries also 
white : " bill black, light flesh-colour at the base ; an oblong white 
lappet, dark at the point ; naked part of tibia flery orange, changing 
into clear yellow on the tarsus ; scales of tarsus and upper part of 
toes dark sepia-brown ; iris brownish black" {J. Vorderman), 
Total length 11 inches, culmen 1*65, wing 9-8, tail 3*3, tarsus 3-45. 

Hah. Java; Sumatra; Timor. 

a, b. Ad. sk. Java (Dr. Horsfield). India Museum [P.]. 

(Types of V. tricolor, Horsf.) 
c. Ad. St. Java. Leiden Museum. 

13. SARCOGRAMMUS. ,^ 

Type. 
Sarcogrammus, Beichenb. Av. Syst. Nat. p. xviii (1862). . S. indicus. 

Raiuje. From Persia eastwards to Afghanistan and the Indian 
Peninsula to Ceylon ; Burmese countries to Cochin China, the 
Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. 

Key to the Species. 

a. White band from behind the eve reaching to 
the sides of the mantle ; no white collar round 
the hind neck indiats, p. 149. 



13. SARCOOEAllllUfl. 149 

4. White buid fmm behind tho i*ye only rt^achinff 
A tittlp uray down the iiidt*tt 4>t' the neck, which 
an* black like the cri>wn and thnmt ; white 
collar ou hind ni*ck dii>tinct atriMuchaiiSf p. 102. 

1 . Sarco^ammiis indicut. 

Vanneui ann^ do Goa, l/Aubent. PL Emi, viii. pi. H(>7. 

1^ Vanoeau annd dt*« Indea, Buf, Hist, \at. Out. viii. p. d4^1781). 

Triii»ra indira, HiM. Tabl. Pt. EhI. p. m (1783). 

• tiia Sandpiper, IjeUh, ffrn. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 1(^6 (1785). 

i'Arra {tim-imih, Om. Sygt, \at. i. p. 706 (I/hH). 

Iringa gueOM^ iMtk, Ind. Om. ii. p. 727 (1790). 

Vanelliui fMvnaiii, VMi. X Dirt. dTIIut. Sat. xxxv. p. !i08 (1811»); 
FramM. P. Z. & IM\, p. ll>4 (Ciangi^H) ; Syke», P. /. S 1832, 
p. Irkj (iKvcan); Ovui^i, Ont. /i, Himai. M. pL 78 (18:{2); JenL 
.\fodr. Jtmm. xii. p. 214 (1840). 

Charadriud atro^ulari!*, Wayl. iiy$t. At., Charadriiu, p. 75, tip. 49 
1 1^27). 

I»bi«an**llu!i )rt»en»iii, Strickl. P. Z.S. 1841, p. 33; llttdif*. Icon, iftfd. 
in //rtf. Mm., (imlL pi. 51, no. 228; id. in Grays Zooi. Misc. 
p. Nt ( 1^44) ; Gray, lAst GraU. Hrit. Mus. p. iVy (1844 : Nepal) ; 
tJ. f M. Mamm. etc. Si-jtal pres. Jlodys. p. 132 (1844)): Blyth, Oat. 
Ii. Mum. At. S*'C. p. 2«U (1819: Calcutta); Licht. Somend. Av, 
Mus. Brr,J. p. U'l ( 1KV4 : lleiipil) ; Irby, Ibis, l^U, p. 237 (Oudh); 
Jrrd. Ii. Ind. iii. p. t^l^ (l^U) ; Bramn, Ihin, 18(><, p. 390(MauD- 
bh'Miiiii; lint^flt, IfHM, I'^ttl, p. «J<) (Niiiiii Tal) ; reildm, Ihis^ 
l*»70. p. 2i«.'> (SiMiiidrraljad. breeding:) ; Bianf. J. A. S. liimg. xl. 
p. 27.''m1>*71 : Wardlm Vnllev); /W« IJ»y'd, Ibis, \K7:i, p. 4U\ 
iKathiawar); C. II. T. Mar'tihiilL lUs, 1MH4, p. 424 ((^hamba) ; 
ir H'. (ordrau.!. Ibis, 1^>^K, p. 224 (Lindiir \ alley, (■ai.hmerR). 

rbHtufiM indica, Gnty, Gru Ii. iii. p. *'Al (1^47); id. Iland-l. B. 
iii. p. 11, no. in»-V.» <*1'»71 ). 

SfcfrivraniiiiU'* ;:-eri-i*, litiihruh, Grail, p. x\iii, taf. oi. tig. 1(58, 
t rii. fit' lUVMl*s'i2i. 

I>»hi%nii«-iluA itjiliiiM, .S»A/. .l/iM. Pnyit-Iias, ('ur»M>rert, p. <W ( Ij^W : 

lUriKial; r-luiiUl; IliJdnw. P. /. .S'. Ih74, p. 4i2 (IVylon); 

.'^t„lirzk*t, J. A. S. lifutf. \li. p. 201 { 1^72 : Kutrh) ; IIume\ Sests 

A K*j'j$ Ind Ii. y. :>7I (1^73); iii. S(r. F. i. p. 232 (1873: Sind); 

.i'U'nn, t. c p. .RU (Sainlihurn linll, Str. F. ii. p. 42!» (Im74: 

<'b ta .N««'iiur»; Bu/Irr, .Vr. /'. iv. pp. 14, .'lo (l**it5: Northern 

( iiiit-rat ; Miiiiiit A )>•••» I ; F*tirhanA\ t. c.u. ll(2 (khandala); lilaftf, 

Iltut Prr^M, u. p 2-1 il*'7<J: Shimx ; lUliichi^taii) ; Hume, Str. 

F. \. p. 4.*i <I'*77 : rmhiir); liu/lrr, t. c. p 2'^l (Hiilf «>f (^man); 

Hmm^. Sir F. \ ii p. 3*.» ( 1^7!^ : Tra^niicon* i ; i#/. t. c. p. (57 (JiMJb- 

\-\kr\ ; Ikiridfin \ WrntifH. t. t\ p. HK H^Tcaii. ljn*«iini;) ; Hume, 

r r. p IC i<>-Hi«-\pur) ; .Murray, t. c. p. 110 (Sind) ; Ball, i.e. 

p -"-C (<»4iig-N to (iiMln\i-n ) ; Cripi**. t. r. p. 300 (Faridpur); 

Ilmnu, t r. p. 4'<l • rnlriitln K ButUr, (\it. Ii. Sind ttv. p. /HI 

• 1 -:•.»». IIumf,Sfr. F.wii. p 112(1>*79); .VrM//y, f.r. pp. 3o2, 

:y#; iN<*i«l< ; I^ny, t. r. pp. :}71, 37rnK. Narm, bifriiin^M; Ijryye^ 

// /Vy/w. iii. ]i. J»»2 U^^»); I'idal, Str. F. i\. p. ^2 M'^l: 

.^. K>fikAiii; Bamet. t. r. pp. 22<), 409 (('hamari, bn'i-ilini/) ; 

liulUr, t r. p 427 <S. MaKmttA Tountrv, rri.id«*nl) : ui. Cat. B. S. 

B'pmh I'ret. p. 74 ( I^NM ; Brid, Str. Kx. p. ♦MMl'*'*! : I.uknow;; 

h»ddulpk. pis, 1*^1. p iCi (i;il^t) ; Scully, t. c. p. Oh7 ; 6'iriiijbar, 

/Am. 1*v*2. p 120 i(*«nd»hiir) ; Daridsum/str. F. x. p. 319 (lM^2: 

W. KhandMah) ; iJansim, t. r. p. 413 (1HK5: Wvnaad); Tmylor, 



150 CHABADBUDiB. 

t, c. p. 465 (Mysore) ; Terry j U c. p. 480 (Palani Hills) ; Murray^ 
Vertdyr. Faun, Sind, p. 228 (1884) ; Swinhoe ^ Barnes, This, 1885, 
p. 133 (Mhow distr., breeding) ; Sharpe, IbU, 1886, p. 167 (Mus- 
cat) ; Humey 8tr, R xi. p. 316 (1888) ; Seehohm, Qeogr. Distr. 
Charadr. p. 184 (1888) ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 176 (S. Afghanis- 
tan) ; Heme 8f Reichen, Nomenel. Mus, Hein. p. 334 (1890) ; Oaies, 
ed. Hume's NesU ^ ^gs Ind. B. Hi. p. 340 (1890) ; Sharpe^ 8ci. 
Results 2nd Tark, Miss., Aves,-^, 139 (1891 : Srinasar). 
GhsDtusia goensis, Tytler, Ibis, 18w, p. 203 (Simla to Masuri). 

Adtdt male. General colour above light ashy brown, glossed with 
a metallic shade of oily green, and showing a slight violet iridescence 
on the mantle ; lower back dusky brown ; sides of lower back, 
rump, upper tail-coverts, and base of tail pure white, followed by a 
shade of light brown before a very broad black band across the 
terminal third of the tail, followed by a broad band at the end of 
the tail-feathers, brown on the two centre ones and white on the 
rest ; wing-coverts glossy violet, the greater series light ashy brown 
like the back, the outer ones white at the ends ; the greater coverts 
pore white with ashy bases; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and 
quills black ; the secondaries black, with white at the base of the 
inner web, increasing towards the inner secondaries, which gradually 
become pure white, the innermost ones brown like the back ; crown 
of head and nape black, slightly crested ; lores and feathers below 
the eye black, as well as the cheeks, throat, and upper breast ; from 
the back of the eye a broad band of white extending over the ear- 
coverts and down the neck, the sides of the neck being white, and 
extending round the hind neck in a somewhat incomplete collar, 
broken by blackish feathers in the centre and slightly tinged with 
grey above the mantle ; sides of fore neck, chest, and entire 
under surface of body below the upper breast pure white, including 
the under wing- and tail-coverts : " bill black, reddish at base ; 
wattles rosy -red ; feet pale yellow ; claws dark horny-brown ; iris 
brown" (C T, Bingham), Total length 13*5 inches, culmen 1*35, 
wing 9*1, tail 4*4, tarsus 2*96. 

Adult female. Similar in colour to the male. Total length 13 
inches, culmen 1*3, wing 9, tail 4*5, tarsus 2*9 . 

Young, Distinguished from the adults by having pale sandy 
margins to the feathers ; the crown of the head light brown, black 
on the sides and hinder crown ; the throat white, as well as the 
sides of the face ; the sides of the head from the hinder ear-coverts 
dusky black, extending over the lower throat and chest. 

This specimen above descrilM^d is from Mhow, procured by Colonel 
Swinhoe in October. The wattles are scarcely perceptible. By the 
following: spring the head and throat become black. 

I/ab, Fn)m Persia and Mesopotamia, N. Arabia (Muscat), to 
Afghanistan and throughout the whole of the Indian Peninsula, 
oast to Assiim, and south to Ceylon. 

fi. Ad. sk. ** Rooilklaneh Doozdee, a river Gould Coll. 

in IJoodan," Mav 27 {Keith 

AfflK'tt). 
h, i\ d. .Vd.sk. Mosi>jmlamia (Com?/i(/><'/fr J(im'A). Kuphnitos Exih^. 
I-. Ad. sk. Muscat. C\aonel Miles l^^ 



13. SABCOOBAMMUB. 



151 



/ d ad. tk. 



Sibb, lUluchisUii, March 25. 



y. Ad. ; k. Jut. Nal, Khclat, April, Aug.(0. T. 



A. 
t. Ad. nk. 
A, /. Ad. tk. 
•t. rf : «, o. 9 

MLnk. 
^. J ad. ak. 

f . Ad. ak. 
r. Ad. Mk. 
t. Ad. ak. 
f. Ad. nk. 
K. 9 ad. ik. 

r. Ad.ak. 
r,jr. c':y *'. 9 



ad.i c'. l^lll. ak. Adam). 



Ihtke). 

Koxdar, May 15 (O. 7*. Duke), 
AfirhanirtUn {fwnMth). 
Caodabar, Fvb., March. 

Sukkur, Sind, IKfC. 28 {A. O. 

B.). 
Rorev, Nov. {Dr. F. Ditff). 
Mooltan {Cnpt. Tweedie). 
iK'hraGhAzi Khau. 
i*«aihawur, Feb. 4. 
8irza dutrict, Punjab, 1K*C. 7 

{A. O. //.). 
Srinuffjnir, (*aj«hmerc, Auf^. 1. 
Sambbur, Feb. -Juno {R, M. 



^, *'. Ad. ftk. 
/'. Ad. 9k. 
f\ k . \d. «k. 
i'. {f ad. ak. 
k. d ad. ak. 

f, m\ n'. Ad. »k. 
©"./»'. y. <^ 9 "d. 

r . Ad. fk. 
• ,f', « . Ad. ftk. 
r', r'. Ad. fk. 
f'. (f ad. ak. 

f',i. Ad. »k. 

a AJ •k. 
A , r . Ad. 4k. 
^'. Ad .k. 

MandM\. 
' . ':/ .y 9 N. KhiwiK HilU, F.b. (.-I. If. 
aii tk rArnisr//). 

rMchar {J. InylU). 

I»arca. 

rairutU. lH«c. V*. 

SAii^'nr t litmijirr). 

Kaiiipti 



Dhoon. 

Ililla N. of MaAuri. 
Kumai»u (Strackey). 
Kumaon Terai, \farch. 
IMhi, .Manh 25(('. T. 

kam). 
Ktawah. 
FutU'b^rurh diatrict, Feb., March 

{A. Andmon). 
N<*|ial. 
Ne|ial. 

Nepal (Iludanfm). 
lleUmra, Nopal, 1 >!.•€. *2o {J. 

.Smify). 
Native Sikhiin, March, .Vpril 

iJ. MawiM). 
Haijihn^ (CW. Sknrjte). 
I^Nttiin {Ptrnftrrinn). 
lifKttan I^tiiani, March {J. 



A . Ad -k. 

|- . A.i >k 
A . / . ^ 9 ad. 
■■ , ■ .\d. i»k. 
• .\d. ; p \ 9" 
Jut. ftk. 

« ad -k. 
r . 11 , • . Ad. 

•a 
IT Ad -k 

I A'l •k. 
jr . « . a* Ad. 

' r Al ak 

^' \d vk 



[•■••. 



Mhiiw, (K't. 

Khiiiid»>i«li. 

Ik*c(*fin \StfKr»). 
Ih<«'rjin < iSurtjtMM). 
.\|jii.tMli.ui.viir «i iatr it- 1, March «.*) 

(•V //. FairfHmk). 
Mail rail. 

.\tijaii^i, Travaucore. 



\V.T.Dlaiiford,£aq. 

[C.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Humo Coll. 
India Muaeum. 
Col. C. Swinhoe [P.]. 

Hume Coll. 

Humo Coll. 
(Sould CoU. 
Hume Coll. 
Colonel Way [P.]. 
Humo Coll. 

Dr. Stoliczka [P.]. 
Humo ColL 

Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 
India Muaeum. 
CoL lUddulph [C.J. 
Humo ColL 

Humo Coll. 

Hume aud Soebobm 

Colla. 
Tweeddalo Coll. 
Hod^aon C41II. 
India Muaeum. 
Humo Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Se*-bohm C<ill. 
India Museum. 
Hume Coll. 

Twi'cddale Coll. 

Hume CoH. 
Hume Cull. 
Hume ColL 
Indin Muwum. 
I»r. H. Hinde[P.]. 

C..l.Swiuhoe[P.]. 

Tutt-ddult* Coll. 

I 111 lift MuM'um. 
( iiMild (*(»1L 

T^KHlduIt? Coll. 

i:«v. II. If. liabar 

P. . 
Hum^ 0*11. 



152 CHARADBIID^. 

«'. 5 ad. sk. Vellamey Lake, June 21 (F. Hume Coll. 

BourdHlon). 

/'. Ad. sk. Ceylon. Seebohm Coll. 

^', A*. cJ ad. sk. Cotta, Ceylon, Dec. (Hart), Hume Coll. 

»*, Aj', r. Ad. sk. Ceylon (S. Chapman), Tweeddale Coll. 

2. SarcogrammiLB atrinuchalis *. 

Sarcogramma atrogularis {nee Wagl,\ Blyth^ J. A, 8. Beng, xxxi. 
n. 846 (1862) ; id. 8f Wold, B, Burnt, p. 152 (1875). 

Lobianellus atronuchalis, Jerd, B, Ind, iii. p. 648(1864); Hume, 
Nests ^ Eggs Ind. B. d. 576 (1873) ; id. Str. F. iii. p. 181 (1875 : 
Pegu) ; Andersony Zool, Bes, Exped. Ytmnan, Aves, p. 675 (1878 : 
Bhamo: Tapeng River); Hume 8f Davison, Str. P. vi. p. 457 
(1878 : Tenasserim) ; Hume, Str. F. viii. p. 60 (1879 : Nealys, 
Malacca) ; u/. ^. c. p. 112 ; Tiraut, Bidl. Com. Agric. Cockinehine, (3) 
i. p. 146 (1879) ; Bingham, Str. F ix. p. 196 (1880 : Thoungyeen 
aUey) ; Kelham, Ibis, 1881, p. 530 (Perak River) ; id. iW», 1882, 
p. 10 (Malay Peninsula) ; Midler, J.f. O. 1882, p. 434 (Salanga) ; 
Oates, Handb. B. Bra. Burm. ii. p. 374 (1883) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. 
Gen. (2) iv. p. 613 (1887 : Teimzo) ; Hume, Str. F. xi. p. 316 
(1888: Manipur); Heine 4* Beichen. Nomencl. Mus. Hein. p. 334 
(1890: Is. of Salanga). 

Chettusia atronuchalis, Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 11, no. 9960 (1871). 

Lobivanellus indicus atronuchalis, Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. 
p. 186 (1888). 

AduU male. Similar to ^. indicus, but easily distinguished by 
the shortness of the white band above the ear-coverts, which extends 
but a little way beyond the line of the latter, and is not continued 
down the sides of the neck to join the white sides of the fore-neck ; 
the white collar round the hind-neck is also more distinct than in 
S. indicus : " bill for two-thirds of its length vermilion-red, rest of 
bill black; feet dirty yellow; lappets and eyelids vermilion -red ; 
iris dark brown " ( W. Davison). Total length 12*5 inches, culmen 
1-35, wing 8-4, tail 4-3, tarsus 3-2. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in plumage. Total length 
13 inches, culmen 1*3, wing 8*6, tail 4*3, tarsus 3. 

Young. Like the adults, but with the throat white, and all the 
brown feathers of the upper surface margined with sandy buff ; the 
crown of the head also browner. 

Hab. Burmese countries east to Cochin China and south to the 
Malayan Peninsula and Sumatra. 

a,b. S2 ad. sk. Pegu, Dec. 25 (R, G. W. R.). Tweeddale Coll. 

c, d. 6 ad. et $ Lower Pegu (E. W. O.). Gates Coll. 

juv. sk. 

e. $ ad. sk. Lower Pegu, Dec. (E. W. O.). Hume Coll. 

/. Juv. sk. Thayetmvo, Sept. (R. G. W. R.). Tweeddale Coll. 

g. Ad. sk. Yaytho, iune 10 {R. G. W. R.). Tweeddale Coll. 

h-l. (S ad. et ToDghoo {R. G. W. R.). Tweeddale Coll. 

juv. sk. 



* The name is badly chosen as a distinctive one for separating the Burmese 
species from the Indian, as the latter is equally ' black-naped.' 



14. TTLinTX. 



153 



m, m. / ad. -k. 

o. p. Ad. »k. 
f- c'. r. #. 9 ftd. 

«k. 
f. 9 jiiT. §k. 
». r. / : r. X, y. 

; ML»k. 
s, « . A", f/; r'. 

d.y. 9 ««i.tk. 

/ . 9 •.!. •k. 
y. A. I*, tf ad. 
•k. 

k. 'ad. nk. 
'. m . i ad. xJc. 
« . ' ad. Ilk. 
«. p . X Ad. nk. 
f. -•:r. 9 ad. 
ftk. 

# . <r ad. (dc. 

r . « . (^ x* mI. nk. 

. / xl. *k. 

ir : ad. -L. 

ad .^. 

• . t . :? * ad. 
•k 

f . y •• j ad. 

• k 
r ' til »k. 

/ i ad. ►k. 
■/ -^ a<l. "k. 

4 ; \.i -k 
« . \-l -k 

« • .\ 1 ik 

; \i •; 

f '^ A-l. rl 



Karen-mi-. Mon-h *J0 (iJ. C» 

H*. li.). 
Ta|>i*n>r ikivfr, Ffb. 
ThnttMit*. Dt-o.. Jan. (IP. 

/larijion). 
Kaukanit, Miirch *J4 ( Fr. 7>.). 
Takchaii, Jan. (If. />.). 

liankartiKm, I^. Vt Maivh 

( H'. /;.). 
KtuMoum, Mav 8 (J. DaHimf). 
SaUng, Feb. /March kJ. J).). 

Tapraw, .\pril 1 ?<(•/. 7/ ). 
.\Minon, N«»v. iM ( If. /i.). 
Kart>ii.s .March L>o ( H'. /A). 
Amherst, IKv. to Marrh( H'. />.). 
AmhorKt-.Mer^nii, March ( If. 

ii.). 
.Meryrui, Nov. ( If. I).), 
I l«v< 't 1 1« 'Un^hraw lUver, 

Jan. l» ( If. 1).). 
NtH-<lon^, .\ttAmn Kiver, Feb. 

( ir. IK). 
Il(»p%in, TrnaMM'riiu, IK'O. 10 

\U'.I}.\. 
Pabvouk, March ( H*. />.). 

Kviiiik PhToun, Ik«., March 

*< If. lU 
ThamU'ito, Niiv. ll\ ( W, I),). 

Yi-a, March L»t; ( If. 1).). 
Ivtviu^M-nni T«iwn, N«»v. t?5 

Malncra. (»ct. 1*.* ( If. I).). 
Mnlaica.Julv i H'. It.). 
.MaliMLva I /^ >;. H'. Ji.). 
MnlaiVtt ( Ifr. i 'anturi. 

SlIlllutRl. 

Stti^'tMi. ('iN*hin China. 



Tweeddalc (.:oll. 

Dr. Andermm [C,]. 
Hume Coll. 

Ilumo CoU. 
1 1 tune Coll. 

llume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume CoU. 

Hume Coll. 
1 1 ume Coll. 
liuuie C«>11. 
Ilunie (*oll. 
llume CoU. 

If umo Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Humo CoU. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

HuuM^ CoU. 

Hume Coll. 

Humo Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

HuuhM'oU. 
Hume Coll. 
Twi-e*ldalf Coll. 
I ml in .Muhfiim. 
Walbu*- Coll. 
M. K. Pierre P.. 



Tji*. 



14. TYUBYX. 

1«..^»i. JifuhrtUi. Ar Stf»i. \ut. |i. will (I.hTiI.'). T. niitaitiicephaluii. 
iCztk-jf. M^fuiitain^ of N.K. .\fri«'a. 

1. Tjlibjz melaAOcephalni. 

1.. )i \ «r.t'11ii« nit'lari'io |ilin|u-. Hupp. Syni, f'rlttrn. p. ll*'i, pi. 44 
! M.' M'luntikin* i>f Sunt n, Alnafniiia) : Urut/l. Sifnt. frftrra. 
y Vi il^^Vt: lli/hlan<l« i»f .VhvM^inia) : litatif. (in4. iV /moI, 
,l'«yif p 4«')LI il**70: I>alanta and Wadela Phit**aus, ab«ive 
|i|.ij^)f.^n; h'inack, Tran*. /»ki/. .Vr*r. vii. p. :W'< (1^7(M; lleugi. 
iPm S O.'Afr. ii pt. 1. p. HNKi (|H7:t: Hi/lilan«U ofHemien, 
TaUeUi.diiorr and S.AlM'Niima from IKKX) UM)(N) feet, WcyarA, 
1, Talanu, UaU, ionth to Gala-Und and the 



154 CnARADRIID^. 

Shoa district) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Gen. (2) i. p. 219 (1884 : 

Tuor-Hamedi^ Shoa); Seebohm, Qeogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 194 

(1888). 
Chettusia melanocephala, Oray^ Gen. B. iii. p. 541 (1847) ; id. Handrl. 

B. iii. p. 12, no. 9967 (1871). 
Tylibyx melanocephala, Beichenb. Grail, p. xvlii, tab. ccxcix. 

^g. 2438 (1852) ; Bp. C. B. xlui. p. 419 (1856). 
Vanellus melanocephalus, CHebd, Thes, Om. iii. p. 745 (1877). 

Adult. General colour above browD, with a lilac gloss ; the lower 
back dusky brown ; wiDg-coverts like the back, the median series 
tipped with white, the greater coverts pure white, the innermost 
like the median coverts, brown with white tips; bastard-wing, 
primary-coverts, and quills black; the secondaries with white 
bases, extending gradually more on the inner web towards the 
inner secondaries, which are entirely white ; innermost secondaries 
brown, the outer ones with a broad white margin ; upper tail- 
coverts and tail white ; the terminal band black, with again a 
narrow white tip, the black band decreasing in width towards the 
outer feathers, where it becomes very narrow ; crown of head and 
nape black ; loros, sides of face, ear-coverts, cheeks, and sides of 
neck ashy brown, more ashy above the eye ; throat black ; breast 
and under surface of body, as well as the under tail-coverts, under 
wing-coverts, and axillaries pure white ; the fore-neck spotted with 
black ; quill-lining black, with the extreme base of the primaries 
white, and the same pattern of white and black on the secondaries 
as on the upper surface : '^ bill black, the base of the mandible 
yellow ; feet citron-yellow ; iris umber-grey " (von Heuglin). Total 
length 11*5 inches, culmen 1, wing 94, tail 3*4, tarsus 2*45. 

Hah. Mountains of N.E. Africa. 

a, b. Ad. sk. Shoa (Sh' W. C. Harris). India Museum. 

c. Ad. St. Shoa. Dr. Ruppell [C.]. 

d. Ad. sk. Abyssinia. Oould Coll. 

15. ZOinFEB*. 
Range. Confined to Australia. 

1. Zonifer tiicolor. 

Charadrius tricolor, VieiU: N. Diet. dHist Nat. xxvii. p. 147 (1818 : 

Australia). 
Charadrius pcctoralis, Wagl, Syst. Av., Charadrius, p. 58, sp. 8 

(1827 : €.v Cuv. in Mus. Paris) ; Less. TraiU d'Orti. p. 545 (l&Sl). 
Sarciophorus tricolor ( F.), Strickl P. Z, S. 1841, p. 33 ; Cass. U.S. 

Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 328 (1858). 
Sarciophorus pectoralis, Gould, B. Austr. vi. pi. 11 (1842) ; Gray, 

List Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 60 (1844 : S.Australia) ; Bli/tli, Cat. B. 

Mus. As. Soc. p. 2G0 (1849: New South Wales); Beichenb. 

Orall. tab. cii. figs. 1051-52 (1850); Bp. C. B. xliii. p. 418 

(1850); Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 222 (1865); Bamsay, 

lifts, 1867, p. 420, pi. ix. fig. 3 ; HaHing, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 458 ; 

Bamsay, P. Z. 8. 18/7, p. 330 (N.E. Queensland) ; id. Proc. Linn. 

* ^utvrj, band ; tpepM, 1 carry. 



15. zoxiPfwB. 155 

Snc, S. S. W. i. p. lf<7 (1^77 : N.S. W.. Victoria, and 8. Austmlia, 
TMiianiA ) ; id. t. r. p. L'l 7 ; id. op. cit. ii. p. 197 (1878 : Kor]iiD|rhitm 
lt«v : Tort lN*niM)ii ; W'idi* Kny diAtr. ; Kicliiuond ami CUrence 
i:iv..|n) ; JVVM. iVi^. Linn. *Sf>r. JV'. S. H'. (2) i. p. 1173 ( 1887) ; 
lianumff. Tab. Liat Awtr. IL p. 19 (1888: Interior; Victoria; 
S. AuftniliA ; W. A: S.W. Aii>traliA) ; Nvrih^ Aett* Sr Egy$ Auttr. 
H. p. :W. pi. xvii. fijr. r. ( lh89) ; id. Proc. Linn. Sue. JV. S. W. (2) 
iii. n. 1778 ( IhhJI) ; Cojr ^ JlamilUm, <^>. cit. (2> iv. p. 419 (1890 : 
Miidfre** dintr); httMt^ l*nx'. Austr. A$3oe. 1892, p. 43. 

llopl.»pt«*ru« trirnlur ( T.), Onty, (int. Ii. iii. p. 542 (1847). 

I*hanuiriii4 Tiiii«l!oidei«, iVtf/<*, X.H.KriU. Erped. Zool. p. 240 (1848 : 
Aivjli'. NXW.). 

I^>bi\iiiif]lu«i p<*(*toralifS Schl. Mm. Pay^-Iia^y Cimtort'S, p. (V) (1805: 
l*(»rt Fjniin^on ; Taninaiua); SSetbohm, Oengr. Distr. Vharadr. 
p. LHJOdWM. 

llop].ipt«*ruji pi*t*tonili#, (iray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 13, no. 9970 (1871). 

C'h*<ttu«ia (I^>bivAn<'lluii) pvctoralis, Fintch, I*roc. Acad, PhUad. 
1^72, p. 32 (.Vujitralin). 

Adult, (rvneral colour aboTo brown, gloaaod with purpliah 
broni4» ; winfr-coTcrtM liki* the back, the median Bcrioe tip|)cd with 
vhitr, N'fure whit'h iM a Hub-mnr^nal bar of black : the greater 
or*Ttii* pure white, with a little bn>wn at the bane : bantard-wing, 
|irimar}-covert4*« and t|iiiIU black, the primaricH white at the 
rxtrrnic* ba«*e ; secondaries black, white at the bai»e, the white 
gr«dually in( rt-a^inf? towiirdH the inner m.'condariefi, which become 
whiti^ with an obliipie terminal mark of black, and finally the inner 
€*Tkr% are ]iure white; the innermcmt brown like the back, but with 
a white niaririn. precede<l by a sub-marginal black line near the 
md «tf the out«-r wcb ; lower Itack and rump duhky brown, duller 
tk:io thf ba(k ; ^i<le9 of nimp and upper tail-covert a pure white; 
l«i>a] half of tail white, the terminal half black with a white tip, 
thf Muck bund dtTrt•a^illg in width towards the outer feathem ; 
r^'^^n ff head and najK' glohM' blue-bluek ; the hind-neck and 
u;'«» r ni intlo licbtrr and more ashy-bn»wn than the back; iK^hind 
t!.«* (}i* a broad htnak of ubiti'; cbccks and ent in* throat white, 
AT' irr!«*l by a britad band of blark, wbicb extends from the lHU«e of 
t.V bill, U biw tbe «'V«', and arrows the ear-eovert« down the sides 
of v\v mtk on to the fon^mtk and breiuM, whirt* it widens and 
ffffx.* a wry broad |K»<toral band ; remainder of under surface of 
U«i; , indudin;; the under wing-coxerts and axillarit*»i, pure white: 
•"tjj" r.f upi4*r mandible hnrn-nyjour ; the remainder of the bill 
Ua'.tif-il primn •*»<*- >ell<»w ; nak«'<l parts of the thigh and kneea 
d&ri pii.k ; tar»i and tiK-s bl;iekihh brown, tbe latttr inclining to 
*c:.k-ri«l; iriH yellow. KiirrixindtNl by a rim of dcH'p priinroao 
ri*i r.d:titf in an ublwjue ilireetion to tbe fle<>by ]irotuberanee at the 
t«»« *d tlw upfrtT mumiibbs ubieh is blo<Ml-n'<i in the male, much 
iiir*.trf Of llei^b-nil in tli«« femah" *' (./. (Jnuhl). Total lenglb 10-6 
i&«hc*, rulmen I*<C>, wing 7*4, tail .'V2, tarsus 1*9. 

SfgtUntj. S.md) brtmn with black markings: a white collar 
r'.ar«d th«- hihd-m-t-k ; under surface white, with a broud black 
"4l.*r itn th«- lin.i*t. 

Umh, Australia and TaaDiania. 



156 CHABADBnOiB. 

a. 2 ^* 8^' Hamilton Plains, Tasmania, Hume Coll. 

April. 

b. S ad. sk. Soutn Australia. Sir George Grey [P.]. 

c. Juv. sk. South Australia. Gould Coll. 

dj e. Ad. sk. Queensland. Tweeddale Coll. 

/, g. Ad. sk. Queensland (J, T. CockereU). Salvin-Godman Coll. 
h. Pull. sk. Bred in captivity. Lord Lilford [P.]. 

16. ANOHALOPHRTS. 
Range. Western Africa, east to Lake Tanganyika. 

1. Anomalophrys superciliosns. 

Lobivanellus superciliosus, Reichen. «/'./'. O. 1886, p. 116, pi. iii. 
tig. 2, imm. (Marungu) ; Matschie, jf, 0. 1887, p. 136 (Karema), 
p. 144 (Marungu) ; Reichen, J, /. U, 1890, p. 107 (Cameroons) ; 
Shelley, Ibie, 1890, p. 169 ; Sharpe in Jameson^8 Story of the Rear 
Column, App. p. 405 (1890 : Stanley Pool) ; Reichen, J, f, O, 
1891, p. 372 (Togo-land). 

Sarciophorus superciliosus, Shelley, Ibis, 1887, p. 418 (Rio del Rey). 

Advlt male. General colour above dark olive -brown ; the lesser 
and median wing-coverts like the back ; greater coverts light ashy 
brown, white at the ends, forming a broad wing-band ; bastard- 
wing, primary-coverts, and quills black, the primaries white at the 
extreme base ; secondaries white, with an oblique black mark at the 
end, forming a band which increases in breadth towards the 
primaries, the outer ones being black with white bases, the inner- 
most secondaries olive-brown like the back, the proximal ones 
white, ashy brown on the inner web ; upper tail-coverts and basal 
two-thirds of tail white, with a broad black band at the end 
increasing in width towards the outer feathers, which are tipped 
with white, the external one entirely white with a black sub-terminal 
spot on the inner web ; crown of head black as well as the nape ; 
lores and forehead pale rufous ; sides of face, oar- coverts, and sides 
of neck grey, this colour extending round the hind-neck ; throat 
also grey, whiter in the centre ; the fore-neck dark maroon, forming 
a collar; remainder of under surface, from the fore-neck down- 
wards, pure white, including the under wing-coveits and axillaries : 
**iris yellow" (BUttner), Total length 10*5 inches, culmen 0*85, 
wing 7*6, tail 3*1, tarsus 2*1. 

Young. Differs from the adult in having the feathers of the 
upper surface margined with rusty, the cap only dusky brown, with 
a broad frontal band ; a broad eyebrow, as well as the lores, 
rust-coloured, the patch on the fore-neck much smaller and of a 
rusty colour instead of maroon : " bill black, the base slightly 
reddish ; eye-ring and loral lappet dusky yellow ; feet dull rose- 
red ; iris clear brown " (M. Bohm), 

Ilah, West Africa, from Togo-land to the Congo, and east to Lake 
Tanganyika. 

a,b. (S ad. sk. Rio del Rev, Cameroons. H.H. Johnston, Esq., 

C.B. [P.]. 
c. 2 j^V' ^' Stanley Pool, R. Congo (J, Mrs. J. S. Jameson 

5. Jameson), [P.]. 



14. noPUiPTEKm. 157 

17. HOPLOPTEEUS. ^ 

Type. 
Ilopltipteruii, Bp. Sa^gio iJistr, Met. Anim. VerUhr. 
|i. Ta\ (1?01) H. ic|nno8Uii. 

Ra»*jt, S.E. Euro{)e : N.E. and K. Africa; W. Africa from 
SmifcamliiatothrCoiif^u. ludian Pi*niu0ula and Hurincsc eountrieci 
U> Cochin Cliina :ind Haiiuii. 

AVy to the Sjtfcief, 

a (ViwD i»f hfftd bUck fruui fttri'lu^d t«> nape; 
bai-k briwn (»r tv^Uy bMwn. 

m . Thr*«t and »*ntin* bnviKt black nfnHtuttt*, p. l.*)?. 

6 . ThnMit bliu*k ; chtf*t li^lit bmwn ; brt^ant 
aihI abdoiurn whito, v^ith h blai-k }ki&U>li 

in lh»» <'t»:jtn.* vvntraiis^ p. ITii*. 

V O iwn '*f ht*nd whitf ; hindfr rntwn and im|w 
blju'k liki* tbt' Mdfd of tht' facv. tbruAt, and 
b^•»>t ; will;;'* do\»»-tfr»«v ; centiv of back 
and I'Wrr «i*apului> black xytivicjvujv, p. U\\. 

1 . HoplopteroB spinosnt. 

Thf Hlark-bn ai*t4*d Indian Tluver. Etltranh, A'af. Hist. i. p. 47. 

pi 47 (i:4.»: IVn.ia». 
Tbi* Spiir-winjr*"*! PIo^it, KttKarfi*^(iUanmyn Sat. Hist. ii. p. UfJ, 

pi. 2-^). ti^'. 1* I iri») : Alemirt). 
\^. \%\\\*-T hujwi ,1,. IVriM'. lirtM. Orn. v. p. 84 (17«J0: Persia). 
reiaiiMlniL<i »piip*i*u«, LtHM. Si^tt. Aat. i. y. 'J!'A\ {\7i\t\) ; tim. Sj/st. 
\at.l p. i;'.«» Mr****) xW'ayL Sffgt. Ar., (^haradriua, 8p. 10, p. ry^ 

. Man. a Orn. 
Merid. 




1'- 
\^ Plu%i»T a aiiTn-U**, /VM/f. /. c p. iH>. 

-pur-»iij;.'f<i l*i«'%i-r, Litth. Hen. tSyn. iii. pt. 1, p. 1*13 (irhW). 

>•'.:-» iiip;tHl I*I«»\»T, ^ar. .\, I^ttJt. t. c. p. L'U. 

( r.arailriu« |^-r*irutt, Jionn. Enc. Meth. i. p. 21 (17(K)). 

< hAr»«}nu* M-iiivaleiiriit (nee Z.)« iitejth. in JSMaws (itn. Zool. xi. 

p l-lM-hM. 
rt.Ar»*lnuii rri-UtU(k (iwv Meyer), •^'pA. f. c. p. 4KS. 
II j-l |!» ru- "j-ini/^UB, //;*. Sat/yio JPi^trih. Met. Anim. Vertehr. 

p .Vi (l*v'{l »; iW. <'..«i;i. Ust U. Eur. ^ A". Amer. p. 4<J (iKtH^ ; 

A'ryi ^ /;^i#. HVrA. A'Mr. pji. Uix, Lie I |H4()) ; dray, Li»t dratl, 

heu. Mum. p. %\X I l^U : l'4r>pt; <ianibia); Muhle^ liritr. (>m. 

Of^etkenL p i»4 <1M4»; /^m/ii. .^y«/. LVirr*. l», 117 (lM-*»; .V/. 

#i«fr Om. K"!!'. I., ll'ti < Kt-d .S.-a ) ; 7/arr/. •//. O. IkVI, p. I'lil 
>ru< /AOibia; ; Lirkt. Somettrl. Ar. Mum. h'rrul. p. llTi (1S.VI); 

iiem^t .Sy.f. Tr/-^*. p. />.-,( KVJ) ; //^». f. /?. xHii. p. 4|H {l<it\) ; 

//fiH/ Um, H'.'Afr. p. *Jl4 ' 1*n>7 : diiinrtt ; ( 'ajianianm*) ; Tristr. 

If^, 1*^'4». p. ^tfW f(. Jonlan) ; Taytvr, t. e. p. 51 ( I'^rvpt) ; Linderm. 

f'.y. Urwrkeml. p. l.'tL' ( 1*^'A)); ifartt.J./.O. INU. p. I't^M (MiMu>) ; 

Mnf-^ii AlUm, IffiM, Iw^i, p. l.'iiJ (K^vpt) ; Antin, Cat. deM^r. r.'rc. 

p tC < 1-^V4 : EfrvptiAO IMU) ; .^rin^, ///u, iHi^. p. Ill (Nubia) ; 

MafordAUm^ it. p. 1»40; Tayior, JIUm, 1H4)7, p. iih (K^pt); 

ite^i. €t fhrU, (Jrm. Eur. ii. p. 14:) (Itf^C); Tru^r. /&», 1H(W, 



158 csaradbiidjE. 



& 



. 324 (Palestine, breeding) ; Wright, Ibis, 1869, p. 246 rMalta, 
^ct.) ; Blanf, OeoL 8f Zool. Abyss, p. 431 (1870 : Lake Ashangi ; 
Ailat) ; Fimch, Trans, Zool, Soa, vii. p. 295 (1870 : R. Amba) ; 
Gray, Hand-l, B, iii. p. 12, no. 9969 (1871) ; Shelley, B. Egypt, 
p. 232 (1872) ; Heugl, Om, N.O,'Afr, li. Abth. i. p. 1004 (1873), 
App. p. clxxx, pi. xli. fig. 10 (Egypt ; Nubia ; Atoara R ; Lower 
White and Blue Nile ; E. Kordbfan ; Abyssinian lowlands and 
Red Sea coast ; Wur River) ; Harting, P, Z, S, 1874, p. 456 ; 
KrUper, J, f, O, 1875, p. 283 (Smyrna) ; Blanf. East Persia, ii. 
p. 281 (1870) ; Dresser, B. Eur, vii. p. 539, pi. 530 (1878) ; 
J^her (J- Reichen, J, f, O, 1879, p. 337 (Tschara) ; MUUer, t, c, 
p. 391 (Cjrprus) ; Gigl. Ann. Agric. 1&81, no. 36, p. 118 (Dalmatia) ; 
id. Ibis, 1881, p. 184 (Malta) ; Sahin, Cat. Strickl. Coll. id. 601 
(1882 : Kordofan); W. A. Forbes, Ibis, 1883, p. 535 (R. Niger) ; 
Tristr, Faun, ^ Flor, Palest, p. 131 (1884) ; Sharpe, Joum, Linn, 
8oc,, Zool, xvii. p. 441 (1884 : Gazelle K.) ; Salvad. Ann, Mus, 
Oen, (2) i. p. 219 (1884 : Lake Cialalaka), p. 274 (Lake Ota) ; 
Fischer, J.f. O. 1885, p. 116 (Kipini ; Barawa) ; Hartert, J.f. O, 
1886, p. 609 (Madschisari ; Eaura ; Easchia) ; Hartl. Zool, Jahrb. 
u. p. 332 (1886) ; Gigl, Avif, Ital. p. 376 (1886) ; Salvad, Elenco 
Ucc, Ital. p. 207 (1886 : Malta) ; Beichen, J, f, O. 1887, d. 47 
(Kagehi) ; Martert, t. c. p. 264 : Saload, Ann, Mus, Genov, (2) vi. 
p. 310 (1888 : Cialalaka) ; Shelley, P, Z, S, 1888, p. 49 (Lado) ; id. 
Ibis, 1888, p. 305 (Jipi) ; Gigl. 1st Besoc, Avif, Ital. p. 576 (1889) ; 
Guillem, Ibis, 1889, p. 214 ; LOford, t, c, p. 338 (CSrprus) ; Oust. 
Bibl. Ecole Hautes Etudes, xxxi. Art. 10, p. 12 (1889: Somali) ; 
Heine 8f Reichen, Nomencl, Mus, Hein, p. 335 (1890) ; Brusina, 
Motr, etc, {Om, Croat,) n. 86 (1890) ; id, Om, Jahrb, Heft i. p. 26 
(1890: S. Dalmatia; Montenegro); id. Proc. Soc. Hist, i^at, 
Croat, 1891, p. 22; BendaU, Ibis, 1892, p. 229 (Gambia); Sd. 
Ibis, 1893, p. 277. 

Vanellus melasomus, Sioains, B. W, Afr, ii. p. 237, pi. 26 (1837). 

Pluvianus spinosus, Gould, B. Eur, iv. pi. 293 (1837). 

Philomachus spinosus, Gray, List Gen, B, p. 65 (1840). 

Hoplopterus persicus. Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 542 (1847) ; StrickL 
P. Z. S. 1850, p. 221 (Kordofan) ; id. Ann, ^ Mag, N, H, (2) ix. 
p. 348 (1852). 

Hoplopterus armatus {nee Jard, 8f Selby), Brehm, Vogtlf, p. 284 
(1855 : S. Russia ; Egypt). 

Vanellus spinosus, Schi, Mus, Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 60 (1865 : 
Egypt ; Senaar ; Abyssinia ; Kordofan ; Gold Goast ; Nubia) ; 
Seebohm, Geogr, Distr, Charadr, p. 219 (1888) ; Beichen, Vog, 
Deutsch.'Ost-Afrikd's, p. 36 (1894: Masai-land; Victoria Nyanza). 

Adult male. General colour above brown, witb a slight purplish 
gloss ; scapulars like the back, the feathers elongated and somewhat 
pointed ; the lower back rather darker brown ; wing-coverts lighter 
and more ashy, the outer median coverts white at the ends, and the 
greater coverts white for the most part, the innermost of both series 
ashy brown ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills black, the 
secondaries with white bases and black tips, the white increasing on 
the inner ones, the innermost secondaries brown like the back ; 
upper tail-coverts and base of tail white ; terminal half of the tail 
black, the outer feathers tipped with white and the black decreasing 
in extent; crown of head glossy purplish black, with a nuchal 
crest ; sides of face, including the lower eyelid, wliite, as also the 



17. nOPLOPTERFA. 15!) 

sid4« of tho neck and a collar roand tho hind-nock descending 
on the pidod of the foro-ncck : throat, centre of fore-neck, and entire 
hrrast l»lack, dencending on to the sides of the flanks ; sides of body, 
abdomen, under tail-coverts, under wing-ooverts, and ax i llanos 
purr white : quill-lining black : bill and feet black ; iris scarlet or 
crimson. Total length 12 inches, culmen 1*25, wing 8*2, tail 3*11, 
taivus 2-S5. 

Hah, S.K. Europe; Palestine: N.E. Africa to 3Jasai-land and 
the Tana district, as far as Mamboio ; West Africa from 8enegambia 
to the XigtT. 

fl. Jut. tk. Inland of Milo, Cn*te, Grecian (tould Coll. 

Archii)«>Is^«». 

A. Ad. nk. S«ni of (ialikts rak<«tine. Csnon Triiitram [C.l. 

r, d. Ad. lit. l*V>'pt. Sir J. BowrinfT [1*. j. 

r. .\d. fk. l*40'pt. G. Tunibull, Km|. 

/. y. Ad. ik. Ejnpt, Fob., March ( G, E. StiU.hm Coll. 

A.cTad. *k. I*iiwi'r fV}*?^ < Siaffurd A Uen ) . S««oboh m Coll . 

t, &. (f ^ ad. »k. rppor l*4rvpt (7/. Hugrrs). Si'ebiihm Ci»ll. 

/, M. Ad. i»k. (*airt>. Capt. H. H. Penton 

n. Ad. ftk. .\w»iout. Twe«ldale Coll. 

V c^ All. Ilk IjikeAshanp, Aby&*inia,MAv. W. T. Itlanford, Ksq. 

p. ? ad. Hk. .Vilat, Saiiihar, June 20. W. T.^Hlanft>rd, Km. 

f 7 ad. !.k. Anitw, Au#r. 21 ( W, Jnsr), Two^idalc Coll. 

r f^ md. tk, CialnlAkH, Shua, May 2H. Turin MuM'uni '^K.]. 

9 ? ad. f»k. IjIm\*u h>|uatorisl Africa, Kmin Pasha IVTj. 

(Vt. 10. 

f. 7 s<l. i>k. l^v Jipi, .Vu^. F. J. Jackson, Vlaa, 

«, r. .\d. *>k. MaiiiKtio (.Sir J, Kirk), St^ebobra C«>11. 

r .\d. f^k. Ga2. ilo Uivcr. F. IkihiidoHl' (\]. 

/ A'i >k. GHiiihia. Old (\ai. 

v Ad. •k Ihikiir. Sfmyal, Jan. {L. Twt*iil«Ulo Coll. 

s .\d. tk. Ihdcar, Sc'iu^gal, Jan. {L. Svbohiu Coll. 

Liu/iaiMe). 
m .^rUC'iO- Purchased. 

2. Hoploptemi Tentr&lit. 

I1u%irr arm*' du .S^n«V»d, Uriu. (hm. v. p. HJ, |>1. vii. fij^. 2 (ITtH)). 
rhamiriiui \i-utndiM, M'^y/. .Sy*/. Ar., C^hnrKdriiiit, p. ol^ Hp. 11 

<I-27»; <;ray A- JiaHy. Jliu»tr. Ind, A>,tJ, i. pi. I« (IKJJ). 
< 'b«radnu« duTnui dii. Atm. Man, tfOm, ii. n. im ( lh2^ : CuIcutU) ; 

ui. TrmU, p. W5 { IKJI) ; «/. (ompi. Huff., (hs. iii. p. 4*H ( 1K17). 
Ckaradriu* bicol.ir. TVmm. /Y. (oL v. li\r. HI (lKt2: IkMiirnl). 
lliiLrfiiarhu* ir«*Dtra]ifi vol Ppinosiis, Uftht, Jnm. inrti, in lint. Mug,, 

O'rtOi. pi. 4^. no. 2*-'7 ; id. in (tray's /uol, Mitr. u. m) ^ IM I). 
llopltfipCf'nu ti-ntniliii. firay. List (irttlL Brit. .I/mh. p. (»4 (1H44: 

N«^»; id. Vat, Mamm. tic, \r^wl pres. IMyt. p. i:t2 ( 1H40; ; 

/i/yCA, rw. //. MuB. Am, Sue, p. 2110 (1H4U: IMira Dhoon); 

hmtkmk. OraU. Ub. cricii. fig*. 242H-20 {WJi)\ lip, C\ R, 



17. noPLOPTEBUS. 161 

Hmh, From North-wcstorn and Central India to the Bormete 
coontries and Siam, and as far east as Hainan. 

«. Ad. nk. Dehra Dhoon. Tweeddale ColL 

4. S ad. ak. Gurhwal, May 25 (G. King). Hume ColL 

c Ad. tk, Kuniaon. Tweeddale Coll. 

4 f. Ad. tk. Etawah, IX«c. to March. Hume ColL 

A. cf ad. tk. Futtehgiir, Dec. {A, Andentm), Seebohm ColL 

•* A. (f S ad. Ilk. FuttehfTur, April, Sept. (A. Hume ColL 

Anderum). 

(, M. Ad. sk. Saugor. Hume Coll. 

» p. .\d. tk. Dinapur. IHnwill Coll. 

f . Ad. ^k. Hehsr. Hodgson ColL 

r*«. Ad.sk. Nepal. Hodgson ColL 

r, r. .\d. sk. Nepul (B, IL Hodgmm), India Museum. 

r. Ad. sk. Nepal. Tweeddale ColL 

|r, s. .\d. sk. Nepal Vsllcj, May, Dec. Hume ColL 

(J. SlmU^). 

•'-<'.Ad.sk. Sikhim, l*eb., March (Z. Hume ColL 

MandelUX 

d. Ad. »k. Hhotan Doan, Jan. (X. M,), Hume Coll. 

9 . SA. Ilk. Siligoive, liengal, April 11 Seebohm ColL 

/. 2 ad. sk. Kamroop, Assam, Feb. [A. W. Tweeddale ColL 

Chtnnell), 

J'. \d. ik. Assam (McCMland), India Museum. 

. cf ad. sk. Lofftak L«ake, Manipur, March Hume ColL 

18 (A, O. H,), 

i. i . Ad. sk. Tomrh(M), Burma, Jan. {R, G. Tweeddale Coll. 

IT, It), 

r o ad. ftk. Shuav-g-veen, Jan. (R, G, Tweeddale Coll. 

H^.JL). 

■•.cfsd.sk. Sittang Uiver, Sept. 30 (R. G, Tweeddale ColL 

W. R,). 

m, .^ ad. sk. Kan*n-nee, March 17 {R, G. Tweeddale Coll. 

h: r.). 

• . .\d. fk. T»itksu, I'pper Burma, Feb. 6. Dr. J. .Vnderson [C.]» 
f . i sd. »k. Houngtbraw Kirer, Tenas- Tweeddale Coll. 

serim. I W. 20 (If. Limborg)^ 

f Ad. »k. Yuunzalttfu Creek, Ft* b. ( 11'. Hume Coll. 

/XirM'/n). 

r .§'. r' ad. ik. Kaukarvit, Oct., Not. (/. Hume Cull. 

Darltng). 

t. ^ sd.sk. That43u«*,Jan.ir>(lf':7>arMnii). Hume ColL 

• ^ »d. sk. Myawiultf*. Jan. 20 ( W. IK). Hume ColL 
r t ad. ik. MegalMiD, Jan. ( H\ II). Hume ColL 
«-.'.' 9 ad.sk. Kpii. Jail. 20 ( H\ JJ.), Hume Coll. 
/. I* sd. tk. I^skcbau. Jan. 20 ( W, />.). Hume (\iU. 

s .\d. ik. Siam. M. K. Hirre 'P.]. 

« -^ sd. tk. Hainan, .March {R. Stcinhoe). S<N<bohm Coif. 

^ BocHv of trunk. HodgmiU Coll. 

:i. Hoplopterni tpedotui. 

Charadrias spfcuiras, Uagl, In$, 1829, p. OIU («j Lieht. m Mm. 
RtrU.i CsiTraria). 

fOL. HIT. M 



18. BiLovoFmut. 1(K) 

A 9 Ad. ft Soath Africa. Zoological Sodetj. 

h. Imm. tk. Gape of Good Hope. PorchaMd. 

c. Ad. sIl Natal. Tweeddale ColL 

41. 9 ad. tk. NataL Saebohm ColL 

r. <; ad. ik. TraoBvaal ( T. Avrm). Sbarpe ColL 

f. tS wL^ Transvaal (7*. Ayre9). Gurney Coll. 
« (f ; A, 1. 9 ad. TranBvaal, Dec. (T, R Bueh- Shelley ColL 

•k. lesf), 

ft. Ad. ak. TrazMTaaL Capt SaTile Beid 

[c.]. 

t 9 ad. tk. Braii«low*8 Fann, Transraal, W. £. & C. G.Oates, 

Dec {R Oate$). Eeqra. fPJ. 

JR. 9 Ad. tk. Sathe Kiver, Transraal, Oct W. £. & 0. U. Oalee, 

{¥. ()ate$). Eaqw. [PI 

•• Ad. ak. Damara-laod. Tweeddale ColL 

#,^(^9>d. ak. Otiimbinqius Damara-landy Seebohm ColL 

JuIt, St'pt. ( C. J, Ander$$on), 

«. 9^*k. LakclShirwa, NTa0a>land,MaT H.IL JohnstoiiYEaq., 

(A, U'hytf). C.B. [P.]. 

r, a. (f 9 *d. ak. Kilimanjaro, June 24. II. C. V. Hunter. 

Eaq. [P.]. 

18. BELOHOPTEEUS. j^ 

Bdooopteniay Reiekenb. A v. Sj^. Nat, p. xriii (1852). R cajennenaia. 
Bam^. Confined to South America. 

Kfif to the Si)ec%€M. 

«. Smaller ; aidee of face lm>wn ; tail narrowlj 

tipped with white ; taniu 8*2 inches eayennenm^ p. 163. 

^ Larirrr ; aidea of face aahy fm*T ; tail broadly 

tipped with white ; tanua 2*7o incbea ekSentUj p. 165. 

1. Belonoptenii cayennenBis. 




Vanrlltia cavanenun, Viriti N. Diet, ttUiKt.Sat, xxxv. p. 2O0 (1819) ; 
tirm^, LU OrtdL lint. Mus, p. ii:i (1K44 : Munte Video ; Brit 
Cfuiana), pt. ; Hnrm. Th. liroM. iii. p. l\k)A (lK>(l). 

C*hanuljiua cayennt^nnia, Litht, Vm, iJoubl.^. 70 (1823 : S. America). 

(lutfadriua lamprunotun, Wagl. Syd. A v., Cliankiriu-*, p. 48, ap. 74 

Vaprliaa caTennenaia, Srmrml, Beitr, Naturg, lira*, iv. p. 754 
(IKKS: Ilahia): Harii. Ind. Azara, p. 24 (1847;; Gray, Gen. B. 
iii. p. Ml (1M7) ; Cah. in Sch^rtnb. Bev. (Jman. iii. p. 7:k)(18i8) ; 
ir«rm. Btue Im IHata-St. ii. p. W2 {WM i ParaniiK pt ; M, i 
Hmh, P. Z. 8, 1H07, p. tAn ( Moxiana) ; iid, P. /. .S*. 184(8, p. 144 
Croochitaa); Wyatt, Ibi». 1^71, p. :)83 (I^ke Paturia) ; Ptbu 
fpm. Bras. |ip. 2im, 4M (1871: Sapitiba; Ypan«»ma ; Jaguariba; 
Ytaraf6; Iriaanga; ruvaba; (*ai^ani) ; Orav, Iland-l, B, iiL 
p IL DO. 9M1 (1871)'; lluiUon, P. Z, 8. 1871, p. (Boenot 
Ayna); ikL t Sdv. Nvmend. At. Nevtrop. p. 14:i (1873; pt); 

u2 



18. BEL0V0PTERU8. IW 

«. Ad. tk. Carthagena. Salrin-Oodman GoU 

h, c. (^ ad. aL AntioQuia, U.S. Colombia SalviiHCf odman OolL 

( T, A. .Salmon). 

d^ r. Ad. ik. Britiah Guiana. Sir R. Schombnrgk 

rc.]. 

f. ^ mA.^ Qunngo, British Guiana, Oct Saivin-Godman GdlL 

20(7/. imtriu). 
^. (f ad. ak. Aunai, Rritish Guiana, April Salvin-Godman ColL 

A. Ad. »k. Rraxil. ^ M. Clausen [P.]. 

■1 Ad. tk. Island of Mpxiana, Nov. (^.i2. Salvin-CTodman C<^ 

IfVMrr). 

JL Ad. Ak. Pari (A*. Z. Lauard), Tweeddale C^oll. 

1 Ad. fk. Pemamlmco ( H". ^. Forhet). Salvin-(todman ColL 

m. .\d. tk. Bahia (/>r. JfWVrrr). Salving i.Niman ColL 

m. Ad. «k. Bahia (/>r. IFiirAmr). Seebohm Coll. 

cr. 2 a<l. ok. Kio de Jan(*iro. Seebohm Coll. 

p. Ad. nk. Matto GrocuH) (//. 27. Smith), Salvin-GiMlman CoU. 

f . Pull. fk. Buenon A^Tes, Not. 6 (E. W. Salvio-Godman Coll. 

r. Ad. »k. Mont4* Video {Jokn»on), Salvin-Godman CoU. 

#. f c' 9 ad. ak. I'nvuav, .\ug. 14. Alan Peel, E*q. [P.]. 

«. .\d. tiL Maldonado. Sir W. Burnett k 

Capt Fitxroy [P.]. 

2. Belonopteroa chilemit. 

r^arrm cbilenMn, .Wo/in/i, .Vi^^io .S*. Chili, p.2.W (1780). 

Viin«*llu« raven nensiH (««• /rwi.), liritfyes, P, Z. iSll^l, p.M (Chili) ; 

^•flV. /•"*'« ChiL /^-'/. i. i». 4<K) ( 1H47) ; liurm, Iiei*e La IHata^St. 

i\.y.Url(\^\\ : Meii.loia) ; Sci.^Saiv, P.Z. S. 1 H4J7, pp. aSl , 339 ; 

p. Ul» ( l''7.« ; pt. » ; /ArA. Jtfm>#, AW Zm/ Chiiian //. p. 1 1 (1892). 
iniUomachuB chQfnifU. Fnuer, 1\ X. .S, lK4:i, p. 117 (Chili). 
V»n»*!Iu* rAyan«*uai«, firatf. List (irall. Brit. Mum. p. (53 (1844 : 

PLt!'iuiM*huji cayanus (n^r Lath.), Oouldj Vuy. ' Beagle,^ Birds, p. 127 

ilMl.pt.). 
\ .tn. Ilun rhilinM*, Ynrrrll, P, /. S, 1^47. p. W (Chili). 
H il'puru* cajanua (im^ A<ifA.). .V/. /'. /. .S*. iHtH. p. 44i (Falkland 

UI. i ; AhU4t, Ibis, InU. p. l*Vi (Stanl»*v, K. Falklaud«) ; ^>m#<. .Ifiif. 

Xi (up Horn, Om. p. •.*•*!> ( 1k!)1 ). 
Vai.t-IliH c»yjimi«, t'uHHint/Mtnn, Ibis, iHiW, p. 4JK) (CJnyory Bay). 
\«n*nii« 'cndftiUli^ llitrtiHij, P, Z. S. \^tX, p. 451 ; .Si7. Jk* Salv. 

P /. A*. 1m7% p. 4:J7 ilUizaU-th M.); iid. J»y. ' ilutllmg^r,' 

V 1«H ilHHl); .SAtfr/ir. /'. /. .V. l»o<l, p. 14 (IVckrtt HarboUT; 

Taliahuano) ; Tarzan. Ont. Penm, iii. p. *X\ii (Is^(). 
N'an^Uu* carennenaifl chilcn.**!.-*, Seebohm, (itmjr, Distr. Charadr. p. 218 

Alult mnU. Similar to /?. oit/fnneuM, but lirf^er, with the head, 
n#«-l. aiid Hide* of face clfar anhy Krv\\ inHteud uf brown, the 
«h:!#' ti|i« uf the tail brvMulcr, and the black of the brea^it extending 
fant.^r down and occupying; the whole bn^ant ; the tarsua much 
afe<rt<-r. Tot*! length 14*5 inchoa, culmen 1*4, wing 9*3, t^il 4*7« 
tar* 'J* If'T.'r 

A'iuli /rmal^. Rcacmblofi the male in colour. Total length 
li'» inchca, colmen 1*23, wing 9*5, tail 4*3, taraos 2*0. 



166 CHARAPHTTPJB. 

Toimg, Browner than the adult, varied with cross-bars of sandy 
brown all oyer the back and head; the black on the throat 
narrower and more restricted. 

Hah. From the Falkland Islands to Patagonia, Chili, to Peru. 

a. c^ ad. sk. Ghili. Salvin-Godman ColL 

by c. Ad. sk. Chili. Seebohm ColL 

d. Pull. St. ChilL Bridges CoU. 

«,/. cJ 2 ad. sk. Chili (E, C. Reed), Salvm-Godman ColL 

g-k, Aa. ; /. Juy. Central Chili {Landbeck), Berkeley James ColL 

sk. 

nu Ad. St Valparaiso. Sir W. Burnett & Capt- 

FitzroyrP.]. 

91. c^ ad. sk. San Pedro, Tarapadi, July 7 Berkeley James ColL 

(A. A, Lane). 

o, 2 ad. sk. San Antonio, Tarapac& {A. Berkeley James CoU. 

p. cJ ad. sk. Talcahiiano, Chili, Nov. 22 Voy. H.M.S. ' Alert' 

(Dr. Coppmger). 

9. <^ ad. sk. Elizabeth Island, Straits of Voy. H3I.S. ' Chal- 

Msgellan. longer.' 

19. VAirELLUS. 

Type. 

Vanellus, Briss, Om. v. p. 94 (1760) V. ranellus.. 

Range. Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in the Mediter- 
ranean countries, N.W. India and China. Accidental in North 
America. 

1. VanelluB vanellnB. 

The Pewit 

The Lapwing or Bsstard Plover, AJiin, Nat. Hist. B. i. p. 70, pi. 74 

Le Vanneau, BriM, Om. v. p. 24, pi. viii. ^^. 1 (1760) ; D^Aubent. FL 
JEW. viii. pL 242 ; BugT. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. p. 48, pi. iv. (1781). 

Tringa vandlus, Linn. St/st. Nat. i. p. 248 (1766) ; Gm. Sgst. Nat. 
i. p. 670 (1788). 

Lapwing, Lath. Oen. Sgn. iii. pt 1, p. 161 (1785). 

Vanellus capella, Schaef. Mus. Om. p. 49 (1789) ; St^. Proe, 
U.8. Nat. Mus. v. p. 35 (1882) ; Baird, Brewer,^ Ridgw. Water- 
Birds N. Amer. i. p. 130 (1884) ; Gigl. Avif. Ital. p. 376 (1886) j 
Salvad. Blenco Ucc. Ital.y. 206 (1886) ; Reichen. ^st. Verz. Vog. 
Deutschl. p. 51 (1889) ; Gigl. \st Resoc. Avif. ^^- V- ^^^ (^^^)f 
2nd p. 663 (1890), Srd p. 518 (1891). 

Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. Om. Tasehenb. ii. p. 313 (1803) ; Dresser, 
B. Eur. vii. p. 545, pi. 531 (1875) ; Dan/. ^ Harvie-Brown, Ibis, 
1875, p. 419 (Transylvania) ; Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 328 ; Butler, 
Cat. B Sind etc. p. 58 (1879) ; Hutne, Str. F. viii. p. 112 (1879) ; 
Seebohm, Ibis, 1879, p. 152 (Siberia) ; Reid, Str. F. x. p. 65 
(1881: Lucknow); Btddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 94 (Gilgit, winter),- 
ScuUy, t. c. p. 587 (Gilgit, spring & autumn) ; B. O, U. List Brit. 
B. p. 161 (1883) ; Saunders, ed. YarrelVs Brit. B. iii. p. 283 
(1883) ; Eagle Clarke, Ibis, 1884, p. 148 (Obedeka Bara) ; Saunders, 
t. c. p. 389 (St Jean de Luz) ; Tristr. Faun. St Flor. Palest. 
p. 131 (1884) ; Whitehead, Ibis, 1885, p. 42 (Corsica, winter) ; 
jReid, t. c. p. 253 (Morocco, winter) ; Fleske, Uebers. Sdug. und 
Vog. KolorHalh. p. 329 (1886) ; Backhouse, Ibis, 1887, p. 74 



19. TAVBLL1TB. 167 

(K. PjrraieM); Tait, t. c. p. 386 (Portugal, Oct to March); 
BmekUy Sf Jfarvie-Bnmm, VerUbr. Fmm, Outer Hthr. p. 125 
( 1888) : St, John, IhU, 1880, p. 176 (S. Afghanistan) ; Feiiden, t. e. 
p. 495 (Barbados, Dec.); Satmders, Man, Brit, B. p. 5.')9 (1889) ; 
OipMt^aU. Comtr. Faun, ()m. Fur, Oceid, Cmc. xiii. p. 47 (1890); 
Sffbohm, Ibis, 1890, p. 409 (Ireland, nesting) ; W. Evan*, IhiM, 
181M, p. 80 (incubation) ; I}rt$$er, t, e, p. 869 (Eneroom) : BuekUw 
jr narvie-Brtncn, Vertebr. Faun, Orkney, p. 204 (1891) ; Oi. 
Vert, Fknm, Art^yU, p. 166 (1892); magg. Ibis, 1893, p. 365 
(Shetland U, brvcdinir). 
Vanellui crUUtu^ U'oif ^ Meyer, Hist. Nat. Ois, de tAUem. L 
p. 1 10, cum Ub. (180.^) ; VieUl, N. Diet, d'Hist, Nat. xxrr. p. 211 
(1^19); Temm. Man. d*Om, iL p. 550 (1820) ; Boux, Om. Ptow. 
pi. 278 (1825) ; H'emer, Atlas, Omreurs, pi. 17 (1827) ; Srekim, 
IV Deutsekl, p. 555 (ia31); MhUtr. Oat Rais. Caue, p. 53 
(lH32: Caspian) ; GouU, B, Eur, iv. pi. 291 (1837); Bp. Omus^ 
List B. Eur. * N, Amer. p. 40 (1838) ; Oespan, Om. Oard, p. 869 
(1840); Keys, j- Bias. Wirb, Eur. p. Uix (1840); Nardm. m 
/J^nttrf. Voy. Buss. M/nd. iii. p. 256 (1840) ; Seiys-Lonyck, Faun. 
Btiy. p. 121 (1842); Sckl, Bet, Crit, p. Ixxxiii (1844) ; Miikle, 
Britr, Om. Grieekenl. p. 94 (1844) ; Grmy, List GralL Brit. Mus. 
p. <» (1844) ; Hodys. lam. ined. in Brit. Mus., GralL, App. pi 40, 
DO. &2r,; id, in Gray's Xool. Mise, p. 86 (1844); Rupp. Sust. 
rehers. p. 117 (1845); Hewits. Eyys Bnt. B. iL p. 201, pL Ixx. 
(1^)) ; Gray, C\xt. Mamm. «$r. Nepal pres. Hodys. p. 132 (1846) ; 
id. Gm. B. iii. p. 541 (lt^7) ; Blyik, C^at. B. Mus. As. &>c. p^20l 



( 1849) : Tkomps, B. Irel, ii. p. 110 (1850) ; Kjterb. Danm. Fugle, 




WW. p. !♦ ((irw^nland); Irhy, t. c. p. 238 (Oudh) : Swink. t. e. 
p. 342 (IVkin, Nov.) ; Neuion in Baring-Goulds Iceland, p. 411 
{\^i:U ; Gray, List Brit. B. p. 137 (1^<63) ; Radde, Beis. Sibir., 
IV p. 321 (l^W: Hunja Mtn.); (\Jlett, Oters. Christ, Om, 
Om. Faun. p. iHO (iH^); Adams, Ibis, 18lW, n. 30 (Kflryut) ; 
H'riykt, t. c. p. 142 (Malta) ; Sperling, t. c. p. 2Hd ; Jerd. B. Ind. 
iii. p. H4:i (IWU); (hgl. Ibis, 18<J5, p. (W (inna): Swink. L e. 
p. 34U ( Swstow, Nov. ) ; .\tore, t. e. p. 432 ; Fihppi, I'iagg. Persia, 
y, :i.il (iHWi); G.mld, B. Grtat Brit. iv. pL 3:\ (1H<W>); SekL 
Mms. I'mfe-Bas, Vxxmix^, p. W (l8il.-»); Sundrt. Sr. Fogl, pi. 86. 
ICr 1 (W»J); fn^man. Ibis, IWW. pp. U^K 107 (.Vzorw) ; Jjegge, 
t. c. p. 42^); E. (\ Taylor, Ibis, \m! , p. fW (F^rrpt) ; Baird, t, c. 
p. 2f*2 (lot-land and Uivt-nUnd) ; StrifXte, t. r. p. CttlO (Cheo4Mij, 
Aino% ) : Drake, t. r. p. 4in» (Tanpers) ; Degl. et Gerbe, Om, JBWr. 
11 p.*14H (|H»I7) : D»rke, EjtJ, Sri, Alg^., Ois. ii. p. 271 (1867); 
OMstt, NfM-grM Fugle, p. 4i> (iNJH); Dyb. J.f. O. 1 H«8, p. 387 
(|)ara«un); Smitk, J bit, IMW. p. 45:i (Portuiraf) ; Borg^. Vogelf. 
SsrddsMtMtkl. p. ](KI (l^MBM: iMli ^ Bann. Trans. Chte. Acad. i. 



p. 25«3 (iHiW: N..rt<m Smnd); Duderl. Arif. Sicil. p^ 178 (1889); 
Godman, Asores, p. 32 (1h7()); Fritsck, rdg. Eur. Ub. 85. 
fto 3 5(1h70); liurs A- Buekley, Ibis, 1M70, p. 330 (Turkigr) ; 
Grmw. IIand4. B. iii. p. 10, no. WCiO (1871) : Stemk. P. Z. A 1871, 
p. ¥n iCuaUm and FomioM^ winter) ; Gumey, Ibis, 1871, p. S9B 
(A%em); Smsmdars, t. e. p. 886 (8. Spain) ; E. Oruy, A WiU 



19. VAJIELLUS. 169 

Vucllm TariuA, /. I\ Naum. rag. DeHtseJkl. vii. p. 276 (1834). 
The P#wit or Upwin^, Yarreii, Brit. B. ii. p. 417 (1H4*'1). 
VanelliiB Tanelluft, lAckt. yumemd. At, Mh», Berol. p. 95 (1854: 

Kiaxope); A. O. U. CMeck-L N. Amer. B. p. 100 (1886) ; Hidgic. 

Man. y.Amrr. /?. p. 172 (ltS87); Cbry, B. H'ett IntL p. 297 

(IW9); Bnuina, M<»tr. etc. {Om. CroaHea), p. 88 (1890); 
^ HarteH, Ihi$, \t^% p. 516 (E. I'niMia). 
Vanelliu eritftfttujfi communia, etc., A. E. Brehm^ Verz, Samml. C. X. 

Brdkm, p. 11 (1866; teste Dre$9er). 

Adult maU. General ooloor above gloasy olive-green, the scapulars 
purple at their tipti ; wing-coverta glossy steel-blue, with a greenish 
abmde, more conspicuous on the median series ; bastard-wing, 
primary -corerts, and quills black, the primaries with a sub-terminal 
patch of ashy white, the secondaries white at the base of the inner 
web ; inncrmmt secondaries glossy green ; lower back and rump 
dusky brown, the latter slightly glossed with green ; upper tail- 
coTerta ciniiamon-rufous ; base of tail white, terminal half black, 
the frathcpi lK*ing f^lightly tipped with white, the black band 
deerraving in extent towanls the outer feathers, which are entirely 
vhitr. cicepting a black patch on the inner web; crown black, 
with a slight grei^ninh gloss, and ornamented with an occipital crest 
of elongatitl plumes ; lores, fore part of cheeks, entire throat, and 
f-«r^nc-ek bloik, with a slight greenish gloss ; eyebrow, sides of 
fsor, »ides of neek, and hind-neck as far as the occiput dull white, 
the r^ebruw mottled with black alcove the eye, and below the latter 
a narrow streak of black ext^'uding along the upper edge of the 
r«r-o>Ti'rti» : hind-neck slightly washed with brown, the lower 
•ides of the neck metallic- green, extending down the sides of the 
fore-oeck ; remainder of under Kurfoce of IkmIv, from the fore-neck 
dovnw;irdf», pure whit**, including the under wing-coverts and 
axillahnt : iUv ruverts on the out^^ide of the wing as well as the 
lower prim ir\' f-«>verts black, like the (|uill-lining ; under tail- 
euTrrtu liisUx cinnamon : ** bill black ; U*vi clear tieshy red ; iris 
bmvn ** tJ. F. Sauntiinn). Total length Hi inchest, culmon 1, 
^nr -\ t.iil 1-J, t.ifMUs 1-7. 

AftuU f\ui.ih. Similar to the male in colour, but the crest not so 
ifitcz an'l the Mock on the thnmt not develope<l so boi^m. Total 
IcTi^h 11 imhe**, cuhuen 1*1. wing ^5, tail li-s, tJinus l'«). 

Ati'ift iH ft in/rr /tliitttti'jr. lliffen* fn»m the summer plumage in 
hsring thf thr«iat white and the head lirown, with the crest hhort«r; 
•rrcp« th«- l»»r»»-ni'<'k a ver\' broad band of black : feathers of the 
u;prr *wrf.f«* uith fulvoun efl(;iii;;H, which gradually wear off. 

loMM'/. r«*Iriur«'«l like the a'lultH, but having all the feathers of 
th^ Ufif^-r Aurfaoe e4l;^«Hi with itandy buff, including the uing-ooverta 
i&d trrtotfidurif^. the Hi'apulapt with a little purplish glo<t<« ; the cn-st 
▼rrv •h"rf ; the evebrow and sides of (tie** and throat wa-hed with 
tudy btiff. with black nmrkii In'fore the eye, on the fi>n* part of the 
chrrk* a'el upju-r line of the enr-ci»vert.H. 

iiftf». Kur>]N* getienlly, f»ccurring in the southern countries in 
vmtrr onU , or on migration. Acrona Siberia to Ja|)an and N. China, 
viatenng in S. China and N.W. India. 



170 CHABADKHDJS. 

a. Ad. St. Europe. Purchased. 

6, Cy d. Ad., juy., et Britisli Islands. GK)uld ColL 

pull. sk. 

e,j. Ad. ffistiv. ; g, British Islands. Salvin-Godman Ooll. 

Pull.sk. 

h. Pull. sk. Orkneys. Gk)uld ColL 

f. S ftd* hiem. sk. Yarmouth, Feb. (Gunn), Seebohm CoU. 

k. PuU. sk. Norfolk Broads, May 27. Dr. Giinther [P.l 

/. Juv. sk. Romney Marsh, Kent, July R B. Sharpe, £!6q» 

(J2. B, S.), [P.]. 

fTi, n. cf $ ad. hiem. P^ham Harbour, Sussex, Seebohm ColL 

sk. Sept., Feb. («7. E, HarUng), 

o. 2 juv. sk. Pagham Harbour, Sept. 5 R B. Sharpe, Esq* 

{R, B, SX [PJ. 

p, $ ad. hiem. sk. Avington, Hants, May 19. Sir £. Shelley [P.l. 

q. cf ad. hiem. sk. Avington, Feb. 4 (O, E. S,). R B. Sharpe, Esq. 

[P.]. 

r. Ad. ffistiv. sk. Wiltshire. Montagu Coll. 

(Type of V. gavia,) 

9ft S imm. hienL St. Bride's, South Wales, Hon. W. Edwardes 

sk. Dec., Jan. [P.l 

u. Ad. sk. Tangiers. Seebohm Coll. 

V, $ ad. hiem. sk. Egypt, Feb. 9. Shelley ColL 

w. S ad* hiem. sk. Beersheba, Palestine. Canon Tristram [C.]. 

X, Juv. hiem. sk. Trebizond (Dickson 8f Ito8s). Gould Coll. 

y, 2. Ad. hiem. sk. Mesopotamia (^Commander India Museum. 

Jones), 

a'. 9 juT. hiem. sk. Resht, Caspian Sea. Sir O. St. John [C.]. 

b', Imm. hiem. sk. Samarkand. Seebohm CoU. 

c', cf imm. hiem. sk. Kashgar {Dr, Bellew), India Museum. 

<f . ($ imm. hiem. Kashgar, Oct. 23 (J, Hume Coll. 

sk. Scmg). 

t\ (S ad. hiem. sk. Kashgar, Feb. 20. Colonel Biddulph 

[CJ. 

/*. Juv. hiem. sk. Kashgar, Dec. 10. Dr. Stoliczka [0.1. 

g^. Ad. sk. Yarkand, May 24. Dr. Stoliczka [C.J. 

h'. Juv. sk. Yarkand, Jime 2 (J. ScuBg). Hume ColL 

f'. c^ juv. hiem. sk. Zind-i-jan, Northern A^ani- Afghan Delimitation 

Stan {Dr. Aitchison), Commission [PJ. 

A;'. cT imm. hiem.; Candahar, Nov., Dec. Colonel Swinhoe[P.]» 

/, m', 2 imm. 

hiem. sk. 

fi'. Juv. hiem. ; o'. Quetta, Dec. (Sir O. St, Hume Coll. 

$ imm. hiem. sk. John), 

p', iS ad. sestiv. sk. Quetta (OriffUh). India Museum, 

jr*. ^ ad. hiem. sk. Pisheen Valley, Dec. 19 (Sir Hume Coll. 

O. St, John), 

r\ «'. Ad. hiem. sk. Peshawur. Colonel Way [P.]. 

i. Ad. sk. Mittencote, R. Indus India Museum. 

(Griffith), 

u', S ad. hiem. sk. R. Jhelum, Nov. 22 (A, Hume Coll. 

o. jy.). 

r', to'. Imm. hiem. Murdan, Punjab, Dec. Hume Coll. 

sk. 

x', (S ad. hiem. sk. Lower Hazara, Feb. 24 ( W, Hume Coll. 

H, Unwind. 

j/-a", Ad.hiem.sk. Sirza Distr., Nov. Hume Coll. 



20. BURTFTSRUS. 



171 



#^. Ad. hiem. ak. 
/'. 9 Ad. sk. 
/'*-f^. <f ad. hiem. ; 

hi«.ik. 



jt 



lurai. ; y", s'', «*. 

S mL hiem. sk. 
1^. Ad. hiein. «k. 
r*,^. Ad.hi«xii.tk. 
r*. Ad.iik. 
/*. Ad. »*tiT. ; y*. 

Jot. hirai. ak. 
k\ 9 ad. hiem. iL 

i*. Ad. Uem. ak. 

A*. Jdt. ak. 

r. Ad. hiem. ak. 

*'• Ad. ak. 

«*. Imm. sk. 
^. <f JQT. hiem.ak. 
y. Imm. hiem. ak. 
f*. Ad. hiem. ak. 
r*. Ad. hiem. ak. 

«*. Jot. hiem. ak. 
f. d JBT. kirm. ak. 
«*, r*. Skf-letona. 
••, ^. Skull ft 

Hffraum. 
r*. Skull 
I",**. Strrna. 



Gilgit (J. Bi<iAi4»A). 

Udak (Aro(A<y). 
Delhi, Jan. 5 (^ O. A^.). 
GurgBon Difltr., Dec. to Feb. 
( W. JV: CkiU). 

Etawahy Dec to Feb. 



Oudh, Jan.^ 
Mynpuri, Nor. 21. 
Banks of the Gogia. 
Nepal. 

Corea. 

China. 

China. 
Ichanfr, Dec. 
Kiukiang, Jan. 8. 

Chinkian^. 
Canton ( Tucketf), 
Foochow, Jan. (R, Stcinkoe), 
Fokien. 

YtMldo, Japan, Feb. (7*. 
^ BiakiMan). 
Yokiihama (//. PryerX 
Na^HMJci, Nov. lH, 
l-Infrlanci. 
EngUnd. 

England. 



Ilume Coll. 

India Moaeum. 
HnmeColL 
Uume ColL 



HomeColL 



Jlame Coll. 
Hume ColL 
rinwill Coll. 
Uodgaon Coll. 

C. W. Campbell,Eaq. 

J. R. Reevea, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Lieut Dariea [PA 
A. Pratt, Eaq. [0.]. 
F. W. Stjan, Eaq. 

[P.l 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 
SaebohmColL 
Gould Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

F. Kinger, Eaq. [P.]. 

Ihiirhaaed. 

J. Raj, l*>q. [P.]. 

Yarrell ColL 
M. (^*febvre. 



20. EUBYPTERUS. 

CheCtuaia, pt., auct, recent. 

Ramye, Eg)'pt and Nubia, north to Southern Ruaaia, and east to 
Tukeatan and North- we«tcrn India. 

1. EnrTptami laaevnit. 

CharadriuA Ifucurua, Lirht. in Ei^ritm, ReU, Orenh. nnch Buehara, 
p l:C ( lKi:i : Kuwan : Jnn l>ar\ii) ; id, IVrs. iMmbi. p. 70 (1823) ; 
H'aai. S^Mt. Ac, (*handhuji, p. 7:i. pp. 4H {\H'J7}, 

Vaov-llua TilloUei, Sav. /Mi»rr, Je tf^pte, pi. vi. fi^r. 1> ; AudomHf 
K'pi. Summ, l^wcr, de Chj/vpte, p. :iH8, pL vi. fig. 2 \\^*M) ; Lbu, 
C'^pi Buf., Ois. iii. p. :(*^ (IKT) : Ruptt. Sjf»t. fehert. p. 117 
(IM-I: F^nrpt k Nubia): lieu^i. Sy$t, Vefiers. «. M (1856); 
fimify, / A, S, lieng. Ivi. p. m7 < 1^7 : Afghan Turkeatan). 

VftMUtta flavipea, Um, TraiU ^Orn. p. .M2 (IK'U). 

VaatUu grallahua, />-««. TraiU dOm. p. Wl\ (iKil); Puther. Rew, 
wt Mm0. d> /bo/. iKTil, p. A70; IMht. Numtmri, Ap, Mu$. Bwrol. 
p. M (1K'>4: Nubia; Sjria) ; UartL J.f. O. I86ii, p. 4:iL 



172 CHABABRITD^. 



Yanellus leucurus, Blythy J. A, 8. Beng, xiii. p. 387 (1844) ; Chrayf 
Oen, B, iii. p. 541 (1847) ; Vierth, Naum, 1862, p. 41 ; Licht. 
Nomencl. Av, Mub. BeroL p. 95 (1854 : Aral Lake) ; Brehm^ 
J,f, 0. 1854, p. 78 ; id. 1855, pp. 365, 486 ; HartL Om. West- 
Afr. p. 211 (1857 : Sen^) ; Taylor, Ibis, 1859, p. 52 (Egypt) ; 
SchL Mu8, Fays'Bas, Cursores, p. 59 (1865: Egypt; Senaar; 
Senegal) ; Severtz, Turkest. Jevotn, p. 69 (1873 : breSfiig) ; Badde, 
Om, Cauc, pp. 44, 419 (1884 : (Caspian, winter) ; Seebmrny Geogr, 
Diatr. Charadr, p. 213 (1888). 

Yanellus Tillototsi, Crespon, Faune Mirid, ii. p. 50 (1844 : H^rault). 

Lobivanellos leucurus, Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As, Soc. p. 261 (1849 : 
Calcutta). 

Squatarola leucura, Beichenb. Gralla, tab. ci. fiff. 676 (1852). 

Yanellus aralensis, Eversm. Bull. Acad. Sci. Moscoto, xxvL pt. 2, 
p. 497 (1863). 

Chettusia leucura, Bp, C, B. xliii. p. 419 (1856) ; Jaub. et Barih,' 
Lapomm. Bich. Om. p. 452 (1859) ; Cavafy, Ibis, 1861, p. 210 
(Alexandria Market); Loche, E.vpl. Sd. Algir., Ois. ii. p. 273 
(1867 : accidental visitor) ; Dresser, B. Eur. vii. p. 531, pi. 529 
(1871) ; Severtz. J. f. O. 1873, p. 366 (Western Turkestan) ; 
Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 328; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll. p. 699 
(1882 : Kirgbis Steppes) ; C. Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 120 (Candabar. 
winter) ; Bogd. Consp. Av. Imp. Boss. p. 69 (1884 : Central and 
lower valleys of the Rivers Syr-Daria and Amu Daria, towards 
the shores of Lake Aral ; accidental near Sarepta) ; Murray f 
Vertebr. Faun. Sind, p. 229 (1884) ; Salvad. Elenco Ucc. ItaL 
p. 375 (1886 : Malta) ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 176 (Southern 
Afghanistan, winter). 

Chettusia aralensis, Bp. C. B. xliii. p. 419 (1856). 

Chettusia leucura, Antin. Cat. descr. Ucc. p. 98 (1864 : Blue Nile) ; 
Jerd. B. Ind. iii. p. 646 (1864) ; Wright, Ibis, 1865, pp. 459, 462, 
466, pi. X. ; Brehm, J.f. O. 1866, p. 386 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 166 
(crit.) ; DegL et Gerbe, Om. Eur. ii. p. 146 (1867 : H^rault) ; 
Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 390 (Umbala) ; Wright, Ibis, 1870, p. 491 
(Malta) ; Bree, B. Eur. iv. p. 165 (1875) ; Zarudn. Ois. TranS" 
casp. p. 08 (Askabad). 

Chettusia flavipes, Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 11, no. 9956 (1871) ; 
Heugl. Om. N.O.-A/r. ii. pt. 1, p. 998 (1873: Nile Delta; 
Fayoum ; S. Kordofan) ; Hume, Str. F. i. p. 232 (1873 : Sindh ; 
Punjab ; Oudh ; N. W. Prov. ; Rajputana) ; Adams, t. c. p. 394 
(Sambhur) ; Butler, Str. F. iv. p. 13 (1876 : Ahmedabad ; Deesa), 
V. p. 232 (1877) ; Hartert, Eat. Vogels. Senckenb. Mus. p. 216 
(1891 : Schendi). 

Yanellus (Chettusia) leucurus, Cab. J.f. O. 1873, p. 80 (Sarepta; 
S. Russia). 

Chaetusia villotaei, Salvad. Faun. Ital., Ucc. p. 201 (1871). 

Chettusia villotaei, Shelley, B. Egypt, p. 233 (1872 : resident, Delta ; 
Fayoum); Blaitf. East. Persia, ii. p. 280 (1876: S. Persia; 
Baluchistan, not in north or on Caspian) ; Butler^ Cat. B. Sind 
etc.ja. 58 (1879); Hunw, Str. F. viii. p. 112 (1879); Giql Ibis, 
1881, p. 208 (Malta) ; Beidy Str. F. x. p. 6o (188 1 : Lucknow) ; 
Davidson, t. c. p. 319 (1882 : W. Khandeish) ; Swi?ih. Sf Barnes, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 132 (KerbuUa); Gigl. Avif. Ital. p. 375 (1886: 
Malta) ; id. 1st Besoc. p. 676 (1889). 

Adult male. General colour above brown, with a shade of glossy 



20. ECBTnXBUB* 173 

lilac on the back, scapulars, and lesser wing-coverts, the latter 
being like the back ; median wing-coverts ashj, with a broad white 
tip« preceded bj a black bar, wider on the outer web ; greater 
wing-coverts white, the outermost entirely so, the inner ones ashy 
grey at the base, with a black transverse mark across the outer web 
bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills black ; the secondaries 
pore white, the outer ones with a sub-terminal blade band or a black 
mark on the outer web ; the inner secondaries with a grey base and 
a black sub-terminal mark or band, the innermost secondaries like 
the back ; upper tail- coverts and tail pure white ; crown of head 
light brown like the back ; base of forehead and an indistinct eye- 
brow isabelline white ; lores, sides of face, and cheeks ashy brown ; 
throat white ; sides of noi'k and fore-neck ashy brown ; chest and 
brcm«t pale slaty grey, the feathers with whitish margins ; abdomen 
and under tail-covvrtA |>ale vinous isabcUino, the latter shading off 
into white ; sides of body, under wing-coverts, and axillaries pure 
white ; quills below black : ^^ bill black ; feet pale yellow ; iri» 
light red, with a tinge of orange '* (O. E. t^htlUtj.) Total lengtli 
10'5 inches, culmen l'2o, wing (M), tail 2*9, tarsus 2*8. 

A*iuh femaU. Similar to the male in plumage, but smaller. 
Total length 10*5 inches, culmen 1*:), wing 6*7, tail 2*7, tarsus 2*55. 

Uaf; From S>uth -eastern Euro|>e to Turkestan, Eg}'pt, and 
5Qbia ; wintering in Southern Afghanistan and N.W. India. 

s-^. ^ S ad. Kg>'pt, Fvb. {O. R SMellqf). Seebohm ColL 

sk. 

ff. 2 ad. sk. Alexandria, Dec. 14 (Stafford Si'ebohm ColL 

AUen). 

/.#. d9 sd. Ihimietu, Fib. 21. Captain Shelley [C.]. 

■k. 

I. Ad. kk. Suakin. Captain R. If. Penton 

i, *i •d. ik. lli>r Tamanib, Nubia {J. K. Soebohm ColL 

fjord). 
k,L «/iA<Ltk. Mnr^ho?! of DHbylonia (Omu- India Museum. 

mander Junrt), 
fli. i ad. tk. Shinu 1^<*, S. IVr^ia, June 8. W. T. BUnford, Fiki. 

■. Ad. 'k. Turketitan (liuMrtw). SevlKitim Coll. 

•, ^ Ad ftk. Kajih^ar ( />r. lieUeK), India Muxfum. 

f. Iniii. •k. India ( H'. Ktter). (iould Ciill. 

r. $. cf V ad. (.*aoda)iar, 1 Hi*., March. Colunel Swinhoe[P.'. 

sk. 

r. X ad. tk. Jalk, IWuihUtau, .March 11. W. T. Hlanford, Em. 

|. ' 

a • • 

«« r. <f 9 ad. Sindh, Jan. {A, O. //.). IIuWCoIl. 

m. ( ^- *k. (*umba, rppvr Sind, Jan. (A, Hum** (%>1L 

o. y/.). 

X. <f ad. sk. Manchur I^e, F«b. 9 (A. O. IIum«) CulL 

jr. s. .\d. ftk. I/>jdiana C^'n^/A). India MuMfum. 

m . Ad. ak. Sanibbur i.Ake {H, M, Adam). Hume Cull. 



174 CHARAPRTTDJR. 

^*-f> c^ $ ad. Sultanpiff. Gurgaon Bistr., Oct Hume ColL 

8k. Dec., Feb. (A. O. JET. 1^ W. 

N. Chili). 

a'. $ ad.; h'. Dellii, March (C. T. Bingham). Hume ColL 

Ad. sk. 

r. Ad. Bk. Sirsa {A. O. H.). Hume ColL 

AW. d ? ad. Etawah, Nov., Jan. (A. O. H.). Hume ColL 

r'-f. $ ad. flk. FuttehghurDifitr.,Nov. (A. An- Seebohm ColL 

derBon). 

u^, v'. Ad. sk. Mogul Serai, Oudh, Nov. to Jan. Hume CoU. 

tp', x\ Ad. sk. Gudh. Pinwill ColL 

y*. 2 ad. sk. Dar]eeliDg^( Co/(m«/ Sharpe). Seebohm ColL 

z. 2 ad. sk. Dinapur, Tab. ( W. E. Brooks). Hume ColL 

a". S ad. sk. Depalpur, Jan. 6. Colonel Swinhoe [B.\ 

^"-ii". cJ S ad. Nandurbar,W.Kandei8h,Dec.l8 Hume CoU. 
sk. (J. Damdson). 

21. CHJBTUSIA*. ^ 

Type. 
CbsBtusia, Bp. leonogr* Faun. ItaL, Hoc. Intr. p. 17 
(1841) Cgregaria. 

Bange, From South-eastern Europe, east to Turkestan and the 
Altai Mountains, south to N.£. Africa and the Indian peninsula. 

1. ChsBtiusia gregaria. 

Charadrius gregarius, Pall, Beis. Buss. Beichs, i. p. 456 (1771 : 

Volga) ; Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 684 (1788) ; JEversm. Beis. Orenb. 

nach Buchara, p. 186 (1823 : Steppes north of the Aral) ; Licht. 
Verz. Doubt, p. 70 (1823) ; Nordnu in Dimid. Voy. Buss. Mirid. 

iii. p. 235, tab. iii. (1840 : Steppes of Black Sea, Crimea) ; Bree. 

B. Bur. iv. p. 162 (1875). 
Tringa fasciata, 8. G. Gmelin, Beis. Bussl. i. p. 194, tab. 26 (1774 : 

Astrakhan ; Upper Volga). 
Tringa keptuschka, Lepech. Togeb. Beis. Bussl Beichs, i. p. 229, 

footnote b (1774 : teste Dresser). 
Gregarious Plover, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 206 (1785). 
Chcuradrius keptuschka, Wagl. Syst. Av., Charadrius, p. 73, sp. 45 

(1827). 
Vanellus coronatus {nee Linn.), Biipp. Syst, Uebers. p. 117 (1845) ; 

Heugl. J^d. Uebers. p. 55 (1856) ; Brehm, J.f 0. 1857, p. 388. 
Black-sided Sandpiper, Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. ZooL i. pi. 50 

(1835 : Cawnpore). 
Vanellus keptuschka, Gould, B. Eur. iv. pi. 292 (1837) ; Temm. Man. 

d'Om. iv. p. 360 (1840) ; Werner, Atlas, Gralles, pi. 463. 
Vanellus gregarius, Bp. Camp. List B. Eur. 4* N. Amer. p. 46 (1838) ; 

id. Iconogr. Faun. Ital. p. 115, tav. 41 (1838) ; JatO). et Barth.- 

Lapomm. Bich. Om. p. 450 (1859: Schirolle, near Grenoble); 

Wright, Ibis, 1864, p. 42 (not observed in Malta) ; Schl. Mus. 

PayS'Bas, Cursores, p. 58 (1865 : Lower Volga ; Senaar) ; Borggr 

Vogelf. Norddeiitschl. p. 109 (1869) ; Wright, Ibis, 1869, pp. 251- 

253 (Malta) ; Wyatt, Ibis, 1870, p. 17 (Sinai) ; Sevei'tz. Turkest. 

Jevotn. p. 69 (185'3) ; Seebohm, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 416; id. Geogr. 

* Cf. Salvad. Ibis, 1888, pp. 320-325, 1890, pp. 124-12a 



21. CHJSTU8U. 175 

Ckaradr, p. 211 (1888); Sawuier$, Man. Brit, B. n. 537 
(188(1: UncAihire) ; Irbu, Kry Lut Brit. B. 2nded. p. 49 (1892). 

Vaoellut Tentnlif {nee h'apL), Jtrd, Madr, Joum, zii. p. 214, 
Da 306 (1840: tetU Jerdon). 

ChettamtL grepmA, Bp, Icrmogr, Faun, ItaL Introd. p. 17 (1811) ; 
Oray, Lut Grail. Brit. Mu$. p. 64 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. r>41 
(1847) : Lieht. Sitmend. A r. Mum. Beroi. p. 96 (1854 : Aral i^ke) : 
Irhy, Ibis, m\\, p. 238 (Oudh, Jan. to March) ; Jerd. B. Ind, iii. 
p. 044 (1H<U : Jaloa, Deccan ; Mhow, C. India ; Loodiana) ; DnL 
at Gerhe. Om. Eur, ii. p. 144 (1867) : FritMck, lUg, Eur. tab. 33. 
%11 (lHrO);^Vay.//am/-/.^.iii.p. 11, do. 99.53 (1871); Stolicska^ 
J. A. S. Bmg. xli. p. '2'A) (1872: Cutch); Shelley, B. Egypt, 
p. 23;M1h72: Girjreh-Siout) ; Heugl Om. y.O.-A/r. ii. pt 1, 
p. 5016 (1h73: autumn and winter; Kordofan; Takah; Senaar; 
mndr banks of liabad and Atbara) ; Hume, Str. F. i. p. 231 
(1H73) ; Adam, t. e. p. :«M (Sambhur) ; Jfayen IJ*^d, Ibis, 1873, 
p. 416 (Kathiawar) ; Dreimer, B. Eur. vii. p. rrJ7, pi. '>2K (1875) ; 
id. Ibis, 1»7«. p. 328; Butler, Str. F. iv. p. 12 (lH7«i : Mt. Aboo; 
<fUS«rat) ; Hume, t. c. p. 13 ; Taez, Bull. Soc. Xwtl. France, ii. 
p. 155(1877: Lublin, Sept.); Butler, Str. F. v. p. 2:{2 (1877: 
beett); J/aridfon 4" U'enden, Str. F. ni. p. 88 (1878: iXeccan, 
cold Maaon) ; Boyd. B. Caue. p. 150 (1879) ; Butter, Cht. B. Sind 
ete.y. 58 (1879); Fituieh, Verhandl. z.-b. Ge*elUch. Wien, xxix. 
( 1^< 9 : Semipalatinsk, May ; St«ppeK of Maitjen^k. June) ; Hume^ 
fi»r./:\iii.p.ll2(l?<79): iMiriA AYr. /'. ix.p.82(lKH0: Ratnajfiri); 
BuUer, t.c. p. 42(» (DelKAuni) ; Bamen, t.c.\\. 4-59 (rhaiuan) ; 
Butler, Cat. Ii. S. Bonib. IWs. p. 73 (18S0): Biddulph, Ibis, l^l, 
p. 95: Scully, t. r. p. 6k7 (Oiltrit) ; Giylioli, Ihis, 1881, p. 208 
(Romis Nov!) ; Rrid, Str. F x. p. 65 (1H81 : Luoknow) ; Salein, 
Cat. StricU. (\M. p. 5ii9 (1882); Srebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 221 
(Astrakhan, i^ummer) ; Davidmm, Str. F. x. p. 319 ( 18s2 : N\ extern 
Khandeiah ) : Serrrtz. Ibis, l8KX p. 74 (Ikuih-AIai, S«*pt.); Bopd. 
(\msp. Ar. Imp. Boss. p. (S) (IrvM : Steppes of Tchemox^m, from 
51 5:( N. lat. : Crimea ; Steppej« of the Don, Vol^rs, and Cau- 
casus: N. Aralao-Cttspian rt'pon : Russian Sun^ria) ; Badde^ 
tPm. Caue. y\k 44, 4it» (1>^ : l*«>nt4>-Ciu*piHn n*^on; nkf\i in 
TraD»-4 aucasia, ( *hram Hiwr, Aliretka, and tx*nkoran); Murray^ 
Vtrtcltr. Faun. Sind, p. 22!» (iKMl : /Mrudn. Hull. Soc. Imp. AVif. 
Mtmttu, l**^*!, p. IX (A.«khAlx>, .\u);.); Giyl. Arif. Ital. p. 375 
(l-v^l: Kouif : Nic»-); Salrad. Eltnv» t'ce. Ital.'n. 20f< (I'^J); 
tiufl^di, Arif. Ital. \st Hesoc. p. 576 (1H8S»): td. 2nd Iles»c. 
p. •'47 (IK«M; Brusimt, Motr. etc. {Om. Cnntt.) p. IW (iKH)); 
Slkorpe, Sci. Rrsulis Jwi Vark. Miss., Ares, p. ICHlKM : PnnJAh) ; 
Hartert, Kat. J'oycls. Semk^nb. ,Mms. p. 215 (l8S*I : Srhendi). 

Chartuiaa jm^ana, Strirkl. P. /. S. 1S.V), p. 221 (Khartmim) ; 
Heithmh. Grull. Taf. HI. fijr^. 2i:« 31 . Suppl. xlvii. (rii.) fit'i*. KM8- 
49 I lH.'i2) ; Tatflor, Ibis, 1^*67, p. «J8 (Kg)pl) ; Beacon^ Ibis, 1«68, 
p. .'iNSMl'mbala). 

Van«*na« pallidum Hcuul. Synt. t'rbers. p. 55 (IKT^I: Steppes of 
hJMt S«naar and Takah). 

Chettusia wagli-ri, tiray, Iland-l. Ii. iii. p. 11, no. !«!W>| (1^«71). 

Adult male. General colour above pale ;ishy brown, the centre of 
tKe lover Itack rather darker ; nidoa of th«* lower back, lower rump, 
sad Qpfier tail-coverts pure whit^*, as well as the basal two-thirda 
of the tail, vbich is tipficd with whitt*, before which is a broad band 



22. BTCPHAiinTZ. 177 

M-f. Ad. et jar. AfghanlsUn ((7r(^A). IndU Museum. 

•Jc. 

«. Ad. ik. Peahaww, March 27. Colonel Way [P.]. 

r. r. <^ 9 ad. Cumba, Tpper Sind, Jan. (A, O. Hume Coll. 

•k. //.). 

s. (f iroiD. fk. JacolNibAd, Oct. Hume Coll. 

y, a. $ imm. Deeaa, Oct. 20 (A. E, Butler). Hume Coll. 

•k. 

m\h'.£2'\^nL Sambhur, Dec, Oct (R, M, Hume Coll. 

ak. Adam). 

c'A'. Ad. at Sir^a, March. Hume Coll. 

imm. ak. 

r, k . \k\. tk. Murdan, Feb., March. Hume Coll. 

/. Ad. 9k. Feroirnur, Nov. 11 {A. O. IT.). S»'el)ohm I'uU. 

m'. Ad. ak. Jibawulpur, Feb. (6*. F. L. Mar" Hume Coll. 

shaii). 

m'. Jut. ^k. Mozuffumufrsmr, Jan. 15 {O. F. Hume Coll. 

L. \iar«Ma/I). 

o. 9 ad. tk. Ciilgit, April 7. Colon«*l Biddulph 

/. Ad. »k. rmbala. Colon»iiMarshaU[r.]. 

f ,r'. (S 9 imm. Imbala, Feb., Nor. (/?. C. Bea- Tweeddale Coll. 

ak. ran). 

#'. 9 imm. ak. rmbnla, Feb. {Dr. Scott). Soebohm Coll. 

i\ d Bd. ak. Kal^iee, Huml«*lkun<i, Feb. 8 Hume Coll. 

{0\ F. L. .MariihaU). 

m ^. -^ 9 "wi. Sultnn{>ur,(vurirHon, March, Oct. Hume Cell. 

•c imm. tk. ( W. S, ChiU). 

y. <J ad. »k. Gur^raon Duitr., Feb. 10 {A. O. Hume Coll. 

y. Ad. ak. IMhi. ^ HumeCiill. 

f'-V. Imro.ftk. Ktawah, Nov., IW. Hume (\>n. 

f"-f'' r' 4* ad. Futtfhjrurh Dirtr., Oct., Feb. Hume Coll. 

rt imm. nk. {A. A mi^num ). 

A •*"• d ^ad. Sh.i«ia, Khaijd«*i^h, Feb. {J. Hume Coll. 

»k. IhtridnFrn). 

i .^. (f « ad. Alimi-dniii!VAr, Feb., March Hume Coll. 

ak. (.V. //. Fmrhank). 

1>2. STEPHAKIBTX. 

Tvpe. 
St#^tbaiubyi, Briehrydt. At. Sjf$t, Sat. p. x\iii (1S.VJ). . S. Cur<>uutUj». 

JLtM'ft. ('Mn6ned to Africa. 

Kfif to thf Sjtrcir^. 

m F frK'-ad bUrk ; rr ^wn Murk, with a brtmd 
hti- •'( t»hit.' ••!i''iri*lin/ it, fiillowttl bv a 

bf^ful (mod of bU<*k orronatu*, j». l"'^. 

k \ r*U' All whitt* ; crown uiiifomi a.*>hy orduiikjr 

br »«ij. 

m I-Ar/»'f : uimI»t win/-r.»%irt« ♦•ntir»'lv whit«»; 

thf'Mt whitmh; l>>wi'r tlir«Mit a«hy trrvy, 

( U-iWfi! bv a broa'i bttiid of blatk on th«* 

r»r»*.ii«-fc mel4ii9oj)<(ru$, p. 180. 

h'. Stnall'T : un l«*r m ifijr-cnx iTt* whit**, bdt th»* 
outf-r onea and the lower primar}'-c<Ai-ru 



S ■ CEA&AIBIIII^ 

bronn ; throat whiliah ; lower throat ashy 
brown, with a narrow line of blackish on 
the foie-ueck inomatut, p. 182. 

1. Stephanibyz conmatiu. 
PluTier du Cap de Bonne Efpfirance, I/Aubmt. Pi. Enl ii. pi. 800. 
Pluvier eouronnS, Buff. Hist. A'ai. Oi». viii. p. 101 (1781). 
CbaradriuB caronatus, £oAf. Tabt. PL Enl. v. iS {1783) ^ Gm. ^»t. 
Nat. i. p. 691 (irS8) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii^ p. 749 (1790) ; Bonn. 
Enc. Mith. i. p. 19 (1790) ; lAcht. Verz. Doubt, p. 70 {18231 ; 
Waffl. 8yit. Av., Cbaradrius, p. fi6, sp. 6 (1627) ; OriU, ZooL 
Anteckn. pp. 11, 62 (1869 : Georgetown, EJiyena], 
Black-crown«d Plover, Penn. Arct. Zool. ii, p. 485 (1786: New 

York !) ; Lath. Gen. Syn. ii. pt. 1, p. 210 (1785). 
Wreathed Plover, Lath. Om. Syn. iii. pt. 1. p. 216 (1785). 
Charadiiua atricapilliiB, Gm. Si/it. Nat. i. p. 686 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. 

Om. ii. p. 745 (1790). 
PluviBUua coronatus, Stfph. in Shajifs Gm. Zool. xi. p. 488 {1819V 
Cbettusia coronata, Grai/, Litt Gratl. Brit. Mus. p. 64 (1844 : Cape 
Colony) ; Cab. in Von dtr Dfckm'i Jtfii. iii. p. 46 (18C9) ; Fintch 
^ Sartl. Vdff. Oilafr. p. 636 (1870) ; Gumey in Andtnt. B. 
Dam. Ld.f. 268 (1872: Damara and Great Namaqua Lands; 
OkaTaogo H. ; Otjimbinque, remident) ; Bucage, Om. Angola, p. 426 
(1881 : Humbe) ; Skarpe, in Oatti Matabele-Land, App. B, 
p. 326 {1881 ; Binchors FariD) ; ShelUy, Ibis, 1882, p. 363 (Hart 
Eiver); Salvin, Cat.Strickl. CoH. p. 000(1882: Bamara); Sharjx, 
ed. Lagard^s B. S. Afr. ^. 670(1884: throughout the Colony, 
Port Elizabeth, and East London ; Brit, CaSrajia, to tie weat of 
the I^h Itiver; Natal; Transvaal); Fitcker, ZeitscAr. ge». Om. 
i. p. 301 (1884: Little Amscha; Par^; Pangani and Kongo 
lUvera) ; Bbkm, J./. O. 1886, p. 61 ; Fiiclier, t. c. p. 116 (Steppes 
from Pari to Nguniman) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 417 (Somali- 
land) ; Oust. BibL Ilaut. Etudes, xiii. art. 10, p. 12 (1886 : Somali- 
land) ; Heichen. J. f. O. I8ti7, p. 47 (Kijimgu) ; Biittik. Note* 
Leyd. i»/t/..ii. p. 76(1889: IIumpata,Cuneae) ; Setchen. J. f. O. 
1892, p. 7. 
Iloploplerus coronatus, Gray, Gen. B. Hi. p. 542 (1847) ; Biyth, 
Cat. B. Mut. As. Soc. p. aiO (1819) ; StriiM. ^ Sd. Contr. dm. 
1862, p. 169 (Damara-land) ; laeht. A'omenct. Ai<. 3fus, Berol. 
p. 96 (1854) ; Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 204 (18ti7 : throughout the 
Colonv) ; Gran, itand-l. B. iii. p. 13, no. 0977 (1871) ; Buckley, 
Ibis, i874, p. 387 (Natal) ; Ban-alt, Ibis, ]87([,p. 191 (Tianavaal) ; 
Butler, Falflen, ^ Held, Zool. 1882(p. 336 (Eslcourt, Nov.). 
/Egiahtis coronalue, Beichenb. GraU. Taf. icii. tig. 704 (1852). 
Stephanibyx coronatua, Seichenb. Av. Syst. Xat. p. xviii (18.J2) ; 
Bp. C. R. xUii. p. 410 (1850); Salrad. Ann. Mm. Gen. {->) i. 
p. 220 (1884 : Uaimbi, Sh(«). 
Vanelliis dinghami, Verreanj; Ber. Zool. 18.->5, p. 220. 
Slephanibyi dinghami, Bp. C. B. jiliii. p. 419 (IS-W). 
Vanellus coronatus, SM. Man. Faya-Bas, Curaores, p. 82 (1 80.5) ; 
Gnmey.Iliis, 1808, p.49(Katal) ; A^es, Ibis, 1869, p. SOU (Trans- 
vaal, breediug); Seebohm, Geogr. Diitr. Charadr. p. 222 (18f8) ; 
Bfichea. Vog. Deulsch.-Ott-Afr. p. 36 (1894: Massai-bnd ; 
AniBcha; Nguruman ; Ugogo; Igdnda; Unyanyembe; Mpapwa; 
Bukom^). 

Adah male. General colour above brown, including the scapulars 



22. STGFHjUriBTX. 179 

and winft-coverU, the greater series with broad white tipA, forming 
a band on the wing ; basttard-wing and primar}'-coverta black, th(* 
inner ffathers white ; quills black, the primanes white at the base 
of the inner web, the Beconduricti white at the base of both webff, 
increaaing towards the inner ones, which are white with u black 
tip and then become entirely white; the innermost secondaries 
brown like the back ; up|)er tail-coverts and base of tail pure white, 
the terminal half of the tail black with a white tip, the black 
decrrasing in extent towards the outer feathers, where it forms a 
sub-tf-rminal band only ; lores and a frontal band black, continued 
in a broad eyebrow to the nape, where it joins and forms a band, 
fncirrling another white luind which nurroundn a black patch on 
the top of the head ; i»ar-covertd, sidt*s of neck, fore-neck, and chest 
ai»hy brown, darker in the latter, and succeedinl by a narrow band 
of black ai'roas the breast ; fore part of face and thniat whitish ; 
lower breast and alxlomen, as well as the undcT tail-coverts, under 
wing-coT«*rts, and axillaries, pure white : ** bill bright red, except 
the points of the mandibk'S, which are horn-coloured ; feet bright 
rrd, but the toes are tinged with dark purple on the upper nurfact* ; 
iris yellow '*((.'. y. .-I m/rr^sofi). Total length 12*5 inches, culmen 
l*a5. wing b*4, tail .'V«5, tarsus 3. 

A*iuU ftmah. Similar in colour to the male. Total length 11*5 
inches, wing 7*7. 

Yquhsj, Similar to the adults, but browner, and having tho 
feathers of the uppt-r |»arts barred and margined with sandy buff, 
Uffoff which is a sub-terminal dark bar ; crown of head brown, with 
SAody vdges to the feathers, the ring round the coronal patch lM>ing 
^ao'iy butf, m'hite only ruund the oc<-iput ; lower throat and fore- 
orrk ashy brown, strongly washed i^ith sandy buff. 

ila^'. S)uth Africa, tu K.-ist Africa as far north as Shoa and 
Somali-land, on the W(*st tu Damara-laud. 

Siuth Africa. Tw«»o<l«ijil«» roll. 

S.K. Afri<tt. Jy.rti Lilfunl [r.\ 

)*Uiti)d'K l*o-t (7*. C. Atmure), S«fk).»hm (\»ll. 

Naliil ( T. Ayrrf). Twemidalf ('«ill. 

Nstul. N«»\. ( '/*. .It/rpji). Sflxihiii Coll. 

Nntnl. Miiy U ( r JC. liurklry). Sh..lley Coll. 

Ni-wcA^tl**, Natal, Mav IH. (*apt. Sn\ ile ISrid 

r. . 
Biinr Mt»unt, Durban, June Sifbohm (\>11. 

FJ"p)iiiiit Ki\er. Purchasf^l. 

Truii<»\ual I /'. Ayr^f). Seeliohm Coll. 

rnU-h«-f*tnHiin, Jnii. ( y. --I yr«»*). (Jumf\ Coll. 

Tali, MataUW-luml, Mart h W. K. »V C <i.Otttej«, 

\F. iPtitr»\. K-ir*. I*. . 

Damara-kiMt, Man*h, S'pt. S« elxihm Coll. 

{(*. J. AtulrrrMm). 

OtjinibiiKpK*, l»HiuAm-lHnd, Twc«-ddal(* (*oIl. 

.\u|f. 4 « C. J. AntlrrMJUfu). 

§. Ad. >k, SLoa (•Mr IC. //. Harris), India Mti»cum. 

y2 





Ad. *k. 




Ad. Pk. 




^ «! >k. 


IH . 


Ad. .V. 




\ ^\. -k. 




' ail ik. 




/ ad tk. 


* . 


1 ' i ad. 




Jut •k 




^ a'1. .k. 




A j»» •k. 




' •0i »iu 


O. 


f . f ' i • 




•k 


r 


Ad •k. 



ISO CHAHABSITDiE. 

2. Stephanibyx melanoptenu. 

Charadrins melanopterus, Cretzschtn, in Hupp, Atlas, p. 46, pi. 31 
(1826) ; Less. Campl Bi0. ix. p. 409 (1837) ; Hupp. Sytt, Uebers, 
p. 118 (1845) ; Grm/, Gen. B. 'in. p. 644 (184/ ) ; JUeugl 8y9t. 
Uebers. p. 66 (1856) ; Hartl Dm. Westafr. p. 212, note (1867) ; 
Scl. R Z, 8. 1866, p. 23 (British Kaffiraria). 

Charadrins spixii, Waglery Syst. Av., Charadrins, p. 67, sp. 7 (1827). 

Chettusia ? melanoptera, Gray, List GtcUUb Brit. Mus. p. 64 (1844). 

.^alitis melanopterus, Eeichenb. Grail. Taf. zcix. fig. 706 (1&46). 

Hoplontems spixii, Chraxfy Gen. B. iii. p. 642 (1847). 

Charaarius frontalis, Sundev. (Eft. K. Vet.-Akad. Ihrh. Stockholm^ 
1860, p. 110. 

Hoploptenis melanopterus, Licht. Nomencl. Av. Bercl. p. 96 (1864) ; 
Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 294 (1867 : Natal ; Mossel Bav) ; Gray, 
Hand'l. B. iii. p. 13, no. 9978 (1871) ; Heuyl. Om. N.b.-Afr. li. 
pt. i. p. 1010 (1871 : Mensa ; from Hamasien south to G alia- land ; 
not west of Lake Tana) ; Hartert, Kat. Vogels. Mu8. Senckenb. 
p. 216 (1891 : Jeddah). 

Stephanibyx spixii, Bp. C. B. xliii. p. 419 (1856). 

Vanellus melanopterus, Gicmey, Ibui, 1800, p. 217 (Natal) ; id. 
op. cit. 1862, p. 38 ; Bianc. opec. Zool. Mosamb. fasc. i\. p. 62 
(1866) ; ffartiny, Ibis, 1809, p. 309 ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1887, p. 344 
(Natal) ; id. Geogr. Distr. Charadr.js. 224 (1888). 

Vanellus spixii, 8chl. Mus. Pays-Bos, Cursores, p. 63 (1865). 

Chettusia melanoptera, Blanf. Geol. 8f Zool. Abyss, p. 429 (1870 : 
7000-10,000 feet) ; Finsch, Tr. Z. S. vii. p. 328 (1870) ; id. ^ 
Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 638 (1870) ; Anttn. ^ Salvad. Viagg. 
Bogos, p. 144 (1873 : Assus, Samhar) ; Sharpe, ed. Loyard's B. 
8. Afr. p. 669 (1884 : Grahamstown ; Eland's Post ; Pt. Eliza- 
beth ; British Kaff raria) ; Beichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 47 (Ugaia) ; 
Sharpe, Ibis, 1892, p. 544 (Machako's). 

Stephanibyx melanoptera, ScUcad. Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) i. p. 220 
(1884: Shoa) ; id. op. cit. (2) vi. p. 310 (1888 : Shoa). 

Vanellus inomatus (nee Swains.), Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 29 (Mpimbi), 
1894, p. 26 (Tschiromo). 

Adult female. General colour above dark brown, with a slight 
gloss of coppery lilac ; lesser and median wing-coverts like the back, 
the latter tipped with white and having a sub-terminal line of black 
on the lowest series ; the greater coverts pure white, the inner ones 
brown at the base and finally marked, like the median series, with a 
Bub-terminal line of blackish; bastard- wing brown; primary-coverts 
and quills black, the outer secondaries white at the base, the white 
increasing on the adjoining ones till the ends of the outer web only 
are marked with black; inner secondaries pure white, but the 
innermost brown like the back ; lower back and rump rather more 
dusky brown than the back ; upper tail-coverts and tail pure white, 
with a broad sub-terminal band of black, followed by a narrow 
white tip, the black band decreasing in width towards the outer 
feathers, and even becoming imperfect on the outermost feather ; 
head and neck all round ashy grey, shading ofi" into the brown of 
the mantle, and becoming darker and more slaty grey on the lower 
throat and fore-neck, and followed by a distinctly-marked band of 
blue-black on the chest ; chin whitish ; lores and a broad frontiil 



22. iiTEPnAsriBTX. 181 

Hand white : remainder of under surface of bodv, from the chest 
downm*ardt, white*, including? the under wing-coverts and axillaries: 
** bill black ; fevt dark scarlet, the toes more dusky ; iris palo 
TC'Uow; eyelids scarlet'* (Tk. von Jhwjlin). ToUil length 10 
inehes, culmen I'l'i, wing v^'o, tail 2*75, taraus 2*3. 

1 0iM^. Differs from the adult in having the head brown like the 
back, without any white on the forehead ; throat and iore-neck 
also light brown, fullowtnl by an indistinctly -marked band of black 
on the chost ; wings and tail as in the adult. 

Jiab. From Arabia, Abyssinia, and Shoa south to Nyasa-lond 
and the Eastern Ca[>e Colony. 

m. ^ imra. sk. Abvtaiiiia. SiM'iMthm Coll. 

A. cT ad. ^ TekuuDda, TignS March 4. W. T. maiifonl, l>i. 

rp ^ 

«-. Ad. kk. TMhiromo, Xvasa-land, Sept. II. 11. Johnston, 1*>|., 

d, ;^ ad. kk. Mpiiubi, (*ppi*r ShiriS Uiver, II. II.Ji»hiifttun,HM|., 

Feb, -JO {A. H'hyte). C.B. \\]. 

#. (f ad. »k. Natal ( T. Ayret). StH*bohiii Cull. 

/. cf •'I. *k. Kland's Ptwt ( T. C. AttmirA, Sliari*.* Coll. 

y, A, I. .Vd. et Kiiigwilliamstowu, .\pril, Muy. Major Trvwlyaul^r.]. 

imoi. «k. 

L Ad. .k. Cape (\>lonv, Oct. 6 (6'i> A, Gould Coll. 



3. Stepbambyx inonuttnt. 

VaDfllufi in<>matus, Suyiina. If, H', Afr, ii. p. 2:)0 (18>*{7): llaviL 
ifrm, H'.'A/r. p. lM*J (1857: (isiubia; Ashantti*; A:ruHpi:n ; 
K!tnina); »SrhI. Mum. Pay- Hat, (*urior\*i«, p. (W) (lb<Wi: Kliniim) ; 
liuttik, y>'t»tt$ Jjettd^H Mhs, vii. p. 2.V> (l^Ki; HuluiuM, W. 
Libi-nai, viii. p. ifW) ^Kmi) ; S^6<thm, Ihi$, l><87,p. 3*'jO (Durlmn) ; 

IluttJs. S'^tt l^lfrlr-H MuA. X. p. KXMl'^'^). M- p. liW (IS*^*); 

^Srrh'tkm^ firmjr. jpittr. Charadr.y. *2'2o (lh^M: Durban, Natal); 

hruA^m. Tny. /Vi«/iitA.-0«/..1/>. n. ;W> llSJU; LVhIU). 
Il«iplupti*nu iuoniatus ^'Vay, /rV/t. //. iii. p. •'>42 (1^47). 
ii iploptfru^ npiuiitiiii, juv. !", Bit. (\ Ii. xliii. p. 4lS (I^X). 
(*tiarmdriu« iu*<laiMpti*ruide^ TV/am., Uite Hckt, Miu, Payi^Ba*^ 

roraiims p. fCt {Xr^^u. 
Ck^-ttuMa iiiitniata. lUicheK. J.f, O. IHfU. p. %^\ ((Sold Coa^t); i«/. 

J f, O. Hrr, p. 11 (l^tsii^i): ^Shnrftr »V B'turirr, Hull. Sue. '/am*1. 

i-'nimrr, ill. p. 7U < \^7H : lAtwvr (Nm/ii) ; Fiackrr \ Hriihen. J.f. O. 

I'vtll.p. l.'Cf (Zan/ibar, Julv) : lio'at;^, Orn, Anyola^ p. A'2'i (IfS^l) ; 

SkelUy, P.Z.S,\ti>^\,j^. iA^ (.Mttl'iiida). 

.i»i'tU. Smilar toN. mfl*tH"jtierns, but very much smaller, browner, 
and with an oily-green glowi on the up{>er ]»artH ; head bruwn like 
lij^ bark. With a ■mall frotital patch of white; lores, hides of fact*, 
fbr^iot, and foro-nt-rk ai«hy grey, dark«*r on the fore-neck, and 
fjl<«vr«| by a band of M.ick across the chest ; chin an<l upper throat 
whiti»h. The wings are differently mloured to th(»M* ut S, mrlaHo* 
^#nu. the wing-eo%*erts Unng hrown like the l>ack, with only a 
frarrvw whit« tip to the greater series; the outer bccuudaries are 



182 CHABADBIIDiE. 

white, with brown bases, which decrease in extent towards the 
inner qnills ; the tail is similarly coloured to that of S, mdancpierugj 
bnt the black band disappears on the outer feathers, which are 
entirely white ; the under wing-corerts and axillarics are white, but 
those along the edge of the wing and the lower greater ooTerts are 
brown like the lining of t^e quills, which have no white bases : 
" bill black ; feet reddish brown ; iris orange-yellow " (Jl BiUii' 
hofer). Total length 8*5 inches, culmen 0*9, wing 6-5, tail 2*3, 
tarsus 2'4. 

HcA. West Africa, from Liberia to the Loango coast. East Africa, 
from the Zanzibar district, south to Natal. 

a. 2 ad. sk. Accra, Gold Coast. Purchased. 

b. Ad. sk. Accra {Aubmn). Sharpe Coll. 



23. SaUATAEOLA. r^^ 

Squatarola, Leach, St/st. Cat. Mamm, ^ Birds Brit. 
MuB. p. 29 (1816) S. helvetica. 

Bange. Almost cosmopolitan. 

1. Squatarola helvetica. 

The Grey Plover, Albiriy Nat. Hist. B. i. p. 72, pi. 76 (1738) ; 

YarreUy Brit. B. ii. p. 413 (1843). 
Le Vanneau gris, Brus. Orn. v. p. 1(X), pL ix. fig. 1 (1760) : 

UAubent. PI. Enl. viii. pi. 864. 
Le Vanneau vari^, Briss. Orn. v. p. 103, pi. ix. ^^. 2 (1760) ; 

lyAubent. PL Enl. viii. pi. 923. 
Le Vanneau de Suisse, Briss. Orn. v. p. 106, pi. x. fig. 1 (1760) : 

D'Aubent. PL EnL viii. pi. 863 ; Buf. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. p. 60 

(1781). 
Tringa helvetica, Linn. St/st. Nat. i. p. 250 (1766) ; Gm. &/st. Nat. 

i. p. 676 (1788). 
Tringa varia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 262 (1766) ; Gm. Syst. Nat. i. 

p. 682 (1788). 
Tnnga squatarola, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 252 (1766) ; Scop. Ann. I. 

p. 101 (1769) ; Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 682 (1788) ; Chapm. Trav. 

S. Afr. ii. p. 416 (1868). 
Charadrius hypomelas, PalL Beis. Buss. Beichs, iii. p. 699 (1773) ; 

WagL Syst. Av.y Charadrius, p. 71, sp. 43 (1827). 
Le Vanneau-Pluvier, Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. p. 68 (1781). 
Swiss Sandpiper, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 167 (1785). 
Grey Sandpiper, Lath. t. c. p. 168. 
Grey Sandpiper, var. A, Lath. t. c. p. 169. 
Charadrius naevius, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 692 (1788) ; Less. Man. 

(TOm. ii. n. 324 (1828). 
Vanellus melanoffaster, Bechst. Naturg. DentschL iv. p. 366 (1809) ; 

Temm. Man. d Orn. ii. p. 647 (1820) ; Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. 

xiii. p. 186 (1821); Werner, Atlas, Coureurs, pi. 16 (1827); 

Swains. Faun. Bor.-Amer.j Birds, p. 370 (1881 : Hudson's Bay) ; 

Holboell, Orn. Beitr. Faun. GrcrnL p. 37 (1846); Crespon, 6m, 

Gard, p. 367 (1840) ; Falion, Ois. Bely. p. 163 (1875). 



23. SQUATABOLA. 183 

Charftdrius hypf»in'»Uniw, Phil. Znotfr, Jl}$$0'AMiat. ii. p. 13S (1811); 
y*»nim, in h^mul, Joy. Rhm. Xferitl. iii. p. '2lio (IHIO). 

(^hAnulrius {Hirdfla, PaU. Znnfr. UnMu-A^ittt. ii. p. 142 (1811). 

CliAnulniis apricarius (nee L.)^ WiU. A/ner, Orn. vii. p. 41, pi. Tu, 
li;r. 4(lrtl4). 

S411 ttarola (rri*»n, Ij^ch, Sif^t. Cat. Mamm, 4^, Brit. Miim. p. 2i> 
\\^\t\\ Iiri.-t4>l); U**. Traits d'Orn. y. .•',4,3 (18.^1); OipA^dai- 
iiarti, Contr. Fann. Orn. Eur. (Jrritl. tdfc. xiii. p. o (1S)>(I). 

S{iutArula iiqiiHtanilR, Ctir. liiyw An,\, p. 407 (1817) ; Ltm, Man. 
.rOm. ii. D. ;JOH(HiM). 

Van Uu-* heu'ftirii*, Virill. X. Diet. tVIliit. Xat. xxxv. p. 215 
(I-^hh; if/. AV. 3IetA. iii. p. 1077 (182.J) ; Jiou.r, Orn. Pr*»r. 
pi. l'71l (l^io); Jnnh. et liarth.-I^pttmrn. Rich. Orn. p. 44J> 
iK>lM : Writjht, Ifn'ji, I.nW, p. 142 (Malta. Aprin^ and autumn). 

Si'iatATiU varia, //«*i>. /^m. l8*Ji>, p. .mH; lirrhm, Vtig. lieHtitchl. 
p VkI iWU) : k/. IVf//: p. 1>H4 (lK.Vi) : r/iirw^y t/t Andertn. Ii. 
Dim. hi. p. 270 (1872) ; Harti. Vtiij. Madaff. p.* 28*J (1877). 

I'll « rati riu4 bflv»*tiru«, Lirht. Vrrz. iMnbl. p. 70 (182J{); Audnh. Ii. 
-I »iwr. pi. ivox\xiv.((\ l?<Jti); iV/. Orn. liuMjr. iv. p. 280 (18:W) ; 
id. H. Anwr. >*vo. v. p. IIK). nl. aio (1^42) ; Xardm. J.f. O. 18.V*, 
p. .'Ill (Kajana, b-lnw r4 V.); Vuilett, Orern. Chrint. Omet^nn 
Orn. Fntm. p. ITSJ <t^*4); Sreht>Mm, Ihin, 1K^2, p. 222 (AMra- 
kltaii) ; ir/. r c. p. aiM) ( An*han^d) ; w/. /Am. 1*^83. p. 28 ((*aucaau«): 
Tri^tr. Fann. «V Fl'»r. Paitt^t. p. 129 (18.<i : S. of JJ#*VTout) : 
.Sr'h,»Mm, IliMt. lirit. Ii. iii. p. 44 (188,-1) ; id. (ie^Hjr. I)i*tr. C'haradr. 
p 102 (l*^-^): ,;/. /Am. lA-w, p. ;M7 ((Jn^at Liakotf I»l., Junt?) ; 
U'imMty, Tnh. Li*t Au*tr. Ii. p. ID (188M: Uichmond ami 
C.'l«n*Ui'f Uiton*; Victoria: S. Australia; Trwmania: W. Aui»- 
traliai : U'Mifhead, Ihi*^ 181J0, p. ."ill (Palawan, Oct.); Seef»*tMm, 
Ii JnfHiH. Emp. p. ;J04 (181K)); Camj»UiI, Ibis, l8i>2, p. 240 

S|iiatan»la cint'rea, Flemint;, Urit. Anim. p. Ill (1828); (iould, Ii. 
Eur. \\\ pi. 21*0 (H-'C) ; litftit/n. h^m. inrtl. in Urit. Mua.^ (Srali. 
pi. 17. nti. t»72 ; id. in firav't' /""/. -Vw. p. 80 (1H44) ; Thomp». 
Ii Ir.I. ii. p. lOii (Krfh : Ii. (irayy Ii. H't»t *Vf>//. p. 202 (1871) ; 

Xif^.y. //. .Shrtl. p. K (K***). 

N|-ia!.tr>ila )H>l%i*ti«*a, linhm^ Vtitj. I>eut»rhi, p. rvVl (1831); Bp. 
f'rnp Li^t Ii. Eur. A- .V. Atnrr.y. 40 (IKW) ; Keyn.^ Bia*. li'irh. 
Etr |.p. Ui. jn; ( 1«*|0| : Sftu*'Lnujrh. Faun. lielf.^. 121 (1842); 
Muhtr. liritr. Orn.tiri^i'hr'nl. p. d'l (HI4); (innj, Li^t (iraiief 
lint Mh» p. ti2 1 1*^44 J : 1//. Cat. Mamm. etc. Xe/Hil prm. H*>tigt. 
y l.;i »1'^4»*0: ^••*«v'. //. Jamaica, p. .tUJ (ls-J7); dray, dm. Ii. 
lii. p. .%4.'i ilM7i; O^m///, Ii. Auj'tr. vi. pi. 12 (1*<4^); ///yM. rw. 
// .l/ii*. .1-. .V.,r. p. 202 (1^4S): CalcutlH) ; .VriVA/. /'. /.'a. lK"iO, 
p 2-''* iKonlofrtri) ; Itrichrnh. Vtmj, Srti/iUL nc». /V40 (In.*)!); 
ui UniU Tttf. ri. Ii/-. 07:i-07r> (l-sVi): Si I. Coatr. Orn. lisV2. 
}. 1J»; iK*..! Sfa»; Stricki. \ Set. t. r. p. l.V* ( nnmara-land) ; 
Kt*^rh. Iktnm. Fuyir, pi. x\x. liir. Ii {I8.i2); \\'allcni/r. Sanm. 
\<^\, p. '•7. K»4, p. 24'.» (S<'«ndinaTia) ; .Mot I. \ Dillir. Contr. 
.Sat Iliat. iMhuan^ p. tVi (I'^Vi); Ileutjl. Sy*t. Ceftrrti. p. W 
<KV»i, ///#r//. Orn. >!>«/-,</>. pp. 21-i, 275 ( 1 M."i7 : Axhanti); 
liaini, Ii. \. Amrr. p. «5'.»7 (K>) ; Bryant, /Vr. //o^r .Vy. AW. 
y/i-/ %ii. p. 121 (1<V.»: lUhamao); Schrenclc^ lirin. Amuri. p. 4<4> 
<1*^VM; Lintierm. V*i*j. tiriecA^nl. p. I'W (MU)); SirinMoe, Ibi*, 
I •will, p 0;i (Amnv): AVir/. /. r. p. 201 (MauritiuH) ; Parya, t. r. 

t.Tfei (Kpinm aiK'l rorfu); Oraw, P. /. 'V l'^i(^ p. *y^V\ (ilalnia- 
rmj; //arfil Famn. MadajfatcY- 72 (1<?01); u/. J, f. O. 1801, 



184 CHASABBIIDJK. 

p. 268 (Senegal) ; Reinhardt, IbU, 1861, p. 9 (Greenland) ; Swinhoe, 
t c. pp. 61, 342 (Canton ; Pekin) ; Newton, R Z. S, 1861, p. 808, 
pi. 39. Rg, 2 (effg) ; AOnrecht, J, f, O. 1862, p. 206 (Jamaica) ; 
Gray, List Brit. B, p. 188 (1868) ; Blakist, Ibis, 1868, p. 180 
(IIud8on*8 Bay) ; Swinh, t. c. p. 404 (Formosa) ; id. P. Z, S. 1868, 
p. 809 (China) ; Badde, Bets, SOfir,, Tog, p. 322 (1863) ; Sunder. 
Sv. Fogl pi. 86. fifr. 4 (1866-72) ; March, Proc. Philad. Acad. 
1864, p. 66 (Jamaica) ; Scl. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 178 (Mexico) ; Jerd. 
B. Ind. iii. p. 636 (1864) ; Sperling, Ibis, 1864, p. 286 (Mediter- 
ranean, winter) ; Nordm. J f. 0. 1864, p. 872 (Lapland) ; Salmd. 
J.f. O. 1865, p. 284 (Sardinia) , Salmn,Ibis, 1866, p. 190 (Guate- 
mala) ; Qumey, t. c. p. 271 (Monocw«i River) ; Gould, Handb, B. 
Austr. ii. p. 224 (1866) ; Gundl. B^ert. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i. 
p. 868 (1866) ; Later. Ann. Lye. N. Y. riii. p. 296 (1866 : New 
York) ; Dresser, Ibis, 1866, p. 84 (Texks) ; Sahin, t. c. p. 196 
(Chiapam) ; Locke, Expl. Sci. Alg^., Ois. ii. p. 260 (1867) ; Baird, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 286 ; Newt. t. e. p. 369 (Seychellea) ; Brake, t c. 

L429 (Marocco); Hartl. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 859 (Zanzibar); 
yard, B. S. Afr. p. 295 (1867) ; Grandid. Bev. et Mag. de ZooL 
1867, p. 419 (E. Coast Madagascar) ; Sperling, Ibis, 1868, p. 291 
(Zanzibar) ; Tristr. t. c. p. 322 (Palestine) ; Srnith, t. c. p. 468 
(Portugal) ; Collett, Norges Fugle, y. 48 (1868) ; Dyb. ^ Parvex, 
J.f. 0. 1868, p. 887 (Darasun); Borggr. Vogelf. Norddeutschl. 
p. 109 (1869) ; Doderl. Avif.Sicil. p. 177 (1869) ; Droste, Vogelw. 
Borkum, p. 141 (1869) ; Saunders, Ibis, 1869, p. 173 (Spain) ; 
DaU f Bann. Trans. Chic. Acad. i. p. 290 (1869 : Yukon River, 
breeding); Cab. in von der DeckerCs Beise, iii. p. 46 (1869); 
Flives 8f Buckley, Ibis, 1870, p. 380 (Turkey) ; Fritsch, Fog. Eur. 
tab. 88. figs. 7, 8 (1870) ; Swinh. Ibis, 1870, p. 860 (Hainan, 
March) ; Saunders, Ibis, 1871, p. 886 (Malaga, May) ; Fritsch, J. 
f. O. 1871, p. 383 (Bohemia); Salvad. Faun. Ital., Ucc. p. 202 
(1871) ; Harting, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 117 (Arctic America) ; Swinh. 
t. c. p. 403 (Coast of China in winter) ; Pelz. Om. Bras. pp. 296. 
464 (1871 : Cajutuba) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 13, no. 9980 
(1871) ; Dresser, B. Eur. vii. p. 465, pis. 615. fig. 2, 617. fig. 2, 
618. fig. 2 (1871), App. p. 465, pi. 619. fig. 1 (1876) ; Wald. «$• 
Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 105 (Negros, March) ; Coues, Key N. Amer. 
B. p. 248 (1872); Harting, Handb. Brit. B. p. 43 (1872); 
Feilden, Zool. 1872, p. 3246 (Faeroes) ; Gould, B. Gt. Brit. iv. 
pis. 36, 37 (1872) ; Tacz. J.f. O. 1872, p. 101 (East Siberia, May 
to Sept) ; Shelley, B. Egypt, p. 236 (1872); Alston 8f Harvie- 
Brown, Ibis, 1873, p. 67 (Archangel, June) ; Brooke, t. c. p. 837 
(Sardinia, winter) ; Scl. 8f Salv. Nomencl. A v. Neotrop. p. 142 
(1873); Hume, Str. F. i. p. 228 (1873: Karachi); Wald. Ibis, 
1874, p. 146 (Andamans) ; Hume, Str. F. ii. p. 287 (1874 : Anda- 
mans) ; Coues, B. N.-West, p. 448 (1874: critical) ; Dumf. Ibis, 
1874, p. 398 (N. Frisian Isl.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Bom. p. 313 (1874) ; 
Later, Joum. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii. p. 307 (1874: Mazatlan) ; 
Danf. ^' Harric'Brorm, Ibis, 1875, p. 419 (Transvlvania) ; 
Siriiih. t. c. p. 452 (Ilakodadi) ; Blyth Sf Wald. B. Burm. p. 1.53 
(1875: Arakan; Tonghoo) ; Gundl J.f. O. 1875, p. 232 (Cuba); 
Wald. Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 220 (1876: Philippines); Irby, 
Om. Straits Gibr. p. 159 (1875); Hume, Str. F. iv. p. 11 
(1876: Karachi) ; Scully, t. r. p. 184 (Kashgar) ; Legge, t. c. p. 245 
(Ceylon) ; Fairb, t. c. p. 262 (Deccan) ; Armstrong^ t. c. p. 338 
(Elephant Point ; China-Ba-Keer) ; Gundl. Om. Cubana, ji. 180 
(1876: Cuba; Jamaica; Barbados); Seebohm «$* Harvie-Brown^ 



23. SaUATABOLA. 185 




ifJ. op, cit. ii. p. l.V) (1^77: Poland ) ; navid et Onut. Oi$, Ckime^ 
p. 424 (I?*77); liiUUr, Utr, F, v. p. 1>±> (1877: Manila vee, Caairt 
of Cutch); TiCfedd, P, Z, S, 1875", p. H.'W (lMac<»r; S. I^evte) ; 
iAmrp$, J<mm, Linn, Soc.^ Xnoi, xiii. p. ti*JO (1H77: Yule lal.); 
ikUvad, Ann. My*. Gm. x. p. MiA (1877: Emberbaki) ; Tacz, 
P. /. 8. 1»77, j>. 3;«) (ChiiuMe, Peru); Strerts, Hull, L\ii. 
Sat, JUms. no. /, p. lit (1877: Siui (^eniniiuo Isl.); It^id, Zuoi. 
1*«77, p. 474 (UemiudaA, autumn); (hid, BuU. Soc, PMUomatM, 
187K, p. \H\ (St^vcbelles) ; Hum^ty, Proc. Linn. Soc. X S. H". iii. 
p. iy7 ( 187M : l»(irt Mon*bv) ; JlutneJlf I)ati$on, Str. F. vi. p. 4o5 
|1'*7h: TenaMerim) ; iMridmn iSf H'entien, Str. F. vii. p. !).*> 




p. ll^lMalaT IVninttuU); )>;^^ //. Oyion, iii. p. U29 (I8r:0); 
Tory. iy. liiihnmaA, p. 114 (iHK)); A.if E. Srwtnn, Handb. B. 
Jamatea.n. 11.50"^!); //M/^r. AYr. >'. ix. p.42.'>(ls^l : Kainajriri); 
^arpe^ P. /. .V. I'^l, p. H<K) (Saudakan) ; liitnttff^ Orn. Ant/tUtif 
p. 4l**.Ml'<^l : Kio roriK^n, M<»ManicdeK) ; Snh^ui. Ann, Mus. (i&n. 
iviii. p. :V2\ ( 1>^lM ; itl. Orn. Pap. iii. p. lIKJ ( Ih-^l') ; Krlham, IbU^ 
I'v*!', p. 7 ^ MalaY iVninnula, C k-t. to Miirch) : Itlakiston Jir I^ryer, B, 
J^fmn.ft. U^{\'f^-J: Wz«i; Yokohnnm); Xt'teihrn, (\it. Artg (\tnta 
7^«rrt. p. ;vn 1h«*lM : Couet, Cheek-L S. Amer. B, y. \^\ {\^'2)\ 
B. O. I'. List Brit. B. p. 1/5H ( \HKi) ; Saundi^rf, eti. Varrrifs Brit. 
B. iii. p. 1'7'* ( l-v^O ; Irhy, IhU, Ikhj^. p. 1m7 (Santandt*r, Mnv. Jum*, 
Nov. I : Steam; Pntr. f^.S. \at. Mum. vi. p. IH (lK*s'i: Labrador, 
*i*nn^' aii'l autunin): thitr*^ Handh. B. Brit, liurm. ii. p. .*^W> 
|W"*.J»; rurti^rm. .V/i/. Ttjdjichr. \rtlrri. Ind. xliii. p. Il*<) (!'<•<$) ; 
^SeUf^n, t'ntiMe • (artcin* p. M i l*^i : li**riiifr Soa, .Mav); SAarftr, ed, 
iMyard'a B. S. Afr. p.fUV* ( l^M) ; Vordrrm. \at. Tijil*chr. S'nIrrI, 
imi xliv. p. 'AH ( l^M : Java) ; Cnuen^ Kry S. Atnrr. B. L*iid t-d. 
p. .ViN (1hk4); Bttint, Brewer^ it Bi*i*/tr. \\'aUr»Binln S. Atner. 
I p. \IV2 (iH^lK Blakist. Afw^lM List B. Jap. p. 11 {\*^k4: 
Japan ir«"n«*rallv I ; B't*/d. (onnp. Ar. Imp. Btnn. p. 70 (l.'v«4); 
Hndd^, tPrn. Cttur. pp. -i'A, 414 (l^^^M; Ii«'nki.nin) : Murray, 
I^Tlebr. Faun. Sind, p. L»J4 (l^'^l); Brid. Ihut, !«%<>, p. 1>.VI 
I Maf«o*n. wiut4*r) ; Murd'trk, Bf-p. Krpetl. Pdnt Bamttr, \}. l()ll 
ll«v^-,: f»if): (V,ry. //. HViif /W. p. •J.'i (Ivv'i) ; HWA, /.iV /A 
tirrnada, p. 7 | K'^W : ^ly/. -•in/, //a/, p. .'CO (I'^^M: Sharps, 
lUs, l-v^t. p. 1»J7 (Muiwnt); Ntdvad. Kl^nnt frc. Bat. p. LHlU 
iI'^^Ik Tarz. th-n. Pmrn^ iii. p. 'X\K (lN*ii»>; I'nrdrnn. Sat, 
Tyfdm-kr. SMerl Imt. xlvi. At!, a, p. L'l (l-^J: IJi»ni.M») ; Ptrtke. 
L'^J^t. tiamy. und IVm^/ Kota-Ilalh. p. .TJ.'t (l>^Hl;): /Ml, 
Str F. 1. p. 4.VJ (1hh7: Lu<kn<»H); Brrl^'futrk, J.f.O. l^**?, 
p l^KS (I*ariigua7)i 7ai^ i6««, 1n«7| p. SdO (Portugal, winter) 



23. BQrATABOLi. 187 

14.) : Xelchrm, Jahrh. Hamhtrg. Witutt^nt^h, 1^3. p. (Zanzibar); 




p. ZfLMli^n'): 'VA/. tiev. i'nt, p. 

Fmtn, Jap. p. 1(W {XMTy TjO); SehL ViMf. S^rrL pi. lM7 (1W>4); 

id. i}ier, SnhH. Vty^U, pi. 21. ti^n. 11, 12, 12a (I':*^!); QundL 

J.f, O. 1M71, p. 27m (Cuba). 
SijualaniU niWaiHifriMiU'r, Malherhe^ Fatm. Om. SiriL p. UW (1>^40). 
C'oanMiniia (SquataroU) muatanila, Middrnd. Jirisr ^'6ir., Zw//. 

p. MK pi. xix. tv. 1 (1^'>1 : «W). 
riinialiii aqiiatarola, Maajdl. Brit. //. iv. p. W^ (18.12). 
S|uaUroUi helvetica aiistralis, liricA^nb, (rraU. Aon'/, tab. 178. 

tiKB.2iM.H4 (1K.">2). 
SiuaUn>U wilM»Di, Lii'Mt. XomeMcl, Ar. Mm. liemL p. 5W> (1K>4). 
Charadriiu longinMHrin, lirekm, J, /. O, iKVl, p. 7U (Menzaluh 

l^e). 




Madag., Om. p. 410 ( iN^) ; Jiosenb. Malay. Arch. p. 278 (1878- 

7l#: iVltb««). 
Chanulriufi Taring FinM-h He Hart I. VOf/. (Mafr. p. W4 (1870); 

Ihmyi. tPrn. S.O.-Afr. ii. i»t. 1, p. I()i2 (187*:M. A]»p. p. clxxx ; 

Hriihen. J.f. O. l.**77, p. 11 (I«4Mii^ CoaM) ; MUnr-Edtrard* S^ 

tirandid. Hid. Sat. Mada^j., OiV p. .'lOlJ (1882). 
S|iiaUiri<la ^iibtridactvU {Hatmriq.), Gray, Hand-l. //. iii. p. 13, 

III*. ii»>l (1^71). 
(*hanMlriu4 (Sjiiatamla) helvoticun, HamMty, Pr. Linn. Sttr. .V. S. W. 

i. p. l'»7 (lf*7«»); id. itp. eit. ii. p. 1»7 (1^77) ; w/. Tah.LiM Austr, 

ii. p. li» (I'v^ : ii»*arh' the wln.le of AiMtmlin). 
('hara<inu« uifiralorhynrhufi. lirichrn. J.f. O. 1^77, p. 11 (I-»«»anjr«>), 
S|iiatan>la auj^tralii*. O/pAr-fr'aii. Cuntr. Faun^ Orn. Eur. Occid, 

imMc. xxix. p. (i (lv.10). 

Adult maU III brffdiiitj-plnmaije. Gonoral ct»lnur nl)ovo mottled 
« :ih bar« uf black ainl ;iiiiiy white*, tho feathers In^iii^ black, iiotchtKl 
wiih white* and bruadly tipiM*d with the latter : hCiipularH and winf?- 
oirrrta like the b:ick, the prn^attT series e<If?ed externally with 
whitr. the inner on«*M distinctly notched with the same; bastard- 
v.Dsr and primar>' -covert a black, the former Hli^htly. the latter more 
(Junly, tipficd with white ; quillN black, with the nhaft white alniut 
\Lm middlr, the tint two primaries white for the fn'eater {tort ion of 
thi- mnrf wrb, d«'creahinf( in extent on the succintlin^ quills, which 
ai»'jh«Te themixlian {wrtion of the shaft white, but alter the f«>urth 
thta white shaft ia a<f*nni|Hiiiii*<l by an inrn*asin); amount (»f white 
on th« outer web; M-condarie^ brown, with uhite ed:;es and ti|Ht, 
the haara al«o white to the inner webn ; innermtint s4»condarie8 
reannMiDff the iMck, and notehed with a*(hv brown and blackiah ; 
Ifjwer tj«ck and rump dunky brown, with white s|H»t*4 and frinf^ea to 
the* frsthera; Upper taii-e<ivert« and tail -feat hem white, barred with 
bb^k or bUckiah hniwn, the bars decreasing towanla the outer 
tethcTi, where thej are bruken up into spots on the outer web; 



188 CHASADBIID.fi. 

crown of head like the back, but more minntely mottled and more 
hoary white ; forehead and a broad eyebrow white, extending down 
the sides of the neck, and forming a large patch on the sides of the 
upper breast ; lores, sides of face, ear-coverts, and under surface of 
body black, excepting the abdomen and under tail-coverts, which 
are pure white ; thighs white, streaked with black ; under wing- 
coverts white ; axilla ries black, with slightly indicated fringes of 
brown at the tips ; quills below dusky, with white on the inner 
webs ; lower primary-coverts pale ashy : ^^ bill, legs, feet, and claws 
black ; iris dark hazel " {H, Seebohm). Total length 10*5 inches, 
culmen 1*3, wing 8*1, tail 2*9, tarsus 1*8. 

Adult female in breeding-plumage. Not so strongly mottled with 
black on the upper surface as the male, and consequently rather 
browner, especially on the head ; the black on the face and under- 
parts not so much developed, these parts being mottled with 
irregular black markings. Total length 11 inches, culmen 1*3, 
wing 8, tail 2*9, tarsus 1*8. 

Adidt in winter plumage. Di£fers chiefly from the summer 
plumage in wanting the black on the face and breast, but, from the 
absence of the black mottling on the back, the whole upper surface 
appears more uniform, being ashy brown with narrow whitish 
edgings to the feathers, before which is a blackish sub-terminal 
shade ; the lores are white, but the base of the forehead is like the 
crown ; a line of white appears above and below the eye, but the 
white eyebrow is scarcely visible above the ear-coverts, which are 
dingy blackish; the sides of the face white, streaked with dusky, the 
throat and underparts pure white, the lower throat and fore-neck 
being pale ashy brown, slightly mottled with dusky markings ; the 
under wing-coverts are white, except the lower primary-ooverts, 
which are dusky ashy, and the axillaries are hl/ick. 

Young. Like the winter plumage of the adults, and always to be 
distinguished by the black axillaries, though it is spangled with 
golden buff on the upper surface, so as to resemble a young Golden 
Plover (Charadrius pluvialis). 

Hah. Nearly the whole of the World, breeding in summer on the 
tundras or barren grounds, and visiting the extreme south of both 
the Eastern and Western hemispheres in winter. 

a. Ad. aestiv. sk. Great Britain. Gould Coll. 

b. Ad. aestiv. sk. Great Britain. Montagu Coll. 
e. Juv. sk. St. Andrew's, N.B., Nov. (-R. Tweeddale CJoll. 

O. W. R.). 

d, Juv. sk. GraDgemouth, Stirlingshire, Tweeddale ColL 

Oct. 

e. cf JUV. ek. Lincolnshire. J. H. Caton-Ilaigh, 

Esq. [P.l 
/, g. Ad. aestiv. ; Cambridgeshire (O. Salvin), Salvin-uodman Coll. 
A. Ad. hiem. ; 
». Juv. sk. 
k. cJ juv. sk, Yarmouth, Sept. 23. Seebohm Coll. 

Iftn. (S aestiv. sk. Yarmouth, May {J. E, Hart- Seebohm Coll. 

ing). 



23. BQUATAROLA. 189 

«. 2 i^^' >1k. PAgham Harbour, Oct. 15 Gould Coll. 

(J.E.JI.). 

o, (J Ad. : p, e. S Pa^rhiim Harbour, Aug. (J. Soebohm Coll. 

a«i. ■*j»Uv. t]u E, JL). 

r. 2 ad. i»k. Pa^rham Harbour, S^^pt. Dr. G iiDth.»r T]. 

«. Ad. asttiT. ak. Hriiftol. Monta^ni Colt. 

iTT[te of .V. yrUea^ Leach.) 

r. 9 i^* sativ. ak. St. Vi^rn, n«^ar Havre, May Seebohm ColL 

( r. IHuchr). 

K. (f ad. »atiT. ak. ValiMicia, May 10 (//. Saun^ Twceddale Coll. 

r 2 •d. ipMit. ikk. Mann-ro. KH'b<»bm Cj)11. 

•r, r. cf juv. »k. Helitrnlaud, Oct. (i?. 5. .S.). F. NichoUou, Enq. 

a • ■ 

jr. r r' ad. iPs«ltT.; I^wer IVtrhnra, Jun«', July Si'obolim Coll. 
«-c. 2a<l.a*»ti\. (//. S. & J. A, Jiarvif- 

Jirtfurn). 

d . Ad. hivm. fk. Ancobra UiTer, Gold Coast. Sir R. Durton & 

i 'apt. CnnifMD ^P.^, 

'. :f biem. ik. Walvim'h Bav, DHiuara-laiid Twevddale Coll. 

iK-c. iM {(\J. A.). 

r. :* ad. rix sMiv. AValvirtch IJay, Oct. (C.J. Soobohm Coll. 

•k. A.). 

y'. Ad. hi4*m. »k. Durban, N.ital (6'»W'/^). S*H»bihm Coll. 

k. Ad. hi«*m. fik. ('afx? (*olony (Liyan/j. Salvin-CitKloian Coll. 

• Ad. hit*iii. hk. <'h|»i' (\il.iiiy. Twei'ddali* Coll. 

i, / ^ ad. H'Miv. Fau, IVrbiiiu Gulf, Sept., Oct. W. D. Cuiunuug, 

& hifED.: ffi'-Juv. Ki»q. ' P.\ 
•k. 

■'."'. Jut. pk. Muscat. Colonel Mill* fP.\ 

// Ai. n-<tiv. •tk. luilia. Hard wirkt> Coll. 

y A«i a^tiv. !*k. India. (nmld Coll. 

r . J ,1% . hi-iu. Nk. K utrh, I W. lU { F. St^Jiczka). 1 1 unif ( \.ll. 

• Ja%. hi'-m. ftk. Kathtawar, Oct. 1*.). Colonial Haves Llovd 

.!•.;. • 

^ .« d J ad. bl«'m. Kjimrbi, March J<) (/;. A. Hume Coll. 

»k Itutlf-r). 

r y • ?ad.)ii«'in. Karachi. IVb. {A. 0. II.). Hume Coll. 

s " a*l a-tiv. ^k. SamMiur, Si»pt. (li. M. Hume C»)ll. 

m \ imm. liiwn. OiiruMiti, D'C. l!l ( H'. A*. Hunif (*oll 

rAi//». 

/ A ! hi»-m. i^k. Finwuh. I>ec. >* (.1. O. //.). Iluni«» Coll. 

'' J.iv hi*-m. ^k. N**|>fil. H<Nl;j'4(in Coll. 

./ • Ail »u.m -k. CaUMitta. 1>.t. iV {A. O. //.). liinn»«CnIl. 

• J n h.-m. .k. Madras (A*./; W. li). Tw-.-ddiil*' Coll. 
f •»d»Mn 'k. Mudnt-, .^ -pt. 1. HuiiHM'iill. 

y ^ *•! hiftn. -k. C«i]iitib>i, Ct>\lon, Nov. 1^) K. h. S.iarpe, Iv<k|. 

A A 1 h;.-fn. »k. S Aij.liituun^ l.b. 12 (//. ^•. Tw.-.«.id il»* C >11. 

i' . ». I. hi* 111 ^k. Tort .M lunt, .\ndiimnn!«, llumi* Coll. 

L , ad.hit-Ui ik. Tmt'h'H.. Huruiaby l)'.v. (A*. Twetd lale Cull. 



190 CHIBADRUDJB. 

f ', m", S ad. et Elephant Point, Dec. (J". Hume Coll. 

juv. hiem. sk. Armstroitg). 

n". $ ad. hiem. sk. Oyster Island, Dec. Oates Coll. 

o",/>". cjad.; y". J Amherst, Dec. ( ^. 2>ai;wo7f). Hume Coll. 

ad. hiem. sk. 

r"-u'\ $ ad. hiem. Jaram, Salangore, Dec. to Hume Coll. 

sk. Feb. ( W, />.). 

v'\ ? ad. hiem. sk. Pulo Nongsa, Nov. 27 ( W, Hume Coll. 

w". Ad. hiem. sk. Malacca (Dr, Maingay), Tweeddale Coll. 

x". Ad. hiem. sk. Java (ex Mus. Lugd,). Seebohm Coll. 

y", $ ad. hiem. sk. Cujo Is., Philippines, Dec. Tweeddale Coll. 

(A, B. Meyer), 

z", $ ad. sk. Placer, July (A. H. Everett). Tweeddale Coll. 

a', ^. Ad. sk. Halmahera. Wallace Coll. 

c^. Ad. hiem. sk. Labuan. A. H. Everett, Esq. 

[C.]. 

cf',e'. Ad. hiem. sk. Amoy,Oct., Jan. (R, Swinhoe). Seebohm Coll. 

/*. Ad. hiem. sk. Formosa, Feb. (JR. Switikoe), Seebohm Coll. 

g^, (S ad. hiem. sk. South Yezo, Oct. Tweeddale Coll. 

h^-k^. Ad. hiem. sk. Yokohama, Oct. {H, Fryer), St^ebohm Coll. 

P, m'. Ad. hiem. sk. Corea. C. W. Campbell, Esq. 

[P.]. 

»', 0*. Ad.sestiv.sk. Arctic America. Capt. Collinson [C.]. 

p^. Ad. ftstiv. sk. Arctic America (Col, Drum' Gould Coll. 

tnond). 

y", r*. 5 juv. sk. St.Michaers,Ala8ka,Sept.l6 Sal vin-Godman Coll. 

(E. W, Nelson: Memh, 

Coll), 

s^'V^. rj ad. cestiv. Kotlik, Mouth of Yukon Salvin-Godman Coll. 
sk. Kiver, May 20 (E. W, 

Nelson \ Hensh. ColL). 

vx^, Juv. sk. Fort Simpson, Sept. (R. Ken- Salvin-Godman Coll. 

nicott) . 

ar^. Juv. sk. Fort Kesolution, Great Slave Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Lake (A. McKenzie). 

y^. Juv. sk. Vancouver Island. J. K. Lord, Esq. [P. 

z^, rt*. Ad. hiem. et British Columbia. J. K. Lord, Esq. [P. 

juv. sk. 

6*. (S ad. hiem. sk. San Francisco, California, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Oct. \^(U.W.H.). 

c^-o^. (S $ ad.hiem. Corpus Cbristi, Texas, Aug., Salvin-Godman Coll. 
et sestiv. sk. Oct., Nov. (F. B. Arm- 
strong). 

«*. c? ad. hiem. sk. Tarpon Springs, Florida, Salvin-Godman CoU. 

Dec. \\(W,E.'D, Scoff). 

o*. 5 ad. hiem. sk. Cedar Key, Florida, Nov. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(I£ens/i. Coll.). 

r*. Ad. sestiv. sk. Mexico (TFAi^^). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

«*. Ad. hiem. sk. Chiapam, Guatemala (0. S.). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

t^. Ad. sestiv. sk. Barbados. Sir R. Schomburgk 

[C.]. 

M*. Ad. hiem. sk. Choco Bay. Capt. Kellett& Lieut. 

Wood [P.]. 

V*. Skeleton. Purchased. 

w*. Sternum. M. Lefebvre. 

a-*. Sternum. J. Ingall, Esq. [P.]. 



24. CHARADUrt. 101 

24. CHARADRinS. ^^ 

rkArmdriiUi, Limn. Sytt, Sat. i. p. 2'iS (17615) C. y\u\ iaIja. 

PluvUlU, /»ru#. Om, t. p. 42 (iriH)) C. plu\ialU 

Hitmfff, Nearly the whole of the world, excepting the extreme 
•outh of S>uth America. 

1. Ouuradriat pliiTudii. 

The Cfreen Plover. AUtin, \at. llUt. li, i. p. 71, pi. 7r> (17.V). 

1^ I1u\irr don's lirtM. (/m. v. p. 4.'*. j»I. iv. tijr. 1 ( IT^V) : jyAubrmf, 
Pi, AW. ix. pi. 1104 ; liufT. HtAt. Aaf. Ow. viii. p. >1 (17^I ). 

Chanulrius pltni«Ii'*. /4'nM. St/tkt, \at, i. p. i*o4 (17ti<)); dm, Stfut, 
Sat. L p. <>J^ ( IT'^^^r ; I'iriiL *V. />•</. d'Hi^t. AW. xxxii. p. flil, 
pi. 'M. ti^'. :J jI.**!?*); Triwrn. J/fiw. d'Orn. ii. p. .Ki."> (ISlHI); 
7^n.^ Or«. /'n^r. pU. 271. 'J7'2 (Im*^) ; U'mirr, Ath*, Courrur$, 
pi. 10 (1^l7); lirrMm, I'.*/. I>rutHM. p. .Via (ls;il): Mrttitr. 
rat. Kaif. Citur. p. .VI ( IStiM ; frW///. Ii. Eur. iv. ].l. 1»«.M (l?s*i7); 
/»/». C'»mp. LiAt B. Eur. A" .V. .-Iwirr. p. 4-'> (IKV**); Cretftun^ 
ihrn. fiartl, y. ;i.> (IMO) ; A>v^ J^ lilas. With. Eur, pp. Ixx. lH»K 
(1*^.>); A./n/w. in /Vwm/. r«>y. <fti/*i. .l/friV/. iii. p. TM ^1^40: 
»pnii)r Ac autumu) : Srlyi^lAmti<^h. Faun. liefy. p. llM (1M2: 
pyrinn k Autumn migrant); ^<*A/ry. Jirv. ('ri>. p. Uxxi (1M4); 
iiuAU. liritr. (Prn. (irit^hrnl. p. W (lS44); dray, Li*t (irall. lirit, 
Mu0. |». r-tl (1M4); Jiririt*. Egyti lirit. Ii. ii. p. 1>4!>. pi. Ixviii, 
liiT. 1 (lM<h; dray, fim. Ii. iii. p. r>l4 {\f^7); lilyth. Cat. Ii, 
Mum. Am. .V«c. p. "Jti'J (lK4J») ; TMomp*. Ii. Irri. ii. p. KJ ( IfsTO) ; 
Harcuurt, 1\ /. .V. I'^l. p. 146 (Canary I*.); lirrhm, J.f. O. 
1<>4. p. 7t»; liurytM, P. A. S. InV*. p*. M) (Karaohi); /W/p, 
J. /■- O. 1-.V», p. 176 (Canarr !»., wint«^r) ; Ileutfl. Stfut. Urher$, 
y.':^\ (WVi); Hartl. Om. lr«-*/---l/r. p. 2Vt {\<u: (Jalnxm) ; 
•/ffwA. J^r liarth.'I^njtttmm. liicA. iPrn. p. 44''> (1nVI»); Stiiciu, Ihi*, 
lN"il», p. IVi.** (Ciiv of Tunirt, F«*b., March): Limhrni. }\ty, 
(irtrrkrnl. p. LU (I'mXM ; Wattrr, Ihi», lH:t», p. llHl (UiKlhavn) ; 
Kiny*. /. r. p. :t;fi» |(\.rfu\ Kpiru-) ; /'. A- i*. (itiiman, Ihi*, iMil, 
p. ^li tNon»«y, May) ; .VA/rr/. //iVr. Sedrrl. }\>4frl*, |il. 1*1. tip*. l\.*j 
«WU); 7//ir>/. J.'fJK l^^ll*. p. lHi^» ((iab«Kin); Ar«7«//ii/i liarintf 
ti'»ul>r$ Icrlaml, y. 411 (MWJ) ; (irai/. IMt lirit. Ii. p. l:«Ml?^i.*i); 

/fim/i/. y/. at. lirit. iv. j.li*. :i^, ;fc» (In^ii; yvM/r. 7\ /. s. im^, 

p 4*i*> (l'alf!»liiie, winter); Writjht, Ihin, lH»4. p. 110 (Malta, 
»prii];r \' autumn) ; Sftertinif^ t. c. p. 2^( (Mii>(Mtlon^hi mar^h<1l, 
Not » : Sttirafi. J.f. O. lfM-.'>. p. I'M (Sardinia) ; (ii^t. Ihi$, IhW, 
p. .V.» (Pi*«, >Aint(-r); LHf*tnl^ Ihin, ImJO, p. 17h (S]iain) ; Taifl^r, 
Ihit, Wi7, p. r»N (AlfAHndria market) ; Jiaird, t. c. p. l'**2 ( Ice- 
land) ; iPralir, t. c p. 4JW (Tanu'ien*) : iMyant, li. S. Afr. p. itW 
(1»^J7 : I-amu. K. .Vfrira) ; Smith, lhi», l^W, p. 4.Vt (i*«rtupil); 
!sttundrr», Phm, IhRI, p. 17.'i (S|Hiin) ; liorifyr. \'*-jrlf. StmldrutaiM, 
p. lir.i (WKM; iMrrl. Arif. SicH. p. 174 (Na»: -|»rin>r & 
autumn); hr*»*tr, l\f*/r/ir. liorkum, p. 140 (l*^"*.*); I'insrk 4^ 
///irf/. r#iy/. 0»M/r. p. V4\'J (1h70: n..t«-) ; AVi/r* .V liucklty, 
pMB, KO*. p. ;j;i«) (MiuiMlonia) ; tiurnry, lUn, \^7\, p. 'Mi 
I Al|r»*hai; *Stiundrrf, t. r. p. li*^i (S. Sjiain) ; Sti/tad, Faun. Itnt^ 
i'rr. |i. Ilk J <l^71); A. ^Vay. //. HrMt Jindf. |i. I'.VJ (lh7I); 
hre%Mmr, Ii. Eur. \\\. p. Wi, pi. i51.V tijr. 1 (l^»7l): Harting^ 
Uamih lirit. It. p. 41' (1h7i»); d. (\ Taylor, Ihi*, 1h72, p. 2:'t2 
(CuititantiiicpU*) ; Shelley^ IS. Et^ypt, p. l'3.i (lh72: winter); 



192 CnABADRIIDJB. 

FeiMen, Zool 1872, p. 3245 (Faroe Is., March to Aug.) ; Ahton 8r 
Harme-Brown, Ibts, 1873, p. 67 (Archangel) ; Brooke t. c, p. 337 
(Sardinia, spring) ; Severtz. Ttarkest. Jevotn, p. 69 (1873 : mimnt); 
Saxby, B. Shetl. p. 167 (1874 : bi-eeding) ; Irby, Om. StraiU 
Gibr. p. 160 (1876) ; Fallon, Ou.,Belg. p. 160 (1876) ; Seebohm^ 
Harme-Brown^ Ibis, 1876, p. 221 (Lower Petchora) ; Dresaer, t. c. 
p. 327 ; Blanf, East, Persia, ii. p. 278 (1876 : Gwadar ; Reaht, 
Baluchistan) ; Tacz. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, ii. p. 164 (1877 : 
Poland, spring & autumn) ; Danford, Ibis, 1878, p. 33 (Asia 
Minor) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1879, p. 162 (Banks of Eooray-i-ka, June ; 
Var^-hinskv, Julj) ; Finsch, Verhandl. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxix. 
p. 243 (1879 : Shtschutschja, July ; Podarata, Aug.) ; Collett, 
Norges Fvglefavna, p. 106 (1881) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 222 
(Astrakhan) ; id. t. c. p. 388 (Archangel) ; id. Ibis, 1883, p. 28 
(Caucasus) ; B. O. U. List Brit. B. p. 167 (1883) ; Saunders, ed. 
YarreU's Brit. B. iii. p. 271 (1883) ; Chapman, Ibis, 1884, p. 98 
(Spain) ; Tristr. Faun. 8f Flor. Palest, p. 129 (1884) ; Badde, 
Om. Cauc. pp. 43, 412 (1884) ; Coues, Key N. Amer. B. 2nd ed. 
p. 600 (1884) ; Murray, Vertebr. Faun. Sind, p. 226 (1884) ; 
Sharpe, ed Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 667 (1884) ; Seebohm, Hist. 
Brit. B. iii. p. 86 (1886) ; Wldtehead, Ibis, 1886, p. 41 (Corsica) ; 
Dixon, t. c, p. 86 (St. Kilda) ; Reid, t. c. p. 262 (Marocco) ; Chigl. 
Avif. Ital. p. 369 (1886) ; Salvad. Elenco Ucc.Ital. p. 210 (1886); 
Pleske, Uebers. Sdug. vnd Vog. Kola-Halb. p. 320 (1886); 
Yerbury, Ibis, 1886, p. 20 (Aden, occasional) ; Backhouse, Ibis, 
1887, p. 74 (E. Pyrenees) ; Tait, t. c. p. 384 (Portugal) ; Koenig, 
J. f. 6. 1888, p. 270 (Tunis) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. 
p. 97 (1888); Buckley ^ Harvie-Brown, Vertebr. Faun, Outer 
jHebrides, p. 141 (1888: resident) ; Saunders, Man. Brit.B. p. 631 
(1889); LiJford, Ibis, 1889, p. 339 (Cyprus); Gigl. Avif. Ital., 
\st Besoc. p. 566 (1889), 2nd Besoc. p. 647 (1890), ^rdBesoc.Ta, 609 
(1891); W. Evans, Ibis, 1891, p. 79 (incubation) ; Buckley ^ Harvie- 
Brown, Vertebr. Faun. Orkney Is. p. 201 (1891 : resident) ; iid. 
Vertebr. Faun. Argyll ^ Inner Hebrides, p. 163 (1892) ; Irby, 
Key List Brit. B. 2nd ed. p. 47 (1892) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1892, p. 22 
(Heligoland) ; Hartert, t. c. p. 516 (E. Prussia) ; Bhauw, Notes 
Leyd. Mus. xv. p. 226 (1893 : HoUand) ; Barnes, Ibis, 1893, 
pp. 169, 181 (Aaen) ; Blagg, t. c. n. 356 (Shetlands, breeding) ; 
Pearson ^ Bidtvell, Ibis, 1894, p. 2S3 (Norway, breeding) ; Chap- 
inan, t. c. p. 344 (West Jutland). 

Charadrius apricarius, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 254 (1766, pt.) ; Pall. 
Zoogr. Basso- A Stat. ii. p. 14(5 (1811, pt.) ; Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. 
p. 641 (1831) ; KJarb. Danm. Fugle, pi. xxx. ^g. 6 (1862) ; Sundev. 
Sv. Fogl. pi. xxxvi. figs. 2, 3 (1866-72) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. 
p. 13, no. 9982 (1871) ; Hetigl. Om. N.O.-Afr. ii.pt. 1, p. 1014 
(1873 : Nile delta, winter) ; Palm&n, Finlands Foglar, p. 91 
(1873) , A.O.U. Check-l. N. Amer. B. p. 100 (1886 : Greenland) ; 
BidgiP. Man. N. Amer. B. p. 173 (1887) ; Olphe-Gall. Contr. Faun. 
Orn. Eiir. Occid. fasc. xiii. p. 12 (1890) ; Frivaldsky, Av. Hung. 
p. lin (1891). 

Charadrius aureus, P. L. S. Miill. S. N., Anhang,^. 118(1776: 
e.r Briss.) ; Bogd. Consp. Av. Imp. Boss.]). 71 (1884). 

Golden Plover, X«f//. Gen. *Sy??. iii. pt. 1, p. 193 (1785); Yarrell, 
Brit. B. ii. p. 385 (184:3) ; Graham, B. lona *$• Mull, p. 238 
(1890: resident). 

Charadrius auratus, Surkow, Nafnrg. der Thierc, ii. p. 1592 (1801) : 
Meyer ^ Wolf, Taschenb. ii. p. 318 (1810) ; Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. 



24. CHARADRIUS. 103 

p. MS (1831); JVaMifi. F*^. DeuUcMI, vii. p. 1.38, pi. 173 (1834) : 

ScML Vog. Sfdrrl. pi. 211 (18^>4). 
Charadriiui altifroiw, Jirehm, Vikj. I>eut$chi. p. &12 (1831). 
IMutsaIu apricarius, J>m. TraiU dOm. p. 54:3 (1831); Bp. Cat, 

Met. Uce, Eur. p. o7 (1842); irf. C. i?, xUu. p. 417 (186tt) ; 

Sckl. MmjL, PtiuM-Ba*, Cunores, p. 40 ( 1865 : Holland, Sweden, 

ArchanH); ^'- ^ derbe, ()m, Eur. ii. p. 123 (18(57); Loehe^ 

EvpL Sci. Afy^r., OU. u. p. 262 (1867); Fritick, lUg. Ewr. 

Ub.37. Hgt. 1,2(1870). 
PluvialU aurea, MacyUL Brit. B. It. p. 04 (1852). 

Adult maU in fn^t^ling-phiniage. General colour above mottled 
with black, golden -buff, and ashy-whituh markings ; the ground- 
colour of the feathers black, with Kpots of golden buff, the whitish 
•poC4« Uung mo«(tly at the tip«(, and probably only the remains of 
winter plumage ; the sc^ipulant and wing-coverts more distinctly 
DoCrhcd and barred with golden, the lateral marks being often 
triangular and of irreguKir sha|)0 ; lenser wing-coyert8 brown, with 
Ter%' little golden mottling, the median and greater series like the 
bark, and diitinctly mottled with golden and black in the form of 
fn-4|uent bars ; bastard-wing, primar}'-coverts, and quills dark 
bruwn. fringefl uith white at the endn, the secondaries with 
ioc<>n*picuou^ whity-hrown bases ; the innermost notched or barred 
with gulden : lower back, rump, and upper tiil-coverts like the rest 
of the uppt*r surface, but mthcr more pLiinly barred with golden ; 
tAil-feathent bruwn, barred with lighter brown or golden, the outer 
fmther;* externally notched with wliite, the light bars tinged with 
golden; head like the Kick and similarly mottled with golden; 
a fr»utal band and a dintinct eyebrow white, extending down the 
udt^ cif the neik and joining the white along the sides of the body ; 
Lam* (»f forehead, loren, sides of face, ear-eoverts, and throat 
•m 'k) blick ; o-ntre of fore-neck, bnMMt,and abdomen deep black, 
fijir.kt^d with white for its entire length ; the golden and black 
tiluiiiogv of the kidt*!« of the neck descending on to the Hide* of the 
br* i-t . thigh-^ black ; under tail-coverts white, marke<l with black 
Ob *.)if T«-nt ; under wing-<:overts white, mottU'd with ashy brown 
r>i jiid the l^nd of the wing; axill:iries y»iirc whitf \ quills ashy 
bri'W. a^ alio the lower primar} -coverts : ** bill, legs, feet, and 
cl\»» rxMrly blu k : iric dark hazel*' {II. Sf(f>ohm). Total length 
1«» tnrhe**, <ulmen 1, winj: 7'4.'), tail 2*0, tarsuit 1-6. 

AtiuU femtih in ffre^limj-phwuifff. Similar to the male, but 
ury»T having the black ho uniformly distributed on the breast, but 
ai«a>- in |iatehe». Total length lo inches, wing 7'4. 

}'v*tfut IN Jirtt u'inter pJuuuuje. Similar to the adults*, but much 
coff j'lt-fitifully n|Mngle<l with golden, the crown of the he;idsome- 
ah»' Uai-ker ; thnuit white; lower throat, fore-neck, and breast 
k,»K) tfr«fwn, mottled with {mle golden-buff edgim and Imrs, the 
fr.«t>.*r* on the lower thmat and foro-mK*k being mottled with 
trLAfip'uIar •\ttt\i^ of dunky brown ; the breast and sides of tik* 
U>h a*h\ brown, with duskv-brown )»ars ; alxlomen and under 

^•'1. HIT. O 



194 



CHAKASBIIDiB. 



Tnng-ooverts white, the enter ones round the bend of the wing 
mottled with brown ; lower primary-coverts ashy brown ; axiUaries 
white. 

Nestling, Thickly covered with golden down, mottled with black, 
which scarcely forms any distinct patterns ; on each side of the 
back is a streak of ashy-whitish down, and tiie wings are marked 
i>y a golden patch, the lores and eyebrow being emphasized by a 
spot of bright golden yellow ; below the eye a spot of ashy whitish, 
of which also there are certain markings on the hind-neck and sides 
of neck ; cheeks and under surface of body ashy whitish, with a patch 
of dusky blackish underlying the down of the breast. 

Hab, Europe generally, extending to Western Siberia and 
migrating south in winter to North Africa, and even extending as 
far east as Sind. 



a-^. PulL sk. Europe. 

d. Ad. hiem. at. Ballynacuick, Ireland. 



e. Ad. festiv. 

sk. 
/. S Ad* assdv. 

sk. 
g. S ad. hiem. 

h. PulL sk. 



Orkneys. 

Clestron, Orkneys, May 27. 

Stromness, Orkneys. 

Bridge of Broiivar, Stennis, 
Orkneys (J, H, Ihtnn), 



i. PulLsk. 
kyl PulL St. 
m, S ad. hiem. 

sk. 
n, o. Ad. ffistiv. Beauly Castle, N.B. 



Orkneys (Hubbard). 

Orkneys. 

Idand of Tiree, Jan. 16. 



Gould Coll. 

C. Coningham, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Hargitt ColL 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Purchased. 
Colonel Irby [P.]. 



St 

j>, Q, Ad. hiem. 



sk. 



Lord Lovat [P.]. 
WhitehiU, N.B. {R, O, W, E.). Tweeddale ColL 

Tweeddale ColL 



r. Ad. hiem. sk. Isle of Grain, N.B., Sept 

(J2. Q. W. R.). 
s. Ad. nstiv. st Northumberland, May. 
/. Imm. sk. Newbiggin, Northumberland, 

Aug. 
1^. $ ad. hiem. Teesmouth, Durham, March. 

sk. 
VfW, c^ $ ad. Yorkshire. 

sBstiv. st 
JL\ Ad. flsstiv. sk. White Pass Moss, Derbyshire, Salvin-Godman ColL 

June (O. S.). 
y, «. d 5 ad. Dlceby, Lincolnshire, March, 

hiem. et asstiv. Jan. (/. Cordeaux), 

sk. 
a'. cJ ad. hiem. Breydon Harbour, Norfolk, 

sk. Oct. {J. E. Hearting), 

b\ c'. Ad. hiem. Harwich, Jan. 28. 

sk. 
^', e\ Ad. hiem. Epping, Essex. 

St. 



Harting Coll. 
Hume ColL 

Hume Coll. 

Lord Walsmgham 



Seebohm Coll. 



Seebohm Coll. 



H. Whitehead, Esq. 

[P.]. ^ 

H. Doubleday, Esq. 

[P.]. ^ 



34. CH&BAOUO. 



195 



y-k. cf td. 


Sbelley Plain, Suskz, April. 


bi^m. ; r. 9 




Ri!. bi«*iii. nk. ; 




k. Ad.hiem. 




p4. 




/, w'. rf mL 


Bodji, NorwRv, Mav to July 


■■«tiv. : n',o'. 


{P. GiMimak), 


9 «d. MtiT. 




•k. 




^'. PtUl. nk. 


Dorref jeld. N- irwav, July. 


*k. 
r'. Ad. a^iT. tk. 


KiHtimad, Norway, June. 


Rumia. 


/. f . Ad. sttir. 

«k. 
M Ad. ff «tjT. nk. 


ArcbangeL 


Arrhan^'I, Juno (Ahton), 


r. ^ id. c«UT. 


IVtcbora. 


•k. 




m 2 ad. »*tiv. 


StninAvc)ila<*ba, l/ower Pet- 


•k 


chora, Jum* :28. 


.• . £ ftd. »«tiv. 


Scbt-chutM^ha, July 35 (Z)r. 


^ 


O. Fintich ). 


y I*uU. Ilk. 


Tundra (if i\idarata, Aug. /> 




(/>r. 0. /iii«cA). 


x.n' ^ ad. 


Yen-«-!*ai, June, July (H, &). 


»«tiv.: h'\ 9 




4<i. »«tiv. tk. 




€ ,4 •• ad. 


Yfn-«*-*ai, June, July (H. 


•••tjT. ; r' . 9 


Sefbokm). 


^i. tt^W. Ilk. 




/ ^ ad. birm. 

• • 

•k 
f ' ad. bif m. 

•k 
k A ) birai. 

-k 
r i ft«i. bif in. 


Heligoland, Ocu 


IltfligoUnd, Sept 30. 


Oalicia. 


Oudena. TuniH. Feb. IH (0. 8.). 


k . a.i. bifOi. 


Triptili {hickmm ^ A^m). 


r ^ '.d bif IB . 


WiidernfAfi of Jud«a. 


■4 

• ^ ad. bim. 


(f wadar, BalucbisUn, Dec. 


•• 
■ 1 ad. bivn. 
•k 
"•k^-lHon. 


Hf bwan, Sind, Jan. 27. 


Knirland. 



Dr. R. B. Shaipa 



Salvin-Oodman OoU. 



(lould CoU. 
Seebubm CoIL 

Old Coll. 

Dr. R B. Sbarpe 

[P.''. 

Colonel Feilden k 
J. A. Ilarvie- 
Jiriiwn, Eaq. [P.], 

Seebobm CoU. 

Oeogr. Soc Bremen. 
CleoiH'. Soc Bremen. 
Seebobm ColL 

Twi>edda)e ColL 

Seebobm Coll. 

F. Nicbolaon, Em. 

[P.J. 
Dr. \. Seoaoe [P.]. 

Salvin-Cf odman ColL 

Seebobm CoU. 

Canon Triatram [C.]. 

W. T. lUanfoid, Eaq. 

[P.\ 
Ilum«^Coll. 

Salvin-Oodman CoU. 



'2. Charadriof domimeiu. 

Tbf Spoitod PloTer. Ed^rard*, Nat Hid. B. iii. pi. 140 ( ITfjO). 
1^ llovifT dor^ dr S. J^iimingUf, lirisa. On. v. p. 4^, pi. vi. flg. 1 

1 1700). 
Lt inunrr dor^ do la Baye de Hudaon, Bri$$. Om, v. p. 61 (1700). 

o2 



106 CBAVLADBITDM, 

Charadiios apricarius, Linn Sy$t. Nat, i. p. 254 (1766 : pt.) ; Gm. 
8yst, NatX p. 687 (1788). 

Charadrius dominicus, P. L, 8. MuU. Syst, Nat, Anhang, p. 116 
(1776 : S. Domingo) ; Cass. Proc. PhUad. Acad. 1864, p. 246 ; 
A.SfE. Newton, Suandb. Jamaica, p. 115 (1881) ; Coues, Check-l. 
N. Amer. B. p. 96 (1882) ; Bean, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. v. pp. 164, 
173 (1882 : Icy Cape) ; Steams, op. cit. vi. p. 119 (1883 : Fox 
IsL, Lewis Sound) ; Nelson, Cruise It.S, Corwin, p. 84 (1883 : 
Alaskan Coast) ; JSaird, Brewer, 8f^ Bidffw. Water-Btrds NAmer. 
i. p. 139 (1884) ; Coues, Key N. Amer. B. 2nd ed. p. 599 (1884) ; 
ifutcher, ^uA:, i. p. 179 (1884 : Long Island) ; Drew, Auk, li. p. 18 
(1885 : Colorado) ; Agersb. t. c. p. 285 (S.E. Dakota) ; Murdoch, 
Exped. Point Barrow, Alaska, v. 100 (1885) ; Turner, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus. viii. p. 246 (1885 : Labrador) ; Seton, Auk, iii. p. 152 
(1886: Manitoba, spring & autumn) ; A, O. U. Check-l. N. Amer.- 
B. p. 161 (1886) ; Wells, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. ix. p. 627 (1886 ; 
Grenada) ; Nelson, Pep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, p. 123 (1887) ; 
Beckh. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. x. pp. 642, 654 (1887 : S.W. Texas); 
Gigl. 4- Salvad. P. Z. S. 1887, p. 585 (Olga Bay, Corea, Sept.) ; 
Itidgw. Man. N. Amer. B. p. 174 (1887) ; Lloyd, Auk, iv. p. 186 
(1887 : West Texas) ; Cory, t. c. p. 227 (Antilles, winter) ; Scott, 
Auk, Ti. p. 159 (1889 : Piinta Rassa) ; Feilden, Ibis, 1880, p. 490 
(Barbados) ; Cory, B. West Ind. p. 227 (1889) ; Scl. ^ Huds. 
Argent. Om. ii. p. 170 (1889) ; Eagle Clarke, Auk, Tii. p. 321 

51890 : Hudson's Bay) ; Ckerrie, t. c. p. 332 (Costa Rica) ; Warren, 
3. Pennsfflv. 2nd ed. p. 98 (1890) ; Thompson, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. xiii. p. 506 (1890: Manitoba); Mackay, Auk, viii. p. 17 
(1891 : Massachusetts) ; MacFarl. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xiv. 
p. 429 (1891 : Arctic America) ; Berl. ^ Stolz. P. Z. S. 1892, 
p. 399 (Peru) ; Berkeley James, New List Chilian B. p. 11 
(1892) ; Scott, Auk, ix. p. 14 (1892 : Jamaica), p. 212 (Florida) ; 
Attwater, t. c. p. 232 (San Antonio, Texas) ; Cherrie, t. c. p. 329 
(Costa Rica, Oct. to Dec.) ; Cory, Cat. West Ind. B. p. 94 (1892) : 
Chapm. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vi. p, 90 (1892: Trinidad). 

Le Pluvier dor^ ^ gorge noire, Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. p. 85 (1781). 

Alwargrim Plover, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 198 (1785 : pt.). 

Fulvous Plover, Lath. t. c. p. 211. 

Charadrius fulvus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 687 (1788) ; Gren/, List 
Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 67 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 544 (1847) ; id. 
Cat. B. Trop. Is. Pacific Ocean, p. 47 (1859) ; Cass. Proc. Philad, 
Acad. 1862, p. 321 (Liu-Kiu Is.) ; Finsch ^ Hartl. Faun. Central- 
polyn. p. 188 (1867) ; Hartl. ^ Finsch, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 117 
(Pelew Is.) ; Finsch 8c Hartl. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 548 (Tonga Is.) ; 
Doderl. Av\f. Sicil. p. 175 (1869) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc N. H. 
xii. p. 304 (1869 : Oahu, Molokai) ; Finsch ^ Hartl. J. f. O. 
1870, p. 122 (Tonj^tabu ; Vavao ; Hapai) ; HaHing, Ibis, 1870, 
p. 205; Gray, Hand-l B. iii. p. 14, no. 9985 (1871); Sicijih. 
P. Z. S. 1871, p. 403 ; Dresser, B. Eur. vii. p. 443, pi. 516, pi. 517. 
figs. 2, 3 (1871); Wald. Trans. Zool Soc. viii. p. 88 (1872: 
Celebes) ; Hartl. ^' Finsch, P. Z. S. 1872, pp. 89, 104 (Mackenzie 
Group); Holdsw. t. c. p. 470 (Ceylon); Fimch, J.f. O. 1872, 

&52 (Samoa); Wald. ^ Layard, Ibis, 1872, p. 105 (Ncgros, 
arch); Wald. Ibis, 1873, p. 316 (Andamans) ; Swinh. t, c. 
p. 427 (Shanghai) ; Tacz. J.f. 0. 1873, p. 101 (E. Siberia) ; BuJler, 
B. New Zeal. p. 212 (1873) ; Hunie, Nests ^ Eggs Ind. B. p. 570 
(1873) ; id. Str. F. i. p. 228 (1873 : Larkhana, Sindh) ; id. t c. 
p. 462 (Acheen, Sumati*a) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 313 ( 1874) ; 



24. CHARADBirt. 197 

Tofz. J. /. O. 1874, p. 836 ; Huttan, M$, 1874, p. 89 (New 
Z<«Und): ^vZ/rr, ^ c. p. 118; StrinAoe, t, e, p. 162 (Ilakodadi) ; 
/fwifu*, .Vfr. f. ii. p. 2^4 (ls74 : Andamans); Saltad, Amn. Mum. 
(ienot, vii. p. 798 (1876) ; Hlytk j- Wald, B. Surm,p. Ii53 (1876: 
Thav^tmvo, Tonjrhoo); //wifu-, 6Yr. /'. iii. p. 179 (1876: Pega) ; 
Fin»ch^ Juunt. Mu*. (S^ideffr. viii. p. 81 (1876 : Pdew lafaumi) ; 
^%'a^d, TrnnM. '/jiutl Stx:. ix. p. 226 (1876: Luion) ; SMarpe. Vov. 
Erth, if Trrr., liinh, App. p. 2J> (1876 : N. Z.) ; Irhy, Om. Stra&M 
fiihr, p. 161 (1H76) : L^, IhU, 1876, p. 400 (Cevlon); Dre9$er. 
/. c. p. 618 (Great Britain) ; Lattard, P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 440 (FHi 
In. I : iiMarjw, Ihu, 1876, p. 61 (1V)rneo, Oct) ; Tristr, t. e, p. 264 
I New n.'bridet): I^tfanL t.c v. 393 (Fiji Is.) ; id. P. Z, S. 1876, 
i». 41C (Samoa), p. rm (Friendly !».); Cab. ^ Reiehen, J,f. O. 
K76. p. 327 (Samoa) : Sairad. Atm. Mw. Genov, Tui. p. 884 (1876 : 
li<»uni) : liriinyeni. Ahhandl, nat. IVr. Bremen ^ v. p. 686 (1876: 
4Vl«»b»w); Butler * J fume, Str. F, iv. p. 11 (1876: \. Gaxerat); 
Frtirh. t.c. p. 2*J2 (l)««ccan); Artnttrong^ t.c. p. 839(Akyab); 
Hume, t. f. p. 462 (Laccadirw) ; Tacz. Bull. Soc. ZooL Franee, L 
p. 247 {\H7fi): Butler, Str. F. v. p. 2:^2 (1877: Karachi); BaU, 
t. c. p. 419 ((t<Hlaverv) ; SMarjte, Jtmrn. Linn. «Si9C., ZooL xiii. 
p. .VM (1^77: Port Mowbv); Mat. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 118 (Duke 
«»f Y.»rk I»l.); Salrad. Ann. Mum. Gen. x. p. UW (1877); TaCM, 
Bull. SiK'. Z0tol. France, ii. p. 165 (1H77: Poland, Nov.); PH99, 
im Hituiey'tt (>m. Miec. iii. p. 4-'l4 (lH77 : S.E, Mon^lia, Mat ; 
II(«inir-ho Vallov, April: Northt^m AU-fthan, Sept.; Lake 
Ilauka, Aujr.) : lian'd i (hint. OiV Chine, p. 424 (1877) : Streets, 
American S'aturnliAt, 1^77, p. 71 (Christmas Isl., Fanning Group); 
Tu^^d. Ihin, H77, p. .$22 (Sumatra): IVanllaw Ramsay, t.c 
p 4*W (lUirma): Ttreedd. P. Z. S. 1^77, p. 660 (ZambcMUiga) ; 
////i/tm/. a- Prvrr, Ihi*, lH7H. i». 21H (Yeio: Tokio ; Yokohama) ; 
/.* L. .V L. C iJtyanI, t. c. p. 2tW (NV w Caledonia. br»»*Miinjr): Salvad, 
P. /. S. 1^78. V h2 (AmlMMna) : Hume ^ iMrimm, Str. F. vi. 
p. 4-V» (Ih7»*: Tt*iiai«M*rini ) : Iktritlmn Jj* Wendett,Str. F. vii. p. 88 
I \^7** : iMcran) : Hall, t. c. p. 22*J ((«anjre*to Godaver^*) ; Crtpps^ 




p 14 il>uk«? of \ork 1*1.) : S.l<it. t. c. p. 447; Salixid. Ann. Mum. 
G^n. xiv. p. ♦«:» (1H79»: Mriter, Ihi^t, 1^79, p. 146 (Tojrian In.); 
Tiniut, Bull. CfPm. rt Af/rir. (\^hinchine, (8) i. p. 147(1879); 
Hum^, Str. F. \iii. i.j.. r.l*. \\\\ (l>i79: Malav IVninMuU), p. 112; 
>^tlly,t. c. p. ;tV) (Nrpal VallfV. S»i»t. k Ok.) ; Sharf»e, P. Z. S. 
K^y, p. JVM) (IjibiiAn): Mannnrd, B. Ea*t. A'. Amer. p. 868 
J I -791 : .Sefhohm, Ihi*, 1879.* p. 26 (Japan); Gittke, t.c.y. 104 
Mlrlitroland) ; E. L. A- J,. (\ JxtynnI, t. c. p. 107 (N«'W Caleiiunia); 
St^^^km. t. c. p. 16.S ( Ko<>-mv-i-ka, Siljena); Sh/ir/>e, t. c. p. 270 
. I-aww IL> ; Irhy, t. c. p. .146 (MaLntra) ; liutler. Cat. B. S. Bomb. 
P»*: p. 72 M-^H); wini«r) : Finnch, Ibis, lHH(). p. 79 (Honolulu^ 
JiiU); id. t. r. pp. 2-3). .'(.'to 82 (Mamhall U.), p. 4:{2 (Kinfr^ 
mill r;r,»up. (iilbert !•): E. L. Sc L. C. Layard, t. c. p. 282 
ibiraltv U.), p. 801 <N.w II<*brid(*«) ; I^fyc, Ii. Cn/hn, p. 984 
• ln*^)i;' yidml,Str. F. \\. p. 79 (Ihh(): .<*K.mkHn); Binyham^ 



t r. p. 196 iThounirvt-n NalU'V); Butler, t.c. p. 426 ; Parker. 
I e. p. 4«2 (CVylnri) ;' Tu^dd. r«#v. * ('hallenyer,' ii. Birds, p. 28 
il'v*!: ZamHcMOira, Mindanao): Salcad. t.c. n. fCi (Amboiua); 
Mefer. I'erk. 1.4. yst. Uien, 1881, p. 767 (Sumba) ; Beid, Utr. F. 



24. CHABADRIUt. IW 

Epong^ Ares HawaiitmU, pt. iiL (1892) ; Lnge^ Proe. Augtr. Assoc, 
Adwmc, Sci, 1892, p. 32 (TMouuiia, Oet.-March) ; Irby, Key List 
Brit. B, 2iid ed. p. 47 (1^-^) ; Harti, AhlL not, Ver. Bremen^ 
ziL p. :i;{l (IlAiDAD, Dec.) : Wiglesw. Abhandl, ZuoL Mus. Dresd. 
18110-91. no. 0, p. H3 (l»n2) ; Seedokm, IbU, 1893, p. 53 (Liu Klu 
U ) ; WigUsw. t, c. p. 213 (Gilbert Is.) ; Hose, t. c p. 424 (Borneo, 
winter) ; iityan, t. c. p. 430 (Hainan) ; BothsdkUd, Avtf. L^san^ 
Pt. i. p. 11 (1893) ; Meyer ^ Wigletw. J.f. O. 1894, p. 250 (ttlaut 

Mbatuitui pecbo li«tado, Asara, Apunt, iii. p. 283 (1803). 

Mbatujtui de marmol, Aiara, t c. liL p. 286. 

Cbaradrius pluvialis (wee Z.), PiaiL iaogr, Jtosso-Asiat. iL p. 141 
(IHII) ; HUsuH, Amer. Om, ril p. 71, pi. 59. fig. 5 (1814 : New 
York : New Jcrw?, Sept, Oct) ; Hor^, Trams, Linn, 8oe. ziii. 
p. 187 (1820: Java) ; E, Sabine in Parr^s Voy,, Am. p. czciz 
(1821: N. Iteorgian Ia,^ breeding); id. in FrankMs Jcmm. 
p. 6k3 (1823 : N. Georgian Is.) ; Riekardmm in Parry s ^nd Voy,, 
App. p. 3oO (1825) : / C. Ross in Porrys Srd Voy,, App. d. 102 
(le<2«t: Port l)ow«n, May); 8wains. Faun, B<»r,'Awur,, Birds, 
p. 3»K» ilKH: lludMm*s Baj); Jfykes, P. Z. 8, 1832. p. 106 
(l>eccan) ; SuttaU, Man.Om. ii. p. 16 (1836) ; Viyors in Beeekey's 
Voy. * BliMsum; Birds, p. 29 (1839 : Cbamiseo la, Sept.) ; Ho4f9. 
Icon, ined, in Brit, Mus,, QraU, pis. 53, 96, nos. 535, 536; id, in 
Grays Zoo/. .Misc, p. 86 (1844) ; Peale, U,8, Erpi, Erped, p. 239 
(](^) ; .yiddend. Beis. Siln'r,, ZooL p. 210 (1851 : Taimrr Riyer, 
Mar : Boganida [71'' NJ, Aug.); KtttL Denkw. Beis, u. pp. 82, 




Ypanema; Curytiba; Cuyaba; Villa Maria; Engenbo do C^p 
Gama: liarra); Sclat, Ibis, 1871, p. 360 (Sandwicb IsUnds); 
Adams, Ibis, l^:^ p. 437 (Micbalaslu, MaT). 

i*bar«driui» pe<UiralU {Hee}Va9l,),VieiU, N, Diet, dTHUt, Nat. zzrii. 
p. 145(1M1HK 

i*baradnu» pluvialis. Tar., BaJI., Trans, Linn, Soc. xiiL p. 828 
[\t*Ji): Sumatra). 

<'biiradnu4 virvnuicu««. Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 70 (182:) : Montevideo) ; 
y*^ti'ie*l, Betfr. Sattiry. Bras. iT. p. 761 (1833 : Brasil) ; Meyen, 
AoM AHh Acad. <\ L'C. xri. Suppl. p. 106, pi. 18 (1^5*4: 
S. Am. rira) ; dray. List GraU. Brit. Jius, p. 67 ( 1844) ; id. Cat, 
Mamm. ^c. Sepal prc$. JIudys. p. 132 (1)^46); liartL Ind, Azara, 
p. 24 <1K47) ; fA^jr, B. Jauuiica, p. :i33 (1847) ; Gray, Gen. B. 
111. p. .V44 (1H47); Blyth, Cat. H. Mum. Ai. ^Sm*. p. 262 (lH4i): 
TakutU); LicJU. XomeHct. Ac. Mus, Bervl. p. 9.> (18^^); MotL 
4r iMUw. C»mtr. Sat. Hut Labuan, p. 57 ( IrtW) ; Gundl. J.f. O. 
KVJ. p. 423 (Cuba, S.pt. to Ajiril) ; Bainl, B. S. Amer. p. 690 
I K>» ; Sclat. ir Sale. Ihis, \K'AK p. 227 ( Duenan, April) ; A.^E. 
.St^wt t. c. p. 2.'i5 (Si. CY.ix) ; Co^pper 4- iluckley, S. H. Waskiny- 




Ih^taer, Ihis, 1«56, p. ;W (IVxai*) ; iJot. Ois. Trinidad, p. 394 
1 iNi #1, , .v/. /'. /. .V. IH*17. p. 3.U (Chili) ; id, J(- .Wr. P. Z, S, 
iNfHi.p .V«N ((;«j«iiitiata, r«ni) ; JMti 4r Bann. Trans. Chic. Aemd. 
\ p. 2H!* iWli: St. Micha.-r«); Finsek, V. /. .V. 1870, p. 587 
I rrioailadN Metros, V.H, Geot. Hurv. Terr. 1»70, p. 465 (Rock 
i;Mb, Wyuoung) ; Gray, Uand4. B. iii. p. 14, no. 9983 (1871) 



24. CHARADBIUt. 201 

nariftlit xanthocheilufl, lip. t. r. p. 417. 

IMurialiii uiteDsiK, Up. t. c. p. 417. 

('haimdniu moiiK«>licui»(rM-r in//.), lilakUt. Ihui, 1802, p.:i:)0(IIako- 
dftdi). 

(*handriu» lon^ripeii, Trmm. Afn*. iMgd. ; Blfwiu*^ I hut, }(^2, p. 71 
(lUllKoUiMi) : Cas*. I'ror. PhUad. Acad. 18tJi>. p. 321 (Ifcnin Is.); 
!iMUt. IhU, 1H4», p. UK) (IlAknaadi); SirinM. t. c. p. 404 
(FunnoM, bret^dii^r); Sri, V. Z. S. \H\A, p. 17 (lianjamuuisiiig); 
Wriykt, IbU, 1NV4, p. 141 (Malta) ; Hartl t. c. p. 2;J2 (Fiji U) ; 
Jeni. n. Imi. iii. p. 4VkJ {\^^^) ; Sirinh. Ihis. lH«r>, p. 8M 
(Takow) : U'ritfAt, t. c. p. W2 (Malta) : StrinA. Ihi$, mjft, p. 1^4 
(FnnnoM, July): lilyth. This, 18lV7, p. IC*): liearan, Ibu, 1868, 
p. :iK» (JulpipN'rie) I Swi'mM. IhU, ISTO, p. :jiK) (Hainan) ; Bta^f. 
i. c. p. 470 (ItiiN**-in dUtr.. l\v»»^ : ^'^thrw-Aujitrn, J. A. S. Bene, 
xxxii. p. 27a (1870: Kha*ia Hill-): Blanf. op. cit. x\. p. 209 
(1^71: Wanlha VallfV: not oWrved): (fray, Iland-i. B. UL 
p. 14, no. !n*K| (1S71) ;'i/Mrfu* * Hrnden. Jjahort to Yark. p. 284 
^1^73: Yarknnd, .\u#r.) : ^VrAriAwi, /&w, lh77, p. 105 MMi|ro- 
Ud*1): Bamjuitf, Phh-. Linn. Sue. X. S. W. i. p. 7rt (1S77: Fiji 
In.), p. 21'* (N. S. W.): iii. i^K cit. ii. p. 1<>7 (1H7'<); MHUer, 
J. f. O. 1Kh2, p. H2 (.'^alanga) ; Murray, Vertc/fr. Faun, <Smi, 
p.224(lsK4). 

IMuviali^ fulviiA am«*ricanu^ ScMl. Mu*. Payjt-Ban, (^urflorcn, p. 58 
I !'*•»'»: I^bradi'r: M«'\iro : Ven«*ziiela : limzil). 

4 'haradriurt orifUtnli-, ^r «#«/*/, Handh. Ii. Au»tr. ii. p. 22'> (1865); 
Miutrr*, /V^. Linn. s.h . S. S. W. \. p. «J0 (lH77 : Cocoanut Id. ; 
('ftp- (in*u\illf: lk*t IkI.). 

Chamdnu!! pluvial:* americanu^, Smtdrr. (Kfv. JW.-Akad. Fork. 
l-MK*, p. 'ff^ «>t- IWrthiditnifW), p. ta>2 (Porto llicn). 

i'hmndriu* fuhus var. \ir«'iniru*, C»nt^0, AVy X. Amer. B. p. 248 
{\<'2) : ir/. B. X.'H'rMt, p. 440 (K4). 

(*baradriu« iiliivinli!*, \Hr. \irp'inicu>, lAiwr. Ann. Zy. A'.}', x. p. 888 
<1*»74 : Illin.ii-*). 

(*hanMiriu« ful^u* xir^nin*-!!". C^um, But/. f'.S. (Sroi. Surr. iv. p. 608 
(!•»:•• : M'.ii*^ 1!., iNik-.tai ; Jlartl. J.f. O. l^^'J. p. 27H (Purtage 
IU\. \la*ka« Jun»% July). 

i'Kar.idnu* •i>tniii!i'u« fiihii*, Uidqw. VrfC. f'.S. Xnt. .Vmj«. iii. p. 108 
il«^"H)i: tuMrM.CJi^'/.'/. y. Amrr. //. p. l»ti ( l^rtiM : XrUnn^Ouvie 
US 'CrtrinJ' II. M (I **•<?: N«irt4in S«iund) : Buird, lir^trer, J^ 
Byi'jM-. H'titrr-iiinl* .V. Amrr. i. p. l44 (l^i**!); f'*M^<. A>y 
.V. Am^r. Ii, 2iid -ti. I.. .V,Hi (|-«*4i : Strin. Unit. f\S. S,tt. Mum. 
D ■ 2'.», p. PU il**"^"*: jW rinj: Kl » ; lururr, Auk\ ii. p. lo? (1^85: 
NiMfr I-l.. AU-kii) : .1. O. T. (A^rA-/. .V. .-Ii/irr. B. p. ir.l (1?^») ; 
Byii/u. .Man. \. Amrr B p. 174 (l'^-*7>: Stfjn. Pr^pc. !\S. Xat. 
Mum ui. p. :>*i (I'^-O: Kauni). 

( 'harailrr.i* fitUut niii«*rit*Anii«, S^r/f*thm, (ir^mjr. Dittr. Charadr, 
p. 1U» ,l-«^-». 

AduH Milfr III hrtrdiiyj'plutiunjf. Similar to i\ jtfntitdit, but 

•iDi!l«r. mith <»l«-iid«'n'r t.ir«i. and di<«tin:nii<*h4*d hv it^ ««ninkv-1in)wn 
aii'-iri'-a: " bill dark olivr ; f«-<*f l(Md«-n iZTvy : iri«. d:irk brown" 
iJ. 'n,ul.t\. Tfitul l**njrth incbes, LMilnii-n o-o."*, win;: «*»•.'>, tail 2*4, 

A-fuIt Oimiff. Similar to tbnt of (\ y#'rfriVf/if, but di**tinpui<4}uMi by 
itt •tDoky -brown axillari«**>. 'J'<itiil leii^tb '.* inrhct, win:; 6'27>. 
W'tHier timi imtn^tturr piuma'jt, Com*'*i>oDdi with that of 



902 



OBAJUJaaXDM. 



CplumdUif but the Bmoky-brofwn aziUaries dintangDiBh the species 
stallages. 

It has been the usual oustom amongst emithologistB to leoognice 
two races of the Smaller Golden Plorer — an Eastern fonn, CfuhuMs 
and a Western one, O. dandnieus. The latter form, which inhabits 
America, is, according to Mr. Seebohm, a sli^tly larger bird, wiUi 
a wing measoring 6*8 to 7'5 inches, whereas in the Asiatic species, 
which visiti Alaska also, the wing does not exceed 6*7 inches. The 
distance betweisn the lips of the long secondaries and the tip of the 
wing is said by ICr.Seebohm to be shorter in Asiatic specimens than 
in American ones. On examination this proves to be the case in 
the majority of specimens, but it is by no means a constant cha- 
xaeter, and, as Mr. Seebohm himself allows, intermediate forms 
occur. In Mr. Bidgway's * Manual' it is stated that O. domimcui 
has longer wings, retatively shorter tarsi and toes, and less golden 
coloration, especially in immature and winter plumages. The wing 
is given as 6*8-7*4 inches, and the tarsus 1*55-1*82. In O.fiihmi 
the wing is stated to be 6*1-6*8 and the tarsus 1*6-1*8. It may, 
therefore, be admitted that there is a slight diflforence in the size of 
the two races, but they seem to overlap to such an extent that 
I have thought it best to unite them. The supposed more golden 
coloration of the Asiatic bird is not confirmed by our large series in 
the Museum. 

Hah. The northern portions of both the Old and New Worlds in 
summer, wintering far to the South in both hemis^eres. Its place 
in Europe, where it is only an occasbnal visitor, is taken by 
O.pluviaKi. Specimens from Eastern North America are some- 
what larger (vide iuprd). 



Mfb. Sad.etimm. 
sk. 

e-d. (fad.fe8tiv. ; 

•-Jk$ad.aBStiv. 

ak. 
i ^inmuflk. 

k, d inmi. sk. 
i Imm.8k. 
jn. Ad.hiem.ak. 
M. Ad. hiem. ak. 
0. cf ad. hiem.; 

hiem. ak. 
$. Ad. hiem. sk. 

t $ ad. 8B8tiv. 

ak. 
ti. c^ ad. hiem. ak. 

V. Ad. hiem. ak. 
w. Ad. hiem. ak. 
x\ Ad. iBstiv. ak. 
y. (^ ad. aeativ. 
ak. 



Siberia. 

Valley of the 
Jane, July {H. S.). 

Lake Baikal, Nov. 29 {ny- 

bowiky). 
Zaidam, Se^t. (Prjevalsky). 
N.E. Siberia, Sept 
Muscat. 

Mekran Coast (E.A, Butler). 
Karachi, Nov., Dec (E. A. 
Butler). 

Rajkote, Kathiawar, Sept. 24. 

Yarkand, Aug. 26 (G, Hen- 
derson). 

Yarkand, Nov. 12 {J. Bid- 
dulph), 

Afghanistan {Griffith), 

Koteg^h. 

Etawah. 

Allahabad, May 29 {J. Cock- 
bum). 



Purchased. 
Seebohm ColL 



Seebohm OdL 

Seebohm ColL 
Seebohm CoU. 
Colonel Mills [P.]. 
HumeCdD. 
Hume ColL 



Colonel Hayes Lloyd 

[P.]. 

Hume ColL 

Hume ColL 

Lidia Museum. 
Hume ColL 
Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 



24. CHABAOHXUS. 



903 



t. ^mL luein.tk. 

a\ h\ c\ S mL 

hiem. »k. 
^,/.(f ad. hiem. 

f-t. Ad. hiem. 

ftk. 
i^'-f'. Ad. hi^m. 

r . Ad. hitfin. ^k. 

•k. 
■'. Ad. hiem. f4. 
^. Ad. hiem. »k. 
W'Z. d 9 ad. 

hirm. et cstiT. 

■k. 
m\ k". Ad. hiem. 

■k. 
c\d\ Ad. hiem. 

•L 
f"-A". 6 2 •d. 

hiem. et mtiT. 

•k. 
•". Ad.»«tiT. tk. 
^' .^. (^ 9 hiem. 

■L 

■•' *'. rf 9 wi. 

hirm. et KBiix, 

ak. 
c*. •\d. hivm. tk. 
/", ^. •\d. hiem. 

■k. 
r-*^. rf 9 ad. 

hiem. ftk. 
k*, \d. hiem. fik. 

P. \d. hirm. ak. 

hirm. Kk. 
f*. .\d. hirm. ftk. 
r*, •'. .\d. hiem. 

ak. 
f*. Ad. hiem. ftk. 
w*. V Mi. hiem. 

ftk. 
r*. ir*. rf 5 ad. 

hirm. ftk. 
r*. w* Ad. hiru. 

»• e*. <f 9ad.*k. 

/* 9 ad. hirm. 
ftk. 

f*. r{ ad. hiem. 

ak. 



Futtehgurh,No¥. 21 {A.Am- 

dermm), 
Futtehgurh, Nor. (A. An^ 

dermm). 
Mi>fnil Seimi, C>adh, Dee. 4 

( W. R Brooks). 
Oudh. 

Nepal. 

Nepal (D. IL Hodgmm). 
Nepal Valley ^t(/.AbM^). 

Sikhim, Sept. (Z. Mandeiit). 
Ikwtaii {F. H". MoHtairo), 
8hilIoii)r, Ajtaam, .\uK.,8ept. 
(J, CockAmm). 

N. Khaaia HiUa, Dec {A. 

n\ CAermett). 
Dacca. 

Calcutta, April, Dec. (W. T. 
Blaitjvrd). 

Calcutu {£. BfytA). 
Calcutta, Feh. 

lUipur, Feb. to April. 



Seoni. 

Deccan (^Atm). 

Madraa. 

AhmrdDUiorur Distr. {F. B. 

/ViirAaiU' K 
Ri^mbav. Feb. 7. 
Lacradivea, Feb. March (A, 

O. II.), 
Malabar CiMUtt. 
Crvlon (.VeriY/). 

Crvlt»n. 

Salt Uke. Cejlon, Nor. 

i H\ y. Ln^). 
Cutta, Ceylun, ii^t {Hart). 

South .VniUuiaii^, I>(*c., April 

Piift liluir, .\pril, Jun*%Sept 
Kit J. Wiwberhy). 

.\bi'ni«*i*ii, S. .Vmiamaim, 
Dec. ( W. iMrimm). 

1 VeuaHft Inland,! 'ocua, March 
( M'. JJansvn). 



IlnmaColL 

Seebohm CoU. 

Hume CoU. 

PinwUlGolL 

Hodgson Coll. 

India Muaeum. 
Hume CoU. 

Hume CoU. 
India Muaeum. 
Hume CoU. 



Tweeddale CoU. 
Hume ColL 
Hume CoU. 



Seebohm CoU« 
Colonel J. Biddolph 

;c.L 

Hume' CoU. 



Hume CoU. 
India Muieom. 

Hume ColL 

Tweeddale CoU. 

Hume CoU. 
Hume ColL 

Tweeddale CoU. 
Tweeddale CoU. 

Hume ColL 

l>r. U. R Sharpe 

[V.l 
Hume ColL 

Tweeddale CoU. 

Hume CtUL 

Hum.* C.ai. 

Hume CiiU. 



204 



CHABAJ>Rrn)iB. 



h*,%*. $ad.hiem. 

sk. 
k*, S ad. hiem. 

sk. 
/*. c^ad.8e8liy. sk. 

hiem. sk. 
0*, 2 ^* liiem. 

sk. 
p*-r*. 5 ad. hiem. 

sk. 
4*. c^ ad. hiem. 

sk. 
^-4^*. d 2 ad. 

hiem. sk. 
y*. cfad.hiem.sk. 
«*-a*. cf ad. hiem. 

sk. 
&\cf ad.hiem.sk. 
c*. ^ad.hiem.sk. 
t^"/^' 6 ad. hiem. 

Sk, 
g^, cf ad. hiem. sk. 
A^ (jTad.hiem.sk. 
i^^k?. Ad. ffistiv. 

sk 
i»-»^.' cJ 2 ad. 

hiem. sk. 
^, tt*. cf 2 ad. 

hiem. sk. 
i^,ir*.cf ad.hiem. 

sk. 
.f*. cf ad. hiem. 

sk. 
y*-a*. Ad. hiem. 

.sk. 
/>*-*•. 6*2 ad. 

hiem. sk 
i^. Ad. hiem. sk. 
/;". Ad.se8tiY.sk. 
P^-f, d 2 ad. 

niem. sk. 
9". Ad. hiem. sk. 

r°. d ad. hiem. sk. 
«". Ad. hiem. sk. 
^". dad. cestiv. sk. 
«". d ftd. aestiv. ; 

/'*. 2 ad. hiem. 

sk. 
?/•". Ad. hiem. sk. 
.r". Ad. oestiv. sk. 
y*' a'. Ad. hiem. 

<'t aestiv. sk. 
h~. Ad. hiem. sk. 
r". Ad. hiem. sk. 
tT-cf. Ad. hiem. 

et aestiv. ek. 



Elephant Point, Dec. (J*. 

Armstrong), 
Akyab, April (J, Armr 

strong), 
Pegu, May 2 (^. W, O.). 
Lower Pegu, Sept. (E, W. 

O,), 
Thavetmyo, Sept. {R. O, 

W,R,), 
Tonghoo {R. G, W, R,), 

Eaukaryit, Tenasserim, Oct. 

(J, Darling). 
Thatone, Oct. to Dec. (W, 

Damson), 
Moulmein, Dec. ( W, D,), 
Amherst, Dec. ( W, D,). 

Sittang River, Feb. ( W. D,). 
Yea, March ( W, D,), 
Mergui, Nov. to Jan. (W. 

D,). 
Pakchan, Jan. ( W, D,), 
Bankasoon, April ( W, D,), 
Saigon, Cochin China. 



Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Oates Coll. 
Oates Coll. 

Tweeddale CoU. 

Tweeddale ColL 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume CoU. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
M. E. Pierre [P.]. 



Salang, Feb. {J, Darling), Hume Coll. 



Tonkah, Salang, Jan. (J, 

Darling), 
Nicobars, Jan., Feb. (W, 

Davison). 
Trinkut Island, Nicobars, 

Dec. (R J. Wimberley). 
Penang (Cantor). 

Salangore,Dec .,March, April, 
Aug., Oct. ( W, Davison), 

Malacca (Cantor). 

Malacca yMaingay). 

Singapore Island, Oct., Nov. 
(W,D.), 

Singapore, Oct. 

China (8. Bligh). 
China (J. Reeves), 
Shanghai, May ( W. Cooper). 
Canton, May \R. Swvnhoe). 



Canton. 

Tientsin. 

Amoy, May, Sept., Nov. (R. 

Swinhoe). 
Amoy (JR. Swinhoe). 
Amoy, Sept. (R. Siinnhoe). 
S.W. Formosa (R. Swinhoe). 



Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

India Museum. 

Hume Coll. 

India Museum. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Capt. H. J. Eelsall 

Seebonm ColL 
Gould Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Gould Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 



24. CHAKADRIUB. 



205 



r-ib'. Ad. hiem. 


S.W. Ft>nnu6a (JR. Striidkce), 


Tweeddale and Sal. 


■k. 




vin-Qodman CoUa. 


r. Ad. hiem. ak. 


Takuw. FormoiA, Dec. {R. 


Seebohm Coll. 


m*yii*.9ad.liiein. 


HakiHiadi, Japan, May, Oct. 


Seebohm Coll 


et vtntiT. ftk. 


{/ilaJcutun). 




o'. $ ad. hiem. sk. 


Hak<Mladi,< k:t.3(//. Whitefy). 


Tweeddale Coll. 


p', (fad. hiem. ftk. 


Sout h YeH).Sept.( lUaky^ton), 
Yukobama (i/. Piyer). 


Seebohm Coll. 


yVV- Ad. hiem. 


Seebohm Coll. 


et »stiv. 9k. 






r, «'. Ad. hiem. 


Liu Kiu lalandAy Aug., Jan. 


Seebohm CoU. 


et tffftir. Ilk. 






r'. Ad. hiem. nk. 


Suaiatra. 


India Mui«eum. 


«■*, j". rf J ad. 


Ach«i'ii. Sumatra, Feh. A 


Hume Coll. 


hiem. »k. 


1 ir. Daruion), 




y\ :~. Ad. hiem. 


\\vT .An^t, Sumatra, Nov. 


Tweeddale C^>U. 


•k. 


'(('. Jiuck). 




a*. .\d. hiem. sk. 


LBm|M)ii^, S.M. Sumatra {E. 


Tweeddali* Coll. 


6' fT. Ad. hiem. 
f\r. .\d. hifm. 


Java [Ilorf/lrid). 


India Museum. 


Javn. 


Tweeddale Coll. 


ft ectiv. sk. 






y*. AV .\d. hiem. 
I". *-. c' 2 "d. 


Java {Ijpyden Mtueam). 


Salvin-Godman Coll. 


Java. 


Seebuhm Coll. 


hiem. i*k. 






«" Ad. hiem. ak. 


Flt>n'.*. 


Wallao* Coll. 


»«' </. .Vd. hiem. 

•k. 
J ' Ad. hirm. »k. 


Ka^t Timor. 


Walhwx* Coll. 


H)nii*«». 


Tweeddale ColL 


y'. Ad. hivm. ok. 


IjabuMii. St'pt. 


\. II. Everett, Eaq. 

^C. . 
Wallii^N. Coll. 


rV A«l. hifm. fk. 


Sarawuk. 


• . r 4 fi'l. hii-m. 


Luii»ii, Ffb. (.1. //. Meyer). 


Twwddalt. C.Il. 


San .M«t«-'i, I.u/on, Feb. (--1. 


Twtvddale (\>11. 


h:* 111 •k. 


//. i:r*ntf). 




K^ .\>i hlt'lU. »k. 


.Manila \M ait html llrnnt). 


Twi'.^ldal." ( \»11. 


- s- • 4 ad. 


CVbu, .Vjiril \A. H. Evrrett), 


Twit-ddal- C„ll. 


■■•tiv pk. 






a I ti hit-Ill. 


S. L-\t»-, S.pt. (.-1. 7/. Ect' 


Twei^dal.' Coll. 


tk 


rtti\. 




6 J Ail. hii-m. 


Hutiiaii. .May {A. H. Arc- 


Twii'ddalt' Coll. 


• k 


rrtt\. 




r ./ •• i All. 


ZaiiiUiaiiuM. 


Voy. HM.S. 'Chal- 


M-m. •k. 




l«'lij.'iT.* 


•• Ad hii-iii *k. 


( V|i"lli'«. 


Tw.H.,idal.'r..ll. 


/ . y ■• . ..1. 


Mitka^'*Mr. 


\\ alla<-«> Coll. 


f.i*-m rk. 






A Ad hi* m. fik 


Mniailo. 


Walla/^. I'.ill. 


• 4 a.! l<*i lu. Mk. 


Shn^'hir I?*!., Wh:. -1. 


S'.-I>.hiii r.ill. 


«. H .\d hl«-lu 


Iktcliiaii 


\\ allmi- Cull. 


\*i hit-m. nk. 


.Mtirty I«lan>l 


\Va1I>ii- Coll. 


/• A'i. hM'm. »k. 


(Vraiii. 


Walliu-e C..11. 


f' .\d hicm. ak. 


Ambi>iua. 


Walhkx* Coll. 



206 



CHABADBIIDiB. 



t**. S ^* hiem. 

ak. 
i^. Ad. hiem. ak. 
^. Ad. hiem. sk. 
H^, Ad. hiem. ak. 
i^. Ad. hiem. ak. 
tcT", a:*. Ad. hiem. 

ak. 
y'. Ad. ak. 
5«-ft^o. Ad. hiem. 

ak. 
i'\ Ad. ak. 
d^^. Ad. hiem. ak. 
1'^^. Ad. hiem. ak. 
/".Ad. hiem. ak. 
r/". Ad. ak. 
A", t^». Ad. hiem. 

ak. 
k^^. Ad. hiem. ak. 

/'**. iw". cJ $ ad. 

idem. flk. 
n^°. Ad. hiem. ak. 
o", f?". Ad. hiem. 

ak. 
y",r»^Ad.hiem. 

ak. 
*"-ii»°.Ad.hiem. 

ak. 
w"-y'".Ad.hiem. 

ak. 
2". $ ad. hiem. 

ak. 
a. $ ad. ak. 

/3, y. $ ad. hiem. 

ak. 
d. Ad. hiem. ak. 
(. Ad. hiem« ak. 

C Ad. hiem. ak. 
17. Ad. 8d8tiy. ak. 
B, $ad.hiem. ak. 

1, jc. Ad. hiem. ak. 
X. Ad. hiem. ak. 

fly V. Ad. eeatiy. ak. 
$. Ad. sestiy. ak. 
o. Ad. seatiy. sk. 
TT. 2 *d' »stiy. 

8k. 
pf (T, T. cJ $ ad. 

aestiy. ; v, (f), x* 

Juv. ak. 
y^. 2 ad. 8B8tiy. 

ak. 



Amhoimu 

Tenimber lalanda, Sept. 
Salawatti. 
Amlalanda. 
Haine'a laland. 
Port Eaeington. 

Cape York. 
Queenaland. 

Queenaland. 

Moreton Bay. 

Moreton Bay. 

Gippaland Lakea, Auatralia. 

New South Walea. 

New South Walea. 

Weat Auatralia. 

Lord Howe laland, Sept. {J. 

MaegiUwray), 
New Zealand. 
Duke of York laland {O. 

Brown), 
Aneiteum, New Hebridea. 

Samoa. 

Samoa. 

Nairai, Fiji la., Nov. (F. 

M. jRayner). 
Oyalau, Sept. 21 {E. L, 

Layard). 
Suya, Kji la., Oct. (Dr. Cop- 

pmger). 
Tayiuni, II ji la. (lAardet), 
Tongatabu, Friendly la. [Dr. 

Coppinger), 
Society lalanda. 
Bow laland. 
Claremont la., Aug. 31 (/. 

MacgUlvoray), 
Hawai (Knud»en), 
South Greenland. 

Arctic America. 
Arctic America. 
Arctic America. 
Kotlik, Alaska, May 18 (E. 

W, Nelson : ffensh. Coll.). 
St. Michaers, May, Aug. to 

Oct. (E. W.Nelson: Hensh. 

Coll.). 
Fort Reliance, Alaska, May 

(E. W. Nelson : Hensh. Coll). 



Voy. H.M.S. 'Chal- 
lenger.' 
Dr. H. 0. Forbea [CI. 
Wallace Coll. 
Wallace ColL 
Gould ColL 
Capt. Chambera [P.]. 

Gould Coll. 
Salyin-Godman CoH 

Tweeddale ColL 
Gould Con. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Seebohm ColL 
Gould Coll. 
Australian Muaeum 

[P.]. 
Government of West 

Auatralia [P.]. 
Gould Coll. 

Miaa R. Stone HP.]. 
Tweeddale ColL 

J. Macgillivray [C.]. 

Purchased. 

Rev. J. S. Whitmee 

Voy.H.M.S.'Herald.' 

Tweeddale ColL 

Voy. H.M.S. • Alert.' 

Salvin-Godman ColL 
Voy. H.M.S. 'Alert' 

Gould Coll. 

Sir E. Belcher [P.l 

Voy. H.M.S.' Rattle. 

anake 
Prof, r! Collett [P.]. 
Dr. R. B. Sharpe 

[P.]. 
Capt. Collinaon. 
Sir G. Back. 
Gould ColL 
Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 



Salvin-Godman Coll. 



24. CHABAHKirt. 



207 



m, m\ (f td. ct 

imm. tk. 
B'. Ad.»fttiT. 0k. 

v'. Ad. KfCir. »k. 
a'. Ad. v«tiT. Ilk. 
«'. Ad. hiem. tk. 
^, Ad. hitfin. : i|'. 

Ad. avktiT. tk. 
€, «'. (^ $ imm. 

nk. 
«'. Ad. aiAtiT. sk. 



X'. cf ^•««tiT.»k. 
#*'. cf ad.biem. tk. 

»\ r. o'. (^ 5 ad. 

bifro. ak. 
9\ ^ ftd. hiem. 

•k. 
p. (f mL hiem. 

Pk. 
r", r'. (fad. hiem. 

pk. 
&'. Ad. hiem. pk. 
O- / td. hiem. 

ak. 
i;'. 9 ad. hiem. 

•k. 
^' <i". .\d. hiem. 

pk. 
5^ #■ . Ad.etjuT. 

hirm. «k. 
« . Ad.hirm.; ii". 

Ad. smtiT. pk. 
^'. \d. hiem. tk. 
I '. Ad. a^tir. sk. 

c '. 9 ad. sttiv. 

•k. 
X' . Ad. hirm. pk. 
,. '. r". t^ 9 ad. 

kiem. tk. 
( 9 ad. KStiT. 

ftk. 

• . 9 •d. hiem. 
•k 

V 9 ad. hiem. 

Pk 
^ . w rf 9 •d. 

hi««i. ak. 
r Ad. brim. ak. 

• i md. bifloa. 
•k. 

4". 9 ad. hiem. 
ak 



Fort SimpeoDy Aug., Sept. 

Fort lUts Qr^^at SUve Uk«, 

Judo (Z. C/arAv). 
IIud8on*B IUlj. 
Itepulae Bay. 
Mo<jee Factory, Sept 
40th Pandlei;Maj. 

Britiph Columbia. 

Ontonagtm, Michigim, Sept 

{A. J, Iktyani HeniK 

CiJi,). 
Mapparhujii'ttii (Hfiuik.Ck>IL), 
C^rMAvy IVnusvlvania, Sept. 

23. 
San .\ntonio, Texas, Jao. 

(//. K Dretuier). 
RrowiiMvilKs Texaa, March 

(F, li. Armstrong), 
Tapalote, Bee Co., Texaa, 

Feb. {t\ B. -4.). 
Hidalgo, Texaa, March (F, 

li. A,), 
Guatemala. 
IHii'naH, < f uatoDiala, .\pril 12 

(O. .v.). 
MedjtfUin, C.S. Colombia (T. 

A'. Saiman), 
St. Vincent, W.I., Sept., Oct 

( //. //. Smith). 
Grenada, Sept., Oct. (H. H. 

Smith). 
liarbadoa. 

Trinidad. 

Maroni lUrer, Surinam (Jrcf|»- 

pifr). 
Horaima, Britiph Guiana, 

S«-pt. (//. Jrkitely). 
Amazonp {limfk. OoU.). 
Nauu, Peruvian .\mazona, 

Jan. {E. liartlett). 
Villa Maria, Braxil, Sept. 

{J. Sattrrer). 
l^urrtiba, Braiil, Not. (J. 

batterer). 
IMotam Ilio Grande do Sul 

{Jojfner). 
Chapada, Matto Gmaao, Oct., 

NiiT. (//. H.SmitM), 
BoUfia iFfthes). 
Tambo Vallev, Peru, Oct 

(//. U'kitrfy). 
Tambo VallfT, Peru, Nut. 



B. R. Bom, Eaq. [P.]. 

SalTin-Godman ColL 

Hudaon*t Bay Co. 
l>r. lUe [P.j. 
Seebohm CoIL 
N..\. Ifeundaiy Com- 

miaaion. 
J. K. Loid, Eaq. [P.]. 

SaWin-Godman ColL 



Salvin-Gndman ColL 
SalTin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Giidman ColL 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-(tuduian ColL 

SalTin-Cffitdman Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 
Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salnn-(}odman Coll. 

SalTin-Godman ColL 

SalTin-Godman ColL 

Sir K. Schombunrk 

rp.j. 

Old Coll. 
SalTin-(todman Coll. 

SalTin-( Hidman ColL 

Sal vin-< Rodman ColL 
S*ebohm Coll. 

SalTin.(;odman ColL 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

SalTin-<^9odman CdL 

SaWin-^MMlman ColL 

SalTin-Godman CdL 
Tweeddale Coll. 

SalTin-CSodmaa ColL 



208 CHABADRHDiB. 

x". $ ad. hiem. Tambo Valley, Peru, Nov. Seebohm Coll. 

8k. (H, Whitely), 

•^", S ad. sBStiv. Cosnipata, Peru, Sept. (-ff. Seebohm CoU. 

8k. Whitely). 

«". Ad. ffistiv. sk. Cosnipata, Peru, Oct. (H. Tweeddale Coll. 

Whitely). 

a*. Ad. hiem. ek. Central Chili (Landheck), Berkeley James Coll. 

/3*. Ad. hiem. sk. Moreno, Buenos Ayre8,Feb.6. H. Dimiford, Esq. 

y*. $ ad. hiem. Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Sclater ColL 
sk. Ayres, Feb. ( Withinyton). 

25. APHRIZA. _ 

J-ype, 

Aphriza, Auduh, Syn, p. 226 (1839) A. virgata. 

Cf, Shufeldt, Joum. Morph. ii. no. 2, pp. 311-340, pi. xxv. 

Bange. Western America, from Alaska to Chili. 

1. Aphriza virgata. 

Streaked Sandpiper, Lath, Gen, /S/n. iii. pt 1, p. 180 (1786 : Sand- 
wich Sound). 
Boreal Sandpiper, Lath, t, c, p. 181 (1786 : King George's Sound). 
Tringa virgata, Gm. Syst, Nat, i. p. 674 (1788). 
Tringa borealis, Gm, Syst, Nat, i. p. 674 (1788). 
Aphriza townsendi, Attdub, B, Amer, pi. 428 ; id, Om, Bioor. v. 

p. 249 (1839) ; id, Syn, p. 226 (1839) ; id. B. Amer, 8vo, v. p. 228, 

pi. 322 (1842) ; Gray, List GralUe Brit, Mus, p. 72 (1844 : 

ChUi). 
Charadrius winterfeldti, Tschudi, Arch. f. Naturg, 1843, p. 388 ; 

id, i^ Cah, Fatm. I'eruan., Aves, p. 296, Ted', xxxiv. (184646). 
Aphriza virgata, Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 648, pi. 147 (1847) ; Cass. B. 

N. Amer. p. 698 (1858) ; Sclat, P, Z, S. 1859, p. 236 (Vancouver 

IsL) ; Brown, Ibis, 1867, p. 424; Ball ^ Bairn, Tr. Chicago Acad. 

i. p. 290 (1869 : Sitka) ; Coues, Key N, Amer. B. p. 245 (1872) ; 

iScW. 4* Salv, Nomencl Av, Neotr, p. 143 (1873) ; Later. Mem. 

Bost Soc. N, H, ii. p. 307 (1874 : Colima) ; Sharpe, P, Z. S. 

1881, p. 16 (Van IsL, Trinidad Channel) ; Coues, Check4. N.Amer. 

B, p. 98 (1882) ; Nelson, Cruise R.S. * Corwin,' p. 83 (1883) ; 

Coues, Key N. Amer. B, 2nd ed. p. 606 (1884) ; Baird, Bretcer, 

^ Ridgw, Water-B, N, Amer, i. p. 126 (188*) ; Turner, Contr. 

N. H. Alaska, p. 126 (1886 : Kadiak, Sannakh Isl.) ; A. O. U. 

Check-l. N. Amer. B. p. 164 (1886) ; Taczan. Orn. Pirou, iii. 

p. 348 (1880: Coast of Peru) ; Bidyw. Man. N. Amer. B. p. 180 

(1887); Oust. Miss. Sd. Cap Horn, p. 294 (1891); Berkeley 

James, Neic List Chilian B.ip. 11 (1^92). 
Strepsilas bort'alis, Gay, Faun. Chilrn., Zool. i. p. 408 (1847). 

'ursores, p. 45 (1865): 




Adult male in winter plumafje. General colour above dark grayish 
brown, with slightly indicated dusky centres to the feathers : lower 
rump and under tail-coverts white ; wing-coverts like the back, the 



2<i. OCHTRODROXCA. 20St 

prioiAiy-^oTerts tippeil with white : greater oovertA also white at 
tb€' endM* forminy; a Inroad win<;-hand ; primarioA white at bane, and 
bariiif; white vhaftA; secondaries also (nlgcd with white at the tips, 
and having the hiisos white, this increasing towards the inner 
M^runcLirics, which are almost whollv white, with only a little 
im'gular black marking; tuil-feathers black, fnnge<l with white 
at the end;*, and having broiid black bjise;*, the white increasing 
tiiwardit the outer feather ; head like the back, as also the sides of 
the face and lon*s, the latter 8nrmount(*tl by a broad white streak, 
which extends oT<r the eye ; thnut white ; lower throat and chest 
durk Af\i\ brown, rantthsl on the btt4*r with a few dark cross- 
bar* : n*ni!iiii<ler of under surface of body pure white, with a few 
longitudinal Htreak?t or arri>w-head markings of black on the sides 
uf the body ; under wing-i-overt^ and axiUaries white, the lower 
pnmarj'-toverl:* arthy grey, forming a |>atch : ** feet olive-green, 
rUws black: irii black; eyelids bUek '* (/>/*. Coppuujer). Total 
Irngth l»r> inches, culmen 0*Jir>, wing t)*0, tail if'C, tarsus I'lTi, 
middle toe and elaw 1*2. 

J./«/f iM hrfftluvt-nhtmtvj^, S«?ems to Ik* darker than in winter. 
HUckith, with white or rufous s|)Ots on the feathers, while the 
under »urfacf* is »|M)tte<l with arrow-head markings of blackish 
briwn. 

luwfi/. \vr\ much like the a4lults, but with narrow whitish 
fnn;^*^ to th*' leathers of the upper surface, these fringes having 
•ub'terminal lintn of bla'-ki'^h ; throat and chest white, thickly 
iD'fUiol uith n^hy crovt-bars ; the tlanks with small sjMits and 
streak'* of blacki>h. 

//•i^'. Wc-terii North .\merica, from Alaska south to Cliili. 

«. A. \.l. »k. N.W. Aiuerioa. Purchased. 

r * j>i^ *^ ^t. Mit*hs*'l\ Alaska, Aug. ID •Sal\iii-(fodniau (\ill. 

{K. ir. SrU'tn: Urns A. (vtL). 

d Ad •k Vaut'ou\fr 1 Aland. J. K. Lord, K^^q [^r.\ 

^ Al -k Ori-A^ Mrtnd. Dr. LvhU l*.j. 

f \i •k. i Antral ( hili ( Landheck ). iWkelev James ( \ill. 

A. A'l -k. t'hili. HridiresVoll. 

I Ai -k r hili I r //rtWyrn). Sal vin-God man Coll. 

k * ft'! •k Vnii I <*l.indo. Straits of .Ma;.^'l- I>r. (\>ppinux*r IM. 

laii, F.b \X 



L't;. OCHTHODROMUS. 

Type. 
• krhth »lriiiiu«, Ittnt'hrnti. A'. Sy^t. Art/, p. wiii {\<t'2). t). wil«oiii. 
« irr^t»» l-»iu«». ///». C H xlni. p. 117 { \<>^\) . . . O. gt>«itfroyi. 

Ilai; .rb)n«'hu«. ///*. 1* It. xUn. p. 417 (KVi) O. ub^-urus. 

111**. **'rj 1. //'•iW. Sntti^nr!. Mua. Jf^in. p. XU't 

. 1- ■»! . . ... . . (I, ub^uru«. 

Haik*y. With tbr exceptiMfi of Western Kurope. Western Africa, 
fhe rslremr stiuth of South Americ.i, and tHv:ini.t. nearly coamo- 

VOL. IXtV. f 



€ 



9 



210 CHA&ADRIID^. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Summer plumage. 

a, Axillaries and under wing-coverte white. 

a. Entire under sur&ce of body rufous; no 

bands of black or chestnut obscurus, p. 211. 

b'. With a band of Uack or rufous on the fore- 
neck or chest. 
a". With a single band of black ( c^ ), or more or 
less rufescent ashy brown ( $ ), across the 
fore-neck ; no chestnut or cinnamon band ; 
forehead and eyebrow separated from the 
head by a band of black ( c^ ), often absent 

($) triZwwit, p. 214. 

b". Witli a black band across the fore-neck, 
followed by a white band on the chest, and 
by a second band of chestnut across the 

breast bicmetuMf p. 212. 

c*. No black band on the fore-neck ; a chestnut or 

cinnamon band on the chest, bordered above 

with a line of black (in O. numgolus), or 

below (in O. asiaticus), 

ef\ Bill stout ; head rufescent ; forehead white, 

with a black band on the fore part of the 

crown, or else entirely black ; a streak from 

the bill and along the ear-coverts black ; 

hind-neck rufous. 

a'". Size large: culmen 1 inch; forehead 

white; no black line above the rufous 

chest-band geoffrotfi^ p. 217. 

b"'. Size smaller : culmen not exceeding 0*9 

inch. 

a*. Forehead black ; a pale cinnamon 

collar on the hind-neck ; no black line 

above the chest-band, which is pale 

cinnamon pyrrhothorax, p. 226. 

b*. Forehead white; a chestnut or rufous 
collar on the hind-neck ; a black line 
along the upper margin of the chest- 
nut chest-baiid, often absent (? $ ) . . monyoius, p. 223. 
e^. Forehead white; no rufous collar on 
hind-neck, the head being like the 
back ; sides of face white ; no black 
on forehead or ear-coverts; a black 
band on the lower margin of the rufous 

chest-band asiaticus, p. 230. 

b. Axillaries snd under wing-ooverts smoky brown, 
as also the quill-lining : forehead broad, white, 
and extending to the sinciput ; a distinct black 
horse-shoe below the chestnut band on the 
chest veredus, p. 232. 

/3. Winter plumage. 

a. Axillaries white (with occasionally a slight shade 
of ashy near the base, in O. monyolus and 
O. asiaiiau) ; under wing-coverts white. 



20. OCHTBODBOVCB. 211 

m'. A caUat of mHt brown acrott the fure-neck or 
l»w«r throftt. ' 
m". Wing exoM^intf 5 inches. 
m"\ Feet dark Druwn; collar confin«*<i to 
throat and verr narrow; quill-lining 

diatinctlj white ' ob§eunttf p. 211. 

h'". Feet lighter and more Tellowiah brown ; 
low«fr throat, foxv-neci, and chent aahy 

greT ; quill-lining dark, dull aahj anatictu^ p. 2^. 

h". Wing leM than 5 inches. 
e'". Feet yellow; ciiUar on fore-neck well- 

defin^ : bill vt^rr Rtout tciimmi^ p. 214. 

^". Feet dark; oollar ill-defined on fore- 
neck ; bill slender. 
m*, (Vntral upuer tail-ooverta dark brown, 
not tipped with white; lateral up^ 
tail-corertii tipped or edged with white, 

not convpicuouii hiewctu$, p. 212. 

i/*. Central upper tail-c<tverta tipped with 
whit4*; lateral upper tail-coverta 

entirely white pyrrkotAorax, p. 226L 

h No complett* o'lllar acMaa the fore-neck, which 
ift white like the rent of the under surface; 
Mdeii of chest with a brown patch. 

e". l^arger : culmen 1 inch ^eo^Voyi, p. 217. 

^ . Smaller : culmen O'TA inch momgolu»^ p. 223. 

4. Aiillariea, under wing-coverts, and quill-lining 

loky bruwn rertduM^ p. 282. 



1. OchthodromiiB obtennu. 

IHiskT Plover, LaiM. Gen. Hyn, iii. pt. 1, p. 206 (1785: Dudiy 
liaV.N. Z.). 

Cbanulnu* obscurus, f;m. S^ti. Xat. i. p. i)m (1788) ; VieUi. N. 
Ihft. tfliisi. AVi/. xxvii. p. 14:i (1^18: New Zealand); irapL 
S^tt. Ar., (^haradriuH, p. t>M, sp. :{*5 (1»^27); Oray in IHefenb. 
fmr. y. /m/. ii. App. p. n»5 (1H4:)) : id. List GraiL Brit. Mta, 
p. ts7 ( lh44 : Mount Fgmont, N. Z.); id. Vuy. Ertb. ^ Terr.^ 
fiirds, p. 11, pi. ix (1M({: Waikonati, Sept.); id. (>en. B. iii. 
p. rpU{\^7)\ Hrirhfnh. OraU. Ub. cv. tig. 1(XV<(1H51); frray, 
JhiM. \*^\J. p. 2:V1; ISjIU, Trans Aetr Z^L Inst. ii. p. <(K (]^70: 
I>iiir Kange, Ai^hburtiin dintr., breeding) ; dray, Iland-i. B. iii. 



p. U. no. «*K^ (Kl); Ftnsrh, J. f, O. Ih72, p. IGM (N. Z.) ; 

hmiUr. B, A>ir '/jmL p. JOh (1^7.1 : MountainK of New Zealand) ; 

FmscA.J.f. O. 1^*7-1. p. W\i .Sharpe, Voy. JCreh. ^ Terr., Birds, 

A|i|i p. Jl* {\t*7^»}',SrHfoMm, iieityr. iJtstr. Ckaradr. p. lAl, pl. Ti. 

(l*"^^!; BniJer, B. AVir Xeal. 2nd ed. ii. p. 1, pi. xxv. fig. 1 

llw*|. 
rbaradrius glan-ola, LirAi. ed. Fortier, Descr. Anim. p. 100 (1814). 
l*lu«i«irfa}acbusobM-uru«, Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 417 (1M54)). 
flv^tirenrx obaruruii, //rim* 4r Reieken, yomemei. Mus. Hein. p. 3216 

'tlHlO:' New Zealand; New Ireland). 

Admit til hnmling»pluma*fe, (tencral colour al>ovp brown, with ft 
tliKfat grwniab kIoss, mott of the feathera with rufous margiot ; the 
hs^ like the beck : the hind-neck onlv alightl j paler ; rump end 

p2 



212 



CHARADRITDJ::. 



upper tail-coverts dusky brown, the latter fringed with white at 
the ends, the lateral ones white along the outer webs ; wing-coverts 
more ashy brown than the back, the median and greater series 
margined with hoary white; bastard-wing, priraary-coverts, and 
quills blackish, with white fringes at the ends ; the primaries white- 
shafted and lighter brown along the inner web, inclining to whitish 
at the base, leaving the outer web and the tips blackish, the inner 
primaries white at the base externally, forming a wing-patch ; 
secondaries brown, white at the base, and edged with white, this 
white gradually increasing on the outer web, till it occupies the 
whole of it on the inner quills, which are also white at the ends ; 
the innermost long secondaries brown like the back ; tail-feathers 
dark brown, whitish at the ends, the . outer feathers smoky-brown, 
white at the tip and along the margins of both webs ; base of fore- 
head dingy white, as well as a broad eyebrow ; lores, fore part of 
cheeks, and sides of face dusky brown, mottled with buff below the 
eye ; hinder cheeks, throat, and under surface of body cinnamon- 
rufous, white on the lower flanks, thighs, and under tail-coverts ; 
under wing-coverts, axillaries, and quill-lining white ; lower 
primary-coverts light ashy, like the quills below : *' bill black ; feet 
leaden-grey ; iris black " ( W, L. Buller). Total length 10 inches, 
culmen !•!, wing 6'5, tail 2*7, tarsus 1'5. 

Adult in winter plumage. Differs from the summer plumage in 
being darker ashy brown above, without the rufous margins to the 
feathers ; lores and eyebrow, as well as the under surface of the 
body, white, with a band of ashy brown across the lower throat. 

Hab, New Zealand. Drs. Heine and Eeicbenow record a speci- 
men in the " Museum Heineanum " from New " Ireland," but this 
is doubtless a mistake for New ** Zealand." 



a, b. Ad. hiem. 

St. 

c Ad. aestiv. at 

d, Imm. sk. 

e. Ad. sk. 

/j ffj h. Ad. sk. 
I. Ad. aestiv. sk. 
k, $ ad. aestiv. 

sk. 
/. Ad. hiem. sk. 



New Zealand. 

New Zealand. 
New Zealand. 

New Zealand. 
New Zealand. 
New Zealand. 
Otago, N. Z., Nov. 

Port Cooper, N. Z. 



Capt. Stokes [P.]. 

Percy Earl, Esq. [C.]. 
New Zealand Co. 

[p.i 

Seebohm Coll. 
Sir George Grev [P.]. 
Tweeddale Cofl. 
Hume Coll. 

Capt. Stekes [P.]. 



2. Ochthodromns bicinctas. 

Charadrius bicinctua, Jard. <§• Selhy^ Hi, Orn. i. pi. 28 (1825) ; Gray. 



B. N. ZeaL p. 211 (1873) ; Fimch, J. /. O. 1874, p. 193 ; Sharpe, 
Voy. Ereb, 8c Ten'., App. p. 29 (1875); Hnsch, Ibis, 1882, p. 399 
(N. Zeal.); id. Vog. der Sildsee, p. 84 (1884: N. Zealand); 



2(». OCUTHODBOMTH. 213 

BulUr, B, AVr Zeal, 'ind ed. p. 3 (186:5) ; Setbvkm, Geoar. Didr, 

(%aradr. p. 1441 (18^) ; KtheritLfe, Lord Hotce Isl. p. 17 (1889); 

ForUs, Ibif, IHta, p. h'M (Cbathatu Isl.). 
Eudrumiiu ZMnthrtcbciliu (nrc H'agL)^ (rray^ Lid OraUtt Brit, 

Mm. p. tt8 ( lhii4 : Tasmania). 
.ICiruilitui bicinctA, fiouid, Syn. B. Austr. pt. ii. pi. IV2. fig. 3 (1837) ; 

Hartimg, Ibis, 1H70. p. 1»<L' ; Bamsay, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 337 (Card- 
well) ; id. iVr^. Linn. Sue. K S. H'. ii. p. 1J*7 (1878); Hahad. 

Orn, Papmasia^ iii. p. 3(Vi, note (I8h(2) ; Bainsat/, JYoc. Linn. 8oe. 

S. S. H. vii. p. H8 ( \y^f<^ : lA>rd Howe Lil.) ; %d. Tab. LiU Audr. 

B. p. It* ( lKv% : nearly the whole of Australia; S.K. New GaiD«a) ; 

Cn»tr/oot, Ibis, ltt8r/, p. :*70 (Norfolk lal.); Lei/ffe, IVoc. Atutr. 

Am»»c. Sr l^ll-J, p ;J8. 
Hiatirula bicineU, (tray, V(nf. Ereb. \ Terr., Birds, p. 12 (1840) ; 

U^mid, B. Austr. vi. pi. U) (1846); Rrichrub. Vog. SeukoU. p. 41 

(l-vTiO). 
(VhtbiKironiuji bicinctus, Heine Sf Reickm. Svmencl. Mus, JJein, 

p. :«7 ( 1M!*()). 

Ad*dt male in hrfedituj'plumwje. (leneral colour above brown, 
with a Very evident gret»n gloiw, Home of the featheni edged wilb 
•and\ rufuuii : wing-covtrtH like the back, the greater coverts with 
a narrow white tip, forming a narrow wing-bar: bastard-wing and 
primary -coverts dark brown, the latter with white tip« ; quills 
brown, darker brown along the outer webst and at the ends; the 
primaries white-shafted, the inner ones :ilso having a white base 
t(» the outer web, torming a small wing-patch: necondaries also 
bru«n. the inner ones fringed witli white near the end of the 
outer VI eb and white-shafted, the innermost ones like the back ; 
rump and upin-r tail-covert.^ brown, the sides of the rump and the 
lat«-ral <<»vertJ> white ; tail-feathers brown, tip|>e<l with white» 
U-f'*re whii'h is a sub-terminal shade of darker brown, less distinct 
i«n the i*uu-T feathen», the outermost white, with a shade of smoky 
br"»n *>n the inner web: crown of head brown like the back, 
» rt^irat*-*! from the white forehead and evebn»w bv a band of black : 
If>r*^ 4n'l fi-ather«» round the eve black : sides of face and sides of 
r.rt % brown; thnat \(hite, si^paratiHl from the brown face by a 
i.r.«- ''f bUck, which skirts the throat alonir the cheeks and down 
t:.r- •:'ir« ot the neck, and joins a bro.id band across the fore- 
n««-k , tb** •ides of this band brown; across the chwt a broad 
wiiiV bind loll mi-*! by another bniad cre-eentic bauil of deep 
r:«< •*nut ; ri-niaiitder of under surface of the t>o<l\, as well as the 
ur. :• r »!•.»:-« overt* and axillaries, pjre white; lower primary. 
n.T* r*% at.d i|uill-lining a.-^hy grey : ** bill bl.ick, bligbtly tinged with 
' '.i\»' : f<^t pale Mckly \elbfMi.nh white, the joints ot Uws and knees 
•.risnr-f ; irn bl ickuh brown; eyelid scarlet" {J. (ruuld}. Total 
l*"./'.:* 7vi inrh««, lulmen n**, wirij; 41*'>. tail 2* IT), tar^^us l-'Jo. 

A iutt in wiHUr jJiiuttfjr. Ilitfepi froui the numnier plumage in 
«ai;nir t'ltr bauds of bl.K k and chentnut on the under nurface, the 
^la^-r of thr blark ban<l on the fori«-n«'ck Unng indiratM by a shade 
f< hn»wri arr'xi* this part : entire up|K*r surtai-e dark brown, in- 
'..^ing the head; forehead white, but without the* black baud of 



214 CHABlDRUDiE. 

the breediog-plamage ; an indistinct white eyebrow ; ear-coverts 
blackish ; lores with a dusky streak. 

Young. Similar to the adult in winter plumage, but having all 
the feathers of the upper surface edged with sandy buff, with a 
rufescent tinge on the sides of the face and eyebrow ; under surface 
of body white, with a tinge of sandy buff on the lower throat and 
fore-neck, the lateral feathers mottled with black bases, indicating 
the position of the black band in the adults ; the sides of the lower 
breast also tinged with sandy buff, where the chestnut band is 
developed in the adult bird. 

Nettling. Feathers of the upper parts brown, largely margined 
with fulvous; underparts white, with fulvous markings on the 
breast ; the sides of the head and the lower part of the back and 
rump covered with down of a dull sandy yellow, spotted with 
black, and with flufiy down still adhering to other parts of the 
body : bill dark brown ; feet brownish grey ( W. L. Btdler). 

Hah. Nearly the whole of Australia, Tasmania, Norfolk Island, 
and Lord Howe Island. Dr. Ramsay gives Southern New Guinea as 
a habitat also, but I have not found any confirmation of this locality. 

a. Ad. sk. Australia. Gould Coll. 

6. Ad. sk. Australia. Tweeddale Coll. 

e, d. Ad. sk. Queensland. Salvin-Gcdmau Coll. 

e-g. Ad. sk. Moreton Bay, Queensland. Gould Coll. 

h. S imm. sk. ; Tasmania. Ronald Gunn, Esq. 

I. Imm. st [P.]. 

k. Imm. sk. Tasmania. Gould Coll. 

/. c^ ad. sk. Lord Howe Island, Sept. 10 Gould Coll. 

(J. Macgillivray). 

m-o. Ad. et imm. New Zealand. Purchased. 

sk. 

p. Ad. sk. Canterbury, N. Z., July. J. H. Gumey, Esq. 

|_".J. 

q% r. cJ $imm. sk. Fort Cooper, N. Z. Captam Stokes [P.]. 

#. $ ad. sk. Otago, N. Z., Oct. Hume CoU. 

3. Ochthodromns wilBonL 

Charadrius wilsonia • Ord in Wihon's Am. Om. ix. p. 77, pi. Ixxiii. 
fig. 6 (1814 : Cape Isl., New Jersey). 

Charadrius wilsomus, VieUl. N. Did. d*Higt. Nat xxiii. p. 418 
(1818) ; Audub. B. Amer. pi. ccix. (c. 1826) ; id. Om. Biogr. iii. 
p. 73 (1886), V. p. 577 (1839) ; id. B. Amer. 8vo, v. p. 214, pi. 819 
(1842) ; Orag, Gen. B. iii. p. 644 (^1847) ; LemJbeye, Av. Cuba, 
p. 106 (I860) ; Bretver, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H. vii. p. 308 (1860: 
Cuba) ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 30 (1866) ; Peh. Om. 
Bras. pp. 297, 456 (1871 : Cujutuba, Feb. ; Rio Muria) ; Gray, 
Handri. B. iii. p. 10, no. 10012 (1871) ; Later. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
i. p. 450 (1878: Guadeloupe). 

Charadrius crassirostris, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 77, pi. cxiv. (1826) 
Cab. Schomb. Reis. Guian. iii. p. 750 (1848). 




* Certainly a mipprint for wilsonii. 



2(i. OCBTHUDROlirS. 215 

RahAHiM) : CWm. IVftc. Acad, PhilaH. IbOO, p. 378 (St. Thomai) ; 
Mmrrh, Froc. Acad. litiUtd. 184*4, p. C6 (Jauiaicm) ; Dre»$er, Ibis, 
\ma, p. 54 ((UlveMoD lul., TexM); UkUvm, t. e. p. 11)7 (Britinh 
liomlanui) ; Later. Ann. Lye. \. V. viii. p. 294 (Ibd?) ; M. 4* 
iWr. P. Z. S. IbOM, p. liV) (Venezuela) ; Mlm, liutL Jlarr. CoU. 
ii. p. ;jr>5 0H71) ; O/wr*. Kty \. Amer. B, p. 244 (1H72) ; &/. ^ 
Salr. A'owuiir/. Ac. Sei»tr. p. 14.'5 (1873); Later, Tr. lioii, JSoe, 
y, H. ii. p. 307 (1874 : Maiatlan) ; Merriil, J*r, CK Nat. Mus. 
i. p. ItX) (1878: Fort Bmwn, Texa»); CVry, Ii, Bahamas, p. 147 
(1880) ; A.itE- Ncfcton, Handb. Jamaica, p. 1 15 (1881) ; L\m^, 
CJ^Jk^. y. Amer. B. p. 97 (18K2) ; id. Key S, Amer. B. 2nd ed. 
p. 01)1 (1HK4); Cory, B, S. D»ming*>, p. 143 (iNC)); IhUcker, 
Amk^ iii. p. 438 (1884{: Shinnecock Bay; Long Island) ; iSahin, 
Ibis, IfyHJ. p. 178 (Britinh Uuiana) ; A' O, V. Check-4. y. Amer. 
B. p. llVi (1^80: Houlh fmm I-^mg \A.\ Nova Stuitia) ; Tacz. 
Oni. /Vn^ii. iii. p. 34:J O'^^) ; Cory, Auk, iv. pp. 228, 229 (1887) ; 
Ridgw. Man. X Amer. B. p. 175 ( 1887) ; Seott, Auk, vi. p. 159 
(I'^l: TaqMrn Spring, Moriaa) ; Bobitwim, t. c. p. 195 (JaroeH R., 
Vinrinia) : Cory, B. West Ind. p. 228 (1889: Babaman & Greater 
Antdlen): id. B. Bahamtu, 2nd ed. p. 147 (18iM)); id. Auk, vii. 
p. 374 (IHIH): Anepida), p. 375 (Vir^^in (lorda) ; Sorthrop. Auk, 
Tiii. p. 7k\ (1891: Conct'uion Isl., liahaniaa); Cory, t, c. p. 350 
(C treat BAhaiiia/»), p. •V>1 (Ina^'ua Ul., liabama>); id. Cat. B. 
West Ind. p. 95 (lxi»2) ; St^tt, Auk, ix. p. 15 (lf<02: Port 
H**ndenk)n, Jamaica, apparently n*:*id»>nt) ; Cory, t. c, p. 48 
(Mnmiruana, liahanian) ; Scfttt, f, c. p. 212 (Morida). 

Iliatirula wila^ni, Gray, Li»t (iraU, Brit, Mu», p. 70 (1844: N. 
.\n>«*hca). 

CNrkth'^rumuii wilminiua, Reickenh, GraO. p. xviii ; Bp, C. R. xliii. 
p. 418 (185(5) ; GundL J, f. O. 1874, p. 313 (Porto Bico), 1875, 
p. ;tt3 (Cuba); id. Om, (^ha, p. 1H)(187<^); Ridgw. iV. U.S. 
yai. Mum. iii. p. \W (1880); Bcldiny, op. cit. v. p. 545 (188.*)) ; 
Baird, Brewer, ^ Ridgv, Hater- Birds N, Amer. i. p. K^ (1884) ; 
Xeiedam, I'r. r,iS, yat. Mus. viii. p. 113 (1885: ('<»ta Rica); 
Heine ^ Reicken. yomencl. Mus. Ilein. p. XM (18)K): Cuba; 
Colombia). 

«'fr4rialitift wilnoniana, Salnn, Ibis, IMU, p. 387 ((wraMv Car, Britinh 
ll'mdiiniji), X^^^t, p. 191 ((tuatfiuala, Pacitic Coast) ; Tacz. P,Z,S, 
1*^77. p. .'i'tO (Tumbez; Santa Lucia« Peru). 

•'fVialiUi wiUitniuji, var. rntiuu('hu>, Ridyur. Amer. Nat, riiL p. 109 
(l*-74: Jamaica, IK^. & .\pril). 

.I-Vialitii» wiUmi. Aded^m, Cat. Aves Co^ta RU^, p.30(lN^2); Sairin, 
Ibis, 1889, p. 379 (Cozum*-l ). 

•4CirialttiawiiM>niuiirutinuonuii, Ridytr. I*r. CS. yat. Mus. ?ii. p. 177 
(IHM : Sabanilla, Nc'w (ininada). 

( ferbthddnmiuf wiWiniu** rutinuchua, Baini, Brewer, j- Ridyw, H'atar* 
Btrds y. Amer. i. p. HW (Ihs|). 

A'^^xahxim wilMinia nitinucba, Rufyw. Man. y, Amer, B. p. 175 
(I'M*;!. 

Cbaradhut wiUmi, Serbohm, (ievyr, Di^r. Ckaradr. p. 154 (1868: 

C 'mue i ^ranire ; Camatiu ». 
.%:^tia nitinucba, Uariert, Ibis, lKi:{. pp. :y)7, lUiT, (Bonaire). 

Admit maU in breeding- jilumage. (leiioml colour alwre uniform 
dark brown, with a aligbt glow of olive-green, tbe wing-coverU 
hlle the back, the greater i»cn<*a narrowly tip|ied with white ; 
baatard-wiDg, primar^'-coverta, and quilU dark brown, the fimt 
pnaar} white-ahafted, the rcat with a part of the nhaft white, and 



216 CHARADRIID^. 

the inner ones having an inconspicuous mark of white at the base 
of the outer web ; the secondaries brown with white shafts, and 
paler bases to the inner webs, the innermost long secondaries brown 
like the back ; rump brown, with a dusky patch ; upper tail-coverts 
also brown, the lateral ones white, like the sides of the rump ; tail- 
feathers light brown with white tips, before which is a sub-terminal 
shade of darker brown, evanescent towards the outer feathers, 
which are white, the penultimate one shaded with pale smoky 
brown ; crown of head brown like the back, separated by a band 
of black from the forehead, which is whit'O, as also the eyebrow ; 
a streak of black from the base of the bill to the eye ; ear-coverts 
light brown ; cheeks and throat white, like the rest of the under 
surface ; across the fore-neck a broad band of black ; under wing- 
ooverts and axillaries white : " bill black ; feet pale flesh-colour ; 
iris brown ; eyelids greyish " (B, Ridgway), Total length 6*3 
inches, culmen 0*85, wing 4*6, tail 1*85, tarsus 1*2. 

The full summer plumage of this Plover is apparently developed 
before the return of the species to its breeding-quarters; in full 
plumage the eyebrow, ear-coverts, and hind-neck are bright cinna- 
mon rufous, and there is a good deal of rufous mixed with the 
black collar on the fore-neck. This rufous colour can be traced in 
a few examples from North America, but it would seem to fade 
very quickly, and in most of our scries, procured in May and June, 
it has disappeared entirely. 

Adult female in summer plumage. Similar to the male, but 
difiering in the praepectorsd collar being brown instead of black, 
often with a tinge of rufous ; the black band on the forehead never 
fully developed as in the male, and often entirely absent. 

Adult in tvinter plumage. Differs from the summer plumage in 
wanting the black on the lores and the fore part of the crown, 
these parts being brown like the rest of the back ; the band on the 
fore-neck aluo ashy brown instead of black. 

Hah. North America, from Nova Scotia, south through Central 
America, to Brazil and Peru. 

0; d. Ad. sestiv. sk. North America. J. J. Audubon, Esq. 

c. Ad. festiv. sk. Halifax, Nova Scotia. Seebonm Coll. 

d, S ad. aestiv. sk. Pennsylvania (Krider). Seebohm Coll. 

e,/. fS ad. etpull. CobVs Isl., Virginia, July Salvin-Godman Coll. 

sk. (Hensh. Coll.). 

g. ^ ad. eestiv. sk. Fort Macon, N. Carolina, May Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(H. Coties). 
h-p\ (S 2 ad. Tarpon Springs, Florida, May, Salviu-Godman Coll. 

sestiv.etpull.sk. June ( W. E. D. Scott), 
q'-v'. (5 2 ad. Corpiw Christi, Texas, May Salvin-Godman Coll. 

SBStiv. sk. (P. B. Arjwttrong). 

tv'. J ad. sk. San Bla.s Topic, Mexico, April Salvin-Godman Coll. 

( W. B. Bichardsim). 
.r'. <5ad.hiem.sk. Progreso, Yucatan, Nov. (G. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

F. Oa toner). 
t/-a". Ad. hiem. Cozumel Island {G, F. Gau- Salviu-Godman Coll. 
sk. mer). 



2<). ocHruoDRoMrs. 217 

h ', Ad. hiem. »k. Jolbox Uland (G. F. Gau- Salvin-luHiiumn Coll. 

mtr). 

r", d'. .<r 9 ftd. (tniKHv('av,HritUhHuD<lui«i«. Sal vin-Cxodman Coll. 

«-]«tiv. nk. Miiy (O. *S'.). 

^' y' . Ad. hiem. Chiapam, (iiiatemala, Jan. SalTin-Godman Coll. 

».k. (O. .V). 

A .9 ad. hiem. »k. ADeKrada N., W. I., Dec. U Salvio-Godman Coll. 

KV,S. WynckV 

I. r. Ad.tk. Puna I9.. lilcuador ( TO/la- Sal v in-4 ;odman Coll. 

/'. Ad. f»k. Vrn«*/Ufla. Mr. T. Ihwn [CI 

m . * ati. nk. Carii|mnn. Venezuela (.'f. SalviD-Ci'odmiui Coll. 

n . I w\. ilk. Itiv»T Chii[M>c, Cayenne Salvin-ltodinan Coll. 

{JtUki). 

» . Ad. hirni. f«k. llahin, ](nizil(/>r. M'urA^rrr). Sulvin-Gudman Coll. 



4. Ochthodromns geofhroyi. 

< ^h-intdrius aidttticiis (/wr Vall.)^ Ilorrf. Travu. IJhh. .Vor. xiii. p. 187 

( 1***J1 : JaTut. 

< hanidriu^ hiatirula {nfc L.), Sari^ni/, Ik^er. dt fJ-A^pte, Ois. 

j.l. 14. titf. 1 (lS-»'>). 
( 'tinnidriu<» pi>tfio\i, Wtu^l. St/^t. Ar.^ Charadrius, p. (Si, no. 10 
i\^'j7): Kittlitzl Kupfrrt. I V p. l*t», pi. ;M. fijr. -J (IKW: Ked 
.Vai; Jf/iffh,J. A. .V. /^iwy. xii. p. iHl (IM-'J : S. India); ^/ray, 
f,em. li. lii. p. r>44 (IM?) ; //«iy/. /Ai>, 1H.7.». p. :i4*i (K.d .Sea, 
rr^idfHti; /l Srirt'm, Ihi*, 1^*<>.*J, p. 4''>.'> (.Mada^aM'.tr, Srpt.) ; 
liiyth, If'i*^ I*******, p. .*U ; .VrA/. .Vi/u. tiay-lUv^ Cur«k»rej», p. 39 
J N*.'ii ; ui. /'. /. .s. l^iKi. p. 42o (N.W. ciiaitt of .Mada^radcar) ; m/. 
* /V-7. /V/fiHr Madiitj., Ois. pp. 121». 17l' ( lM;^) ; //rtr//. A* Fifi^eJk, 
/• /. .V. lN>. pp. lir, ll?< jlVlew Ulandi*) ; Ftn^ch, Trans. Zool, 
.v«-. \ii. p. i'7t* (1^7*{ : /i»ullu, .Man*h ; MaMMiwah, June «\; Au^.); 
/.HjrA A liurfl. I'iH/. (Ma/r. p.r>4S (1^70) ; dray, Hamd-L li. iW, 
p. U. no. innU (l»^7h; llartl. ^ Fifi»ch, P. Z. S. I^7l^ i>. h9; 
iiruuL Om. y.O.-Af'r. u. pt. 1, p. I0l**», pi. xxxiv. ti;r. .*i (1^7ii : 
lv>pt. «i!.t«T : V%»t\ S-a, <iult'of .\den, July toNn\.); /VwjfA, 
J' urn Mu*. (i"*irfr. \iii. p. .'tl (l^7•'>: IVIew \*.\\ Ut»frnh. 
J:et»t .fJkt. fiVritinUi. p. l» (I"7'»); llartl. //pW, 1>77, p. .*i.V) ; iJ. 
I '^;. .Minla*f p. :;*m; (1*'77) ; Kt^nb. Malay . Anh. pp. 1'77. .'tlM, 
4<C, .Vi^l ^l^7.** 7l»: .N'W iiiiima; Mymil 1 ; Ikirt/. Ihi*, \f*H), 
p l»4 iAj»la MiniT); Milnr-lUhrani» \ (irandid. Hi*t. Xat, 
Miidittf., i}iM. p. .Vi7 ( \*^*^:i\ ; Sfirrtz. lhi», \>f<\, p. H) ( I'amir, not 
I l^-^rirdi; Forf*e*t /*. /• •*»*• l'^'*-!, p. ^ ('IVnimljer Ii»l.) ; Fu^ker^ 
J f n l*<*. p. 1I"» (r-i'^rua); Sharpe, IhU, l^Wt, p. -I'J2 (Fim», 
Ma/ii. .. LtBtrr, l\ /.. s. l-H^s, p. .iLM (( "hri-lnrnj* I-l., Indian 




II iMnurA. .-fno/. X. p. ti (lKi:{: ZauzilMir, Nu\.i; id. Vug, 
Ik'utmk'iM'Afr. p. .'nJ ( l**ll| : iMVulial. 
< t.iiiafinii* l'*wh«iiauUi, 7^m. Man. d'Om. ii. p. .'tlfl? ( l^^'J^^i ; .VariiiA. 
./ J .V //my. xxix. p. 'Joli (I^«i0: Amn\ ) ; Hallnre, 1\ Z. S. 
l-**l, p. 4'»7 liiun.;; hiytrd, li. S. A/'r. p. in»l» (lhiJ7: Halt 
llif.r. ra|*eT«.wii»i i'ah. \ liftiktn J./. O. 1»»7«», p. :J27. 



218 CHARADRIIDJ.. 

Charadriufl columbinus, Wagl, Isis, 1829, p. 650 (&r Hetiwr, j> Ehr, 
MS,) ; Grayy Gen. B. iii. p. 644 (1847). 

Charadrius gnseus {nee Leach), Less. TraitidPOm. p. 544 (1831). 

Charadrius rufinus, Blyth, Ann, 8f Mag. N, H, xii. p. 169 (1843: 
Calcutta) ; Hodys. Icon. ined. in Brit. Mus., Grail, pi. 54. no. 669, 
App. pi. 41 ; id, in Graj/s Zool. Misc. p. 86 (1844) ; Gray. Gen, 
B. m. p. 544 (1847). 

Hiaticula geoffroyi, RUpp. Syst. Uebers, p. 118 (1845: Red Sea); 
Gray, Cat, Mamm, ^c, Nepal prea. Hodga. p. 182 (1846J ; Blyth, 
Cat, B, Mm. As. Soc. p. 262 (1849 : Calcutta) ; Swinh, Ibis, 
1866, p. 134 (Formosa^. 

Hiaticula inoniMta, Goulds B, Austr, '^^ pl> 19, large figure (1846 : 
pt, Oomaga lal., Torres Straits ; Port Essiugton). 

Charadrius fuscus, Pucheran, Rev. Zool, 1851, p. "2^2 {ex Cuv. Mus. 
Paris). 

Ochthodromus geoffiroyi, Reichenb, GraU. Taf. cv. fig. 1061 (1852). 

Hiaticula coluDD>ina, jLicht, Nomencl. A v. Mus. Berol. p. 94 (1854: 
Arabia). 

iGgialitis gigiis, A. ^ L. Brekm, Vogdf. p. 283 (1855). 

Charadrius gigas, L. Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 289. 

Cirrepidesmus geoflrojri, Bp. C, R, xliii. p. 417 (1856) ; Hume, Str. 
F. i. p. 229 (1873: Karachi), ii. p. 288 (1874: Andamans & 
Nicobars), iv. p. 12 (1876 : Northern Guzerat) ; Miiller, J.f. O. 
1882, p. 83 (Salanga) ; Heine ^ Reichen. Nomencl. Mus. Hein. 
p. 336 (1890: Abyssinia). 

iSkrialitis geoffiroyi, Heugl. Syst. Uebers. p. 56 (1856) ; Stainh. Ibis, 
1861. p. 51 (Amoy), 1863, p. 405 (Formosa); Scl. P. Z. S. 1863, 
p. 222 (Banjarmassing) ; Jerd. B. Ind. iii. p. 638 (1864) ; E. 
Newton, Ibis, 1867, pp. 343, 359 (Seychelles); Chtdwin-Austen, 
J. A. 8. Beng. xxxix. p. 273 (1870 : Khasia Hills) ; Harting, Ibis, 
1870, p. 378, pi. xi.; Stoinh. t. c. pp. 360, 361 (W. Hainan, 
Shanghai) ; Blanf, Gtol, 8f Zool. Abyss, p. 429 (1870 : common 
on the sea-coast) ; Sheliey, B. Egyivt, p. 238 (1872 : Lake Mareotis, 
Feb. ; Damietta, March) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 404 (China : 
Formosa, winter) ; Wold. Ibis, 1873, p. 316 (Andamans) ; Hayes 
Lloyd, t. c. p. 416 (Gulf of Kutch) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 318 
(1874) ; Antinori 8^ Salvad. Viagg. Bogos, p. 143 (1873 : Massowa) ; 
Legge, Ibis, 1875, p. 400 (Ceylon, June & July) ; Wald. Trans. 
Zool. Soc. ix. p. 227 (1876 : Philippines) ; Salvad. Ann, Mus, 
Gen, ix. p. 63 (1876 : Sanghir) ; Armstr. Str. F. iv. p. 339 (1876 : 
Elephant Point) ; Hume, t. c. p. 463 (Laccadives) ; Tweedd. Ibis, 

1877, p. 322 (Sumatra); David ^ Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 426 
(1877) ; Dresser, B. Eur. vii. p. 476, pi. 520. tiff. 2, pi. 521 (1878) ; 
Hume (Sr Davison, Str. F. vi. p. 46i5 (1878 : Tenasserim) ; Oust. 
BuU. Soc. Philomath. 1878, p. 181 (Seychelles) ; Ball, Str. F. vii. 
p. 226 (1878 : Orissa, N. of Mahanadi) ; Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc, 
N. S. JT. ii. p. 197 (1878: Port Darling; Port Essington ; Gidf 
of Carpentaria ; Cape York ; Rockingham Bay) ; Salvad. P. Z. S. 

1878, p. 82 (Amboina); Sharpe, Report Trans. Venus {Rodriguez), 
p. 462 (1879) ; Hume, Str. F viii. p. 112 (1879), p. 167 (Tonka; 
Klanjz:; Singapore); Tiraut, Bull. Vomm. Agric. Uochinchine, {S) 
i. p. 147 (1879) ; Butler, Cat. B. Sind etc. p. 67 (1879) ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1879, p. 360 (Labuan, July) ; Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N. S. W. iii. p. 297 (1879 : S.E. Guinea), iv. p. 101 (1880 : Port 
Moreebv distr. ; S. Cape ; Duke of York Group ; Solomon Is.) ; 
Butler,^ Cat. B. S. Bomb. Pres. p. 73 (1880); Vidal, Str. F. ix. 
p. 81 (1880: Gahagar; Ratungiri, S. Konkaii) ; Legye, B. Ceylon, 



26. 0CBTB0DE0XU9. 219 

p. 990 < 1»0); Haitad. Voy, H.MJi, * ChaUenptr; ii. ^inb, p. 64 
(1881) ; Skarpe, P. Z, S, 1881, p. 800 (SmkUImd) ; AVMam, 
i&M, 188l\ p. 9 (MalAT IVninHulA, Nov.): Saltixd, Om, I'Ojmoiia 
eU, iii. p. L>(H (1hhl>) ; kf. .<«!•. Mtu, Om. xviii. p. 325 (1882: 
(feojrr. dii.tr.) ; Ilartiny, P. Z, S. 1882. p. 33.> ; Oa/^#, 7/iiik/^. ^. 
Brit, Burnt, ii. p. 3(WJ (!>*«;<); .V/. P. /. A\ l8^*i, pp. 52, 200 
(Maroe, Timor-lAiit) : Sharpe, lhi$, lHH4, p. 322 (Wlmwan) ; 
TrtMir, Faun, ^ Flttr, Palest, p. 129 (18KI) ; Meyer, Hitsb, u, Abk. 
Gtmiisek. JsU, 1884, Abh. i. p. 55 ( Bouru) ; //. O. Furhen, P. Z, 8. 
]^ft4, p. 433 (Timor-Uut) ; Vt^nierm. Sat. Tijdschr, XedeH, Jud, 
xlir. p. 2H4 (1884: Java) ; ,Murray, Vertebr. Faum, Sind, p. 226 
(1881); Sharpe, ed. lAmordT* B. H. A/r. p. 6(i4 (1884: Port 
KUiab«th): Sehrk, J. f. O, 1885, p. :<5 (Wai^riou); OuilUm. 
P. Z, S. 1HH5. p. rtiU (tN'aijri«»u. Oct.) ; Skarpe, Ibis, I88<i, p. 1«7 
(MuM»at) ; <?!>/. Ari/. Itai. p. 371 ( 1{<8(;) ; Salrad, Eleno»Uec, Ital, 
p. 211 (1SN(: Saniiniu): RamMty, Tab. Liti Auntr, B, p. 10 
(188m : N.W. & N. .Vuntralia to Ilockioffham IUt) ; Hume, Str. F, 
xi. p. 313 (1H^*S: Manipiir); Ramtay, Pn>c. iJnn. StM\ \. S. W, 
VJ) ii. p. 171 (I'^MH; IKtIiv); ffuillrm. Ibi$, 1m^8, p. 104 (Cvpru«, 
Mnn-h); .VA/ny*-, /. r. p.' 'JiM (Palawan); Shrllry, t. c. p. ;J05 
(Manda F»l., Nn\.) ; I'ttrdrrm. Sat, TijtUchr. St^erl, Imi. xlix. 
p. 415 (iMMtl : Sumatra) ; Kcrrett, Jtmm, St rait $ Branch As. Sue, 
iHKft, p. 11 r> ; id. p. Z. S. 1^89. p. 225 (Palawan) ; iPrwer, Ibis, 
18(41, p. yr2 (Traiuica)«pian rt*frion, April); IMford, t. c. p. 338 
(CVpru»); Giyl. Ari/. Ital. Ut Bemtc. p. 570 (iJvO) ; Whitehead, 
Ibis, lh90. p. 58 (Palawan, Au^.) ; Sharpt, t. e. pp. 143, 284 
(fjibuaii, Jan.) ; Steere, List B, <V Mamm. Ejped. PhUipp. p. 25 
(1h:4): Pam^M); Sharpe.Ibis, ]^91. p. 113 (Fao, Aug.) ; Htyan, 
t. c.im. XU), 5<)3 (l^iwer Yan>rt*««*) ; Sairoii. Ayy. Om. Papuasia, 
rff. lii. p 2<«» (HIM); Sibree, Ibis, 1h<>2. p. 115 (Macla|?a«?ar) ; 
iJeia Tom he, t. c. p. 4JW (Ftiochow) ; I^eyge, Proe. Austr. Assoc, 
Adntnc, Sci. 1M$»2, p. 36; Styan, Ibis, \m\, p. 4:i6 (Hainan); 
Bianf. Ihis, IHIM. p. 574 (crit.) ; ? IV, W. Curdeitu.!, t. c, p. 373 
(Ca»*hmrn-) ; Meyer ^ Wiylestc. J./. O. iHJM. p. 250. 

.iCinalitij^ li*M:h*naulti. .SVinA. IbU, \f*^\,p. ;U2 (iVkin), 184^2. p. 255 
(Ko«rh«iW) ; id. P. Z. S, 1j^J3, p. ;{CX> (FonmMa, rvMd««nl) ; H'yatt, 
Ibis, 1^70. p. 17 (Sinai). 

Charadriitf anijiticu* {nee /W/.), Tristr. P. Z. .V IHOI, p. 450 
(Pileotin**); id. Ibis, IMU. p. 2:K) ; Blyth, Ibis, \HQ,\ p. 34; 
TrtMtr Ibis, 18IJ7. p. \K\ (th.^d Sea>. iHW.p. :J23 (.Vrre). 

i>chtb<MlromuA inumatui*, (ruuld, Hamib. B. Austr, ii. p. 237 
HmW*). 



KwiromiaA CTaiiKiri«tna (it^ A)m>), Setertz. TurkeM. Jer*jtn, p. 146 
I K3 : F«>rt IVr»ffd(v, Jum> ; I^e (^batir-Kul ; 1 1.000 ft.\ Julj ; 
K. r«iAiit uf ( Vpian. Aiv.) ; Ihrsser, Ibis, l^"6ji. 327. note. 

Kudnimian inNiffro\i, >irrertz. J.f. O. 1873, p. 34tl (Turki*}*tan ), p. 354 
(Varkanil;; Meyer, t. e. p. 4<W> MVliiben); Serertz. J. f. O. 1^75, 
p 1H2 <Turk.^tan) ; Ihre^ser, Ibis, 187#J, p. 327 ; I^z, J. f. 0. 1877, 
p 37W (IVram); Tweedd. P. Z. S. 1^7h. p. 28^« (I)uniaKuet«*, 
\\i9\, p. 314 (S. I>»yt**. Sept.). p. 624 (Palawan. Nov.), p. 711 
iN. Ifc.bol, Ut., Nov.) ; Meyer, Ibin, 1H7». p. 141 (I^kt* of Tnn- 
daon. Junr; Liinbutti, July); Biasius, J./. O. ISXJ, p. 150 
(IVlrbr^l ; Boyd. Ctmsp. Av. Imp. Bt^s. p. 74(1(*^4: W«*«t«*ni 
Tbiao Shan; (*aiiptaii); Badde, Om. Caue. pp. 43, 416 (lN44: 
Ta^ptMi, wintf-r). 

Kudr%»aiia« DairninwtrU, Setrrtz. J.f. O. 1875. p. ]H2 (Turkettao). 



220 CHARADRIID.E. 

Adult in breeding -plumage. General colour above light brown, 
with a slight olive-greenish gloss, the wing-coverts like the back, 
with obsolete indications of paler fringes to some of the feathers, 
the greater series tipped with white, forming a narrow wing-bar ; 
bastard- wing, primary-coverts, and quills brown, the primaries 
darker brown along their outer webs and at the tips, and having 
white shafts, the inner primaries also having a white mark 
towards the base of the outer web ; secondaries brown, with white 
fringes to the end of the outer web and white tips, the shafts also 
white, with a little extension along the sides of the shaft in the 
inner secondaries, the innermost long secondaries like the back, 
the outer ones white along their outer web ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts a little lighter and more ashy brown than the back, with 
white fringes to most of the feathers, the sides of the rump also 
whit'C ; tail-feathers ashy brown, with a broad white tip, before 
which is a sub-terminal shade of darker brown, forming an obsolete 
sub-terminal band ; the outer feathers with more or less white near 
the base of the inner web, the outermost one almost entirely white, 
except for a slight shade of smoky brown and a slightly indicated 
sub-terminal shade of darker brown ; hinder part of crown of head 
light brown, entirely surrounded by pale cinnamon-rufous, which 
occupies the fore part of the crown and extends down the sides of 
the neck round the hinder neck, where it forms a broad collar of 
pale cinnamon-rufous ; base of forehead white, followed by a narrow 
black bland ; lores also black, as well as the feathers in front of 
and below the eye, which unite with a black band along the top of 
the ear-coverts ; sides of face and under surface of body white ; 
across the fore-neck and chest a broad band of cinnamon-rufous or 
light chestnut, which extends a little way down the sides of the 
upper breast ; under wing-coverts, axillaries, and quill-lining 
white. Total length 8*5 inches, culmen 1, wing 5*5, tail 2, 
tarsus 1*45. 

Adult in winter plumage. Differs from the summer plumage in 
wanting the rufous chest and in the absence of all facial markings. 
General colour above uniform brown, the head like the back, the 
hind-neck paler and more ashy brown ; lores, forehead, and a broad 
eyebrow white, as well as the eyelid ; feathers below the eye brown, 
extending in a streak along the ear-coverts ; cheeks and entire 
under surface of body pure white, with a patch of brown on each 
side of the upper breast : *'bill black ; tarsus greenish grey or pale 
olive ; toes dusky or blackish ; iris brown " (A. 0, Hume), 

Young. Similar to the adults in winter plumage, but dark brown, 
with faint edges of sandy buff to the feathers of the upper surface ; 
eyebrow and sides of face washed with sandy rufous, a strong 
shade of which colour pervades the cliest and sides of the upper 
breast. 

JJah. Probably breeds in Japan, Formosa, and Hainan, according 
to Mr. Scebohm. Heuglin believes that it also breeds on the Red 
Sea coast. Winters in Africa, India, and Australia. 



2'i. OCHTUODROIirs. 221 

a. Ad. !ik. iMftin of Arrt», PiUeatiDe. Tanon TrUtnim [^( -.j. 

A. -• md. i»k. Deerehetw. Canon TriAtram (\,. 

r Ad. »k. t^mynia. Ciuuld Coll. 

d. / ad. wk. Tor, lVnin«iilA of Sinai, Mnv. S*«»lx>hm Coll. 

t, (S •d. ^k. Near Suvz, Feb. S<vl)ohin Coll. 

/. ' ad. hiem. Alfxandriii, FVb. SwlH)hm Coll. 

9k, 

g. .\d. hiem. »k. Arabia {Jlrmftr. ^ Kkr). SeoUihm Coll. 

(Co- type of (\ columbitmi,) 

k. \t\. Kk. Majuowah, .Aiii?. IM ( H*. Jrime). Salvin-<iodmRn (V)ll. 

I. c^ iinni. *k. MaAMiwah, Juuf ( If. JeMe\. Twe«*ddal»* (*oll. 

ik. $ ad. ak. .Mnv^ouah, \n^. ( If. Jrstf). S«t>}M)bm Coll. 

/. * ad. fdc. /otiUa, .\nne»lov Huv, Jan. 17. W. T. lilanford, Eaq. 

!•• 

a • • 

M. N. '^ ad. hiem. Mnnda NUnil, K. .\ftica, F. J. Jackaon, Knq. 

nk. Nov. l;j. P.'. 

o. s ad. hiem. Ourbau, Natal. March (<rVr//^e). Seeb<ihm C<ill. 

»k. 

p. .\d. ilk. Ca|>«* Colony (/^yfrrr/). Sa1vin-(todman Coll. 

f. Ad. »k. MHdn^'H<H*Mr. i^urchaatnl. 

r-r. / V nd. ^k. .\.K. Mada^^a^tcar ( rnii //flitiK .S^'Uibm Coll. 

•r. A«l. ck. KtHiri)fut*/ j //. //. Siufer). Trannit of Venim 

KxiMHiition. 

X. y. .\d. hifm. Miim-m. C<»lonel Miliw ' I*. . 

•k 

g c Ad. hii-ni. Fao, lVr'>ian (lulf, .\u^. W. I). Cummin^r, 



•< 



k. 



Km. p. . 



^ X' ^ V ad. ft KanuOii. July, .\«fr., Nov. (A*. Hume C oil. 

ju% »k. H. JiHt/fr). 

r t (T J ad. nk. Kanirbi. IVb. {A.O Jl), Hume C«»ll. 

M . .\d. hit-ni. Ak. lUlai-htTrv, Kathiawar, (k*t. Colonel Haves I Jo vd 

». ^ ad. ;ir', i'. Sainbur l*ake, .\iij:. (/f. .V. Hume Ct>ll. 

y . • jiiv. i»k. Atiani). 

J • « • ^ r »d. Ijir(-adi\i*ii, I'Vb. ( A. (). //.). Hum«* Coll. 

hiv-na. »Ji. 

'» i ad. hit-ni. S.K. c-oaM of (%'\loij, July Dr. R. li. .^baqw 

•k { U\ r. I^/*/t i. * ' P. . 

^ . ' a«i. hifoi. (*Hli-utta, Jan. 1 1. Hum** Coll. 

•k. 

ii .' . * ad. «>k. KyotiL Pb\on, .\pril ( J. Arm- Hunit* C«>11. 

f .*j.(^%t\. Klt'idiunt Piiint. I^T. (J. .l;/u- llumt'<*oII. 

hi«*tu. »k i^nmif\. 

k , % , k' . V »*1- .\mh»T«»t, IVnn^rfM'rim, IhT. ti» Humi' (Nill. 

hi'm. ^k. F«b. J W. JPaniUfH). 

t i td. hi*'m. \Vip|i;tan. D*-e. (J. /Mr/tMy). Hum** Coll. 

•a. 

m . n . o . ' I* S. .Vnilamnn*, Jan. to Marrh Twff«ldiilf ('oil. 

■d »k (/^ r;. H . /»•». 

p * ad. l.i*-m. (fn>vnH (''iXi*. S. .Xndamani, Hunif (*oll. 

•k. fVt. (>'. A. dr l{,^p*t>.rf \, 

f V <^1 h:«-m. Aheplt^n. S. Ahiiamnnp, .Xpril Humi'(*oll. 

•k. (If. lMtri»,n). 

* .9 ? ad MarphffiMfn'fl Straits Marrh Hume Coll. 



hirni ak ( ll. Ihariim). 



nr- 



222 



CHARADRIIDJB. 



t". S ftd* hiem. 

sk. 
u". $ ad. hiem. 

sk. 
v' '. c^ ad. hiem. 

sk. 
ir"-<j». d ? ad. 

hiem. sk. 
<r. $ ad. sk. 
0*. $ ad. hiem. 

sk. 
/*. Ad. hiem. 

sk. 
g*. Ad. hiem. sk. 

A'. Ad. hiem. sk. 

t*. Ad.sk. 

A:*. Ad. hiem. sk. 
P. Ad. hiem. sk. 
m*. $ ad. sk. 

n'y o'. Ad. hiem. 

sk. 
p*. Ad. sk. 

^. Ad. hiem. sk. 
r*. Ad. hiem. sk. 
«*, ^*, tt*. Ad. sk. 

t7*. Ad. sk. 

K?'. Ad. hiem. sk. 

x*. Ad. sk. 

y^, S ad. CBstiv. 

sk. 
2*. $ ad. sk. 

a^, S ad. hiem. 

sk. 
b^. $ ad. hiem. 

sk. 
c*, rf*. d 2 ad. 

hiem. sk. 
0*. c^ ad. hiem. 

/*. Ad. hiem. sk. 
^*. Ad. hiem. sk. 
A*. 5 ad. hiem. 

sk. 
t*. Ad. hiem. sk. 
A*, ^, m*. Ad. 

hiem. sk. 
n*. Ad. hiem. sk. 
o*. Ad. sk, 
f?*, y*. cf 9 '^^^ sk. 



Oamorta, Nicobars, Feb. (W. 

Davison), 
Montshall Is., Nicobars, March 

14 ( W, Davison). 
Tonka, Malay Peninsida, Jan. 

(J, Darling), 
Salanffore, Jan., Feb., Aug. 

( TV. Davison), 
Singapore, April {Kelham), 
Java. 

Java (Hors/ield). 

Lampong, S.E. Sumatra (E, 

C, Buxton). 
Labuan. 

Labuan. 

Sarawak. 

Banjarmassing (J. Motley), 

Matu Beach, May 8. 

Cochin China. 

China. 

Canton (TWA:^^). 

Canton (Bligh). 

Amoy, July, Nov. (jR. Stoin" 

hoe), 
Amoy, July (R, Swinhoe), 
N.W. Formosa (R, Swinhoe), 
Hainan, March (R. Swinhoe), 
Diimaguete, Negros, March 12. 

Dumaguete, Aug. (A. H, 

Everett), 
Concepcion, Panay, Jan. 20. 

S. Leyte, Oct. (A, H, Everett), 

N. Bohol, Oct {A. H, Everett), 

Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Oct. 
(A. H, Everett). 

Flores. 

Solor. 

Moloe Island, Tenimber Group, 

Sept. 1. 
Batcnian ( Wallace), 
Ualmahera. 

Ceram. 

Amboina. 

Amboina {Leyden Museum). 



Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

India Museum. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Governor Ussher 

[P.]. 
A. H. Everett, Esq. 

[C.]. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Wallace ColL 
A. H. Everett, Esq. 

[C.]. 
M. E. Pierre [P.]. 

J. R. Reeves, Esq. 

Tweeddale Coll. 
Seebohm ColL 
Seebohm Coll. 

Hume CoU. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 
E. L. Moseley, Esq. 

Tweeddale Coll. 



E. L. Moseley, Esq. 

rc 1. 

Tweeddale Coll. 



Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Wallace CoU. 
Wallace Coll. 
Dr. H. O. Forbes 

GouldColl. 
Wallace Coll. 

Wallace CoU. 
Wallace CoU. 
Seebohm CoU. 



26, OCBTBODBOMCt. 223 

r*. Ad. .»k. Ambi.iu*. Vor. II.M.S. • Chal- 
lenger/ 

i*. Ad. tk. MyiKil. Wallace Coll. 

f*, ■*. Ad. »k. NewCruinoa. Wallace Coll. 

rV 9 ad. hiem. Trouirhton Ih., N.W. Australia. Dr. Da^isett-Smith 

•k. ri\]. 

irV .\d. hiem. N. AuHtralia. Hume Coll. 

pk. 

^V Ad. hiem. Port Ditrwin. (}ould Coll. 

•k. 

9\ Ad. tk. CajM. York. (Jould Coll. 

z\ff*, &'. Ad. sk. QiufttutUnd. SalviD-Qodnian ColL 

r*. y ad. tk. Solitary* loland. 



.'i. Ochthodromiif mongolos. 

CharadriuA rooDgolun, Ptili. Rei*. Ruu, lUick*, iii. p. 700 (1776: 

S*lt l^en of MonfMlia): Gm. Syd. Sat. i. p. 685 (1788); Laik. 

Ind. f>ni. ii. p. 74(t (17$K)); lionn, Enc. sMith. i. p. 22 (17i)0); 

VieUl. S. IHci. tflfttt. \al. xivii. p. 143 (1818); Graff, Gen. B. 

iii. p. hM ( 1h47) : BlMiuM, J. f. O. 18KJ, p. 12ii (Celebet). 
Mun^*liAn Vloxer, Lath. Gem. Afn. iii. pt. 1, p. J07 (178*'>). 
CharadriiM mun^ilicuit, PalL jinM/r. lioMo-Aniat. ii. p. lt)6(1811: 

Ontin K. ; .\r>run) ; Middmd. Rei$ iUbir., XmJ. p. 211, pi. xix. 

ti^. 2, a (1M.-|1 : rd>.k.)i-4 Un>fr ; Mouth of Uda l(iver, Jul?); 

SrAremrk, Rei». Anmri. p. 411 {\f<W : Amur-land); J2add>, 

^ij. >Uhir., ViKi. p. :t24 (\m:\: Tarei-nor. May); Sckl. Mus. 

/Vry«- /^aji,< *uniore«, p. 41 ( M(5 : Amur-land ; PhilippineH ; Ceram ; 

Momtai; New (tuiiien); M. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 113 (l)uke of York 

I*. 1, p. r>76 lAdmiraltv 14.); Rtttenb. Malay. Arckip. p. 278 

(1-78 70); Sci Voti.'* ChaUentffr: ii. ifirJn, p. 3:J (1881: 

Aduiraltv Ii*l.); Strfmikm, Gfftyr. DUtr. Vharadr, p. 147 (1888, 

pt) : id. b. JaiMn. Emp. p. 30r^ ( 1890) ; Si^n, lbi$, 1891, pp. 830, 

JiOrj (Uwer VanjrtJ"**); CampUU, IhU, 1M^J, p. i>46 (Corea) ; 

Styan, Ihi*, IMV). p. 4.'t6 ( Hainan). 
(*hanMlnu« cirrhrpidefiiiiu^, H'aol. Sygf. Ac, Chanulriun, p. 61, up. 

!•* ilH27»: Graif, Gm. Ii. iii. p.'r>44 (1847); ui. P. Z. S. 1800, 

p. :i(V:iiEai>tCMlolo). 
('h«radriua ^laria, Wagl. Sfftt, Ar., CharadriuA, p. 69, up. 40 

1 1-1*7). 
C'liarm<lnuii i»an>niin«*u«. A^m. .Man. d'Gm. ii. p. 3.'t0 (18i>M); ui, 

TrmU drOrn. p. M4 ( iK)! ). 
Hiatirula ni<in^)la. Gray, LUi Grail. lirit. Mus. p. 69(lS44 :(*hiDa; 

Philippinr^). 
Hiatirula inoniata, G'tuld, Ii. Auttr. vi. pi. 19, rifrht-liand tifrure 

M-^Vu RrwAmA. ;V. XruMoti. no. m\ (18ol): Mai^ili. \arr. 
Vuy RmttlrMm. ii. p. .V»8 {Kyi: N.K. Coast .\uMtralia; Torres 

Strmiui. 
.fl(naliti« in«>mata. lUiehtih. Grail., Sunt. tah. rrxcviii. fi|fi. 2426- 

iC ^K^\)•, Ramsaif, J*r<tc. Linn. Stc. A. .V ir. i. p. 37.** (1877); 
H' A Fithe*. P Z S. 1H78, p. 127 (W.Hlno*<Uv W., Torrea 




p 43N (Am U.)i RoMnih. \at. Tijdtvhr. Sfderl. Ind. ht. p. 2/i3 



(1883)*; a, J.f. O. 1864, p. 186; liueA, JVm-AmM, p. 181 
(lean ; SomA. Xaiag. ArMp. p. 668 (1876-79). 
J^aiiiu mcmgDliea, SwmA. P. Z. 8. 1868, p. 810 : id. Ibii, 187(L 
1^800 (Huiun,Mucli)i Sariing, t. e. m. SOS. S8i {pt) : WtM. 
ZVn*. Zaol. aoe. iz. p. 2S7 (1876 : PhilippinM) ; iJatFirf 4- Onit. 
Oi*. Ckau, p. 437 (lff77) ; A/mA (frik Adxium ate. iii. p. 990 
(ISaS) } Mi ^HN. ifKt. Oh. Oe». xriiLp. 89S (1883) ; Blaiutom, 
Amatded LUt B. Jm. p. 10 (18U : Teao k Jnpui genenllT) ; 
Skmvf, Bm. Zool. ObO. B.M.& 'JlM,'p. S7 (1884:1Pt MoUs; 

m.._u1 D.u.v\ . i3»'if It V a IBQE _ aaJ fT>.> •_ i-l.ii. 



XiMc. J.f. O. 1886, p. 3S (Waigioa) ; Oigt. ^ Sabmd. P. Z. 8 
1887, p, 886 (Olftft BftT, CotM, S««.) ; AAiad. $ OigL Mem. R. 
Acead. Tontw, xxnx. p. 114 (1888); Bamtag, TiO. JaM Auttr. 
A p. 19(1688: Cape To^ to RocUDriiam £■;) ; Sahad. Agg. 
Om. Pamiama, v&. p. 300 (1891); De /a Toudie, OU, 1°^ 
- 'W (Foochow ■"""-•- 



p. 496 (Foochow, April, Haj, Sept.) ; L^/ga, Ptoc. Aiutr. Auoe. 
AdtoM. Sei. 1809, p. 87, pt 
Oehtliodromiu inornatni, OtrnU, Oatdb. S. Atutr. ii. p. 937 (1866, 



_. .^x. p. 856 (1886: Oluemont U.). 

JEmtlitia mongoltu, ApmA. P. Z. 8. 1870, pp. 140, 428 (Shragliai, 

Hkj) ;id.P.Z.8. 1871, p. 404 (China OotM, vmter) ; Samtoj/, 

Proo. LiiM. Soe. 2f. 8. W. ii. p. 197 (1876 : Cape York; Rocldug- 

hamB&y), iii. p. US (1879 : KatauJ, iv. p. 09 (1880 : Teste Is!), 

p. 101 (Port Morasbj). 
.^UaUiu moDKola, Smmk. IbU, 1673, p. 496 (Shuigbu) ; Bmrd, 

Bremr, & Bidgtt. Water-Birdt N. Anter. L p. 167 (18B4) ; 

Sb^ BtiB. UA JfaL Mut. no. 99, p. 106 (1866 : Beriog ft Capper 

Islands, Hay to Oct.) ; A. O. U. OkedU If. Amer. B. p. I6S 

(1866: AlMka); Bid^. S. Amer. B. p. 179 (1877); iftltm, 

S*paH Tfat. Ritt. OaU. Alaika, p 137 (1887 : Cborift FeDinaula) ; 

Bt^n. Pr. U.S. Nat. Miu. x. p. 126 (1887 : Commander Ib.) ; 

Tat*. P. Z. & 1888, p. 456 (Ohimulpo, OoiBa, June). 
Endnxoiu monjroUcuB, Too. Bull. Soe. Zed. Ihaice, i. p. 248 

(1878) ; ricMdd, P. Z. 8 1878, p 344 (8. Leyte, Sept) ; Taa. 

vp. nt. Tii. p. 307 (1882: Benng Isl) ; Boj/d. Oorup. An. /mp. 

Bm*. p. 73 (1884 : East Siberia ; Dwiria ; Bering LiL, Uaaon- 

land). 
lEffialitis mut«Tti, Bamtmit Proc. Litm. Soe. A'. S. W. i. p. 135 (1877 : 

Rockin^iein Bay to Cape York), ii. p. 107 (1878) ; id. Tab. L»t 

Auttr. B. p. 19 (1886 : Gulf of Carpentaria, Rockingham Baj) ; 

Legge, Proc. Auttr. Aitoc. Advanc. Set. 1892, p. 38. 
^^alitia ruficapilla (nee Temm.), Blakiit. ^ Pryer, lbi», 1878, 

p. 210 (Yokohnma) : cf. Seebokm, Ibit, 1879, p. 25. 
Cliamdiiiu pyrrhothorai (itec Temm.), Frittch, Vog. Eur. tab. 33. 

fig. 18 (1870); Botenb. Malay. Archip. p .^S (1878-79: Am 

iBlanda). 

Advlt in brtedinff^luniage. Similar to 0. gtoffroyi, but Btnoller, 
and with a much shorter bill and tarsus; a bioader black line 
along the sides of the face, the ear-coverta being entirely black ; 
the white throat separated &om the infous oheetr-band by a narrowly 
indicated line of black : " bill black ; feet soroewbat bluish bUck, 

* lAjMd (Ibii, 1863, p. 249) raoordi Oaralriiu inonuUvt w hsTing been 
•Mnbr binist*eaiiilat30°, long.SS"; bati think tberennutbeeomeniiitaka 
ia tbe idsntifleation. 



20. OCBTHOOROXUS. 225 

torn darker; in a dark brown** (L. Stejnegfr). Total length 
7*5 inchei, calmeo 0*75, wing 5*2, tail 2*1, tarnus 1*2. 

AduU ftnialt in tummer jtiumage. Similar to the male, but lesA 
riehlv cofoared, the rufuus chest-band never no pronounced, and 
the facial markingn leM developed, the black bands on the forehead 
oft4<n obsolete: ** bill black; feet dark grey, with an olive tinge; 
t4>c» darker, blackish ; ins dark hazel "{L, St^jn^tjfry, Total length 
7 inches, calmen 0*8, wing 5*5, tail 1*S5, tarsus 1*2. 

AdMit in u'intrr plumatje. Differs from the summer plumage in 
wanting the facial markings and the rufous chent. Very nimilar to 
th«* winter plumage of O. *jfoffroyi^ and distinguishe<l chiefly by its 
smaller sixe, shorter bill, and shorter tarsus. There is also a 
little* more brown on the ear-coverts. 

Yumntjf. Similar to the adults in winter plumage, but darker 
brown, all the feathers edgtnl with sandy brown, the eyebrow, sides 
of fsce, and under nurfat^e of the body with a strong tint of sandy 
buff: ** bill, angle of mtmth, and ring round the eyes black; legs 
rlear grvy ; tarsus tinged with yellowish, toes with blackish, and 
sole* with reddish : iris dark brown ** (^. St4Jnf*j<r). 

The exact method by which the rufous chest of the summer 
ptumagv is gained is not cany to discover. In some s{)ecimens in 
winter dress there is a dii^tinct narrow line of brown across the 
for^neck; in most of the series f>f bkins in the Museum this is 
waotiniT, as it is also in young birds. It may therefore be a sign of 
vrrr old birds only, as there are traces of brown feathers in an old 
bird which has not quite attained its full summer plumage. In 
the specimen in question it is also evident that the rufous breast is 
bring acquired by a change of colour in the feather, from brown to 
rafoQs, as well as by a moult. Probably only Ter\' old birds go 
throui^h this double process, as in the majority of specimens the 
rufoos breast appe.trs to l)e gained by a moult only. When firt»t 
4rTeloprd all the rufous feathers are edged with white. 

A >oung bird is described by Dr. Stejneger as somewhat re- 
bboir the adults. ** The brownish grey of the back is |»aler, »nd 
feather narrowly edged with isa>>ella colour, with which al^) 
thr I'iwer |iarts are suffused. On the [tectoral region a bufli^th 
tiiurr rrplaces the rufous collar, and the black markings are aliMrnt 
fn«m the hea<L the cheeks and ear-eoverts being slightly dusky ; 
the f »rvhea4i lietween the bill and the eyes whitish, suffused with 
iM^«-Ila oi44iur/* 

The winter plumage and young livery of the western and eastern 
fnrm* of O. momjitluM are, ;is might have be4*n ex[>iHrtM, ver}* 
4ifleult to distinguish, but the western form seems always to have 
a lufiirer tarsus (about 1*!^ inch), whcn*as the eastern form has the 
tafvus abuut I'l inch. 

//«A. Kreeds in Eastern Siberia and the Commander Islands, and 
extends its range to Alaska. Passes through China on migra- 
to the Philippioca and the Moluccas, wintering in these islands 
aftd Australia. 

sifv. a 



•,ft.(J5*i 


AmurUnd, Jnly (Dr. &*nntk). 


SsebohmColL 


Mtiv.ak. 






e.Ad.Bstav.Bk. 


Jspan. 


PrafeaMT HUm [C.l 


A Ad. Ik. 


Yo^bai>u(f.Aw'). 


Beebohm ColJ. 


«.OBd..k. 

/. 5 kL ik. 


aT<«o(r.Bfa«iftm). 
EurOa laUnda (Smm), 
ShasffliBi, April (A fitoAtfcw). 


Seebohm Coll. 


Beebohm CoU. 


;,A.cftd.ik. 


Seebohm CoU. 


», Ad.<k. 


CutoD. 


Tweeddale Coll. 


1^ Ad.«k. 


Cuton {8. BUok). 
QutdDffIal.,OkInB. 


Seebohm CoD. 


^. AtLak. 


Dr. McEiDlar [P.l. 


M,«. AtUMern. 
0. Ad.ik. 


MkUcu [Dr. Omtor). 


India Uaieii^^ ^ 




Seebohm ColL 


i^ Ad.B>liT.Bk. 


Philippine laUnds. 


Tveeddale CoU. 


y,p,*cr9.Bd. 


N. Bohol, Not. (A. B. 


l^em-iE 


&>rM). 




L K. Ad. Uem. 


Henado, N. CelobM. 




•tMlir.ak. 






v. Ad.MtiT.ik. 


Hklmah^. 


Wallfice Con. 


w. Ad. ak. 


Uoiotai. 


Wallace CoU. 


c. cJMLik. 


AralaUnda. 


W»lUw Coll. 


w. Ad.TtinrtiT. 


Adminltr Itluda. 


Voy. H.M.a. 'Chal- 


ak. 




lenger.' 


«. Ad.Tix«rtiT. 

•k. 
a'. Ad. iestir. tk. 


Duke of Yoik U. (0. Broion). 




TiuDfrhbm laL, N. Aoatnlia, 


P.W.BMMttSmith, 


4'. Ad. hiem. 8k. 


PoitAibuiT. 


^a.i^-.'- 


e-.tf. Ad.ak. 


Gape York (Cbekmll). 




4f. Ad.natiT.ak. 


OiMYork. 


Gould ColL 


y. Ad. hIem. ak. 


Ca^York. 


Tweeddale CoU. 


s: S »d. Bk. 


Wedneaday Id.,TorreaStraita. 


VoT. H.M.8. ' lUt- 
Voy. H.M.a 'Chal- 
Voy.H.M.8. 'Alert' 


A'. $ Bd. ak. 


r, *'. Ad. hiem. 


Channel Rocka, June (Dr. 


ak. 






r, m', n'. Ad. ak. 


. QueenKlaTid {J. T. CoekrrelD. 


SalTtn-flodman Coll. 


o: Ad. binxa. sk, 


Port Molle, Queeoalaad, Msj 


Voy.H.M.S. 'Alert.' 


p'. S-d-sk. 


(Dr. Cappinffcr). 
Moreton Bbv (Strange). 


Gould CoU. 


7'. Ad. ak. 


lUchmoud River. 


Hume Coll. 



6. Ochthodromiu PTrrhothoraz. 

Chuadriue cantiaaua (tiec Lath,), Hortf. Tram. Linn. Soc. liii. 

p. 187 (1821 : JiiT«). 
ChBredrius inconapcuus, WagL Igu, 18S9, p. 651 (ex Licit, in Mat. 

Beroi.) ; Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 644 118*7). 
CharadriuB wrrhothorfti, Gould, B. Eur. iv. pi. 290 (1837 : i-.r Temm. 

MSS.) ; Temm. Man. aOnt. iv, p. 36E (1840 : fiuaua) ; Werner, 

AtlaitTMrtiv.OraU. pi. 2 ; Sr^.Ber. Crit. pp. Inliii, fl5 (l'*44): 

Ortty,Oen.B. iii. p. 6M(1&17); Bref, B. Ear. iv. p. 18(1863); 

Trinir. Jbi«, 1868, p. 823 (Palestine) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 16, 

110.9995(1871). 
vEgiftlitia pyrrhothor&x, Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. 4' JV. Amer. p. 46 



26, OCRTBODBOMUS. 227 




p. i^JtMI'^). 
i'hAnnlriun l»»?^henaulli (n^' Ltm*.), B/iffM, J. A. S. lirnp. xii. p. >*! 

il**4.i: (•IrutU): A^himn, P. /. .V. 1^C,1>, p. 1-^8 (Chi immruri 

I^«r, Irfuliik, br^-diDir) ; •#/. Wand, Sat. Jnti, p. 'JM (184(7). 
i'harmdriiu rudiiflliii*, lilytk^ Ann, ^ Maff, S, H. ziL p. Iti9 (IKI^l: 

CaloutU). 
Chanulnu* •tibni6nti9, Jlatit/n. in (irnyg Zool. Misc, p. 80 (1844). 
CbAratlriutf ruticoUis ScJiL liec. Crit. part ii. p. Wi (1^44: ex 

(Strier) : I'mcMrran, Rer. X^m*!. IK^il, p. 2^2. 
IIiAtiruU Mibrutina, ^/ray, CW/. Mamm. ^c, yrjtnJ prt$, llodg*.^, \l\!.\ 

tlH4»l>. 
iliaticuU le^ht*naulti {nee JjtfM.), Bltftk, Cat. B, Mu$. Aft. S(te, 

p. l»rt;i (l«4i»: Calcutta); Layard, Ann. ^ May. S. JL (2) liv. 

p. l«Ml'<>4: (Vvlon). 
Iliaticula inconnpicu*, Lickt. S amend. Ac, Mu9, BeroL p. 04 (18>>4 : 

IWival). 
Ciirbipitlc^nia^ prrrbfithormx, Bp. C. R, xliii. p. 417 (186<^>. 
Cbaraaniw mun^'ilirus {nee I\tU.), TriMr. P. '/,. S. \fHU, p. 4/iO (Banks 

of Kii^h<in, wiuter) ; ///y/%, /Aw, iNU^, p. :(4 ; Se/d. Mum Ihwit-Ba*^ 

t*ui>orvii, p. 41 (1H<V>: liijnie<0 : i>ry/. ^ (irrbe, (hrn, Eur, ii. 

p. l»Ml>^S7) ; Hru^L Om. X.d'A/r. ii. pt. 1, p. lOja, pi. xxxiv. 

ti^. 4 (K.S: Adel and Somali Coa«tii); iMmf. Uis, 1878, p. :V) 

(A»ia Miii««r): H^terUL Ihi*^ 188.% p. 72 (Alai'; Paxiiir; Kara-Kul 

k lUa-Kul, li;,(XX) to 13,()iK) ft., brvedii^r): Sharpe, IbU, 1886, 

p. 1«7 (Mui^cmt); Sef^*km, (ie^*gr, Dinfr. Ckaradr. p. 147 (1888, 

J*i.)\ Bekken. J. /. O. 188$». p. 2<W'> (Zanzibar, X«)V.); id, Jakrb. 
lamimry. H'iM$enMek. An^t. x. p. H (l8ii.i: Zanxibar). 

•f i^talitra monfTDlicuft ( 14^ PaU.\^ Btytk, Ibis, lMt7, p. 164; Ilarting^ 
1*. /. .V. 1^71, p. 1 1 1 (ChoriA rcniuHula) ; Hume «V Hendern, Lakt,re 
tu Ynrk. p. •.»*<{ (Ih7a: (Jokra, 1«,0U0 ft., July); ikilcait, Ihv, 
li»,rm. p. :U« 1-74). 

.fvialiti* iu..nK»*lioa (nte Pali), Sk^ttty, B. Egyjii, p. 239 (1872); 
ILnftM /.y.»v*/. /Am, 1873, p. 41« (Katbiawar); //i/mr, Str, F. w'x. 
p. i:Ull^7.'»: P»vu) ; BIytk, B. Burm. d. lMrl^7/>) ; Hume, Str, 
/* IT. p. 'JiK\ jl87tJ: .Vndainnii*, Mav, July, S-I»t.); Annstrony, 
t r. p. :i.'fi) (Klf pliant iNiiiit ; China-litt-Kc«r) ; Ilutne, t. e. p. 4U'i 
(I^ATcadivoit) ; Blanf. Kn*t. i'rrfiti, li. y.'J7{i (1^7<^: l*ir»ian iJulf); 
Ih-f^r, //. Kur. vii. pp. I7«J, 477 (1^78); Ijttjtfr, B. Cry/on, iii. 
p. m:J 1 1>^») ; ' w//i/. .S/r. /'. ix. p. 81 ( IKSJ : S. *lv..nkan) ; Krtkam, 
Ifn*, l^^l', p. |0 (SiiiiriUMirt', Nov.) ; (kiteM^ Ilandh. B. Brit. Burm. 
u p. :ir^ (l>^i); Tn*tr. Faun. A- F/' r. htlrnt. p. 12» (lh84: 
i»ti«t»-r» ; Wrdrrm. Sat. Tijdnrkr. Stdrrt. Ind. xliv. p. 2<M ( l8>4 : 
Jii^aK Uume, Str. F. xi. p. 314 (1^^^: .Manipur) ; SkrlUy, Ibitt, 
1*M^. p. .'HI.'* I Maiida I.»l., N« -%'.); Krerrtt, Juurn. Straitit Branrk 
A: S^, IKM*, J.. J<ir»; I//. /'. /. .V. l^MI. j». 22<J (Piilawnni ; 
Vufdrrm. Sat. iifdM-kr. Sntrrt. Ind. xlix. p. 41iM 1>^)) : Sumatra « ; 
Hkttrkeoii^ lb%*, IKK), p. > (Palawan); Sharjte, Sci. B^m. :>i,d 
Yark .Vm*.. Are», p. 137 \l^i*l: Suriknl, May); Bamr*, Jbui, 
|*<i:(, pp im, iHl (.\d**tii. 

«|l.'uhti* im*Difola («rr- I'a/l. •, Watd. B'it, 1*«73, p. 317 ( Andanifinfi) ; 
f^^^, /Ai«, 1 <'», p. 401 ( ( '.% Inn ) ; //.///. Str. /*. \ ii. p. 227 ( 1878 : 
>.ii^bbhtun; OriuMi) ; C'ijj''* t-f- p 2t*'.*( Fund pur) ; Hum€f t. r. 

<i2 



228 



CHA.BADRIID.fi. 



p. 483 (Calcutta) ; id. Str. F. viii. p. 69 (1879 : Singapore), p. 112 ; 

^utier, Cat. B. Sind etc. p. 57 (1879: cold weather visitant) ; id. 

Cat. B. 8. Bomb. Pres. p. 73 (1880). 
Eudromias mongolicus, Seuertz. Turkest. Jevotn. p. 69 (1873: 

breeding) ; Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 327. 
CirrepidesmuB mongolicus, Hume, Nests 4" Fggs Ind. B. p. 571 

(1873: "nbetan Lakes); id. Str. F. i. p. 230 (1873: Karachi; 

Mekran Coast, Feb.), ii. p. 209 (1874 : Andamans & Nicobars), It. 

5. 12 (1876: Northern Guzerat, winter) ; Heine ^ Beichen. Namenci. 
fus. Hein. p. 336 (1890 : Java), 
^jgialitis mongolus, Hume fy Dariscn, Str. F. vi. p. 455 (1878: 
Tenasserim, winter) ; Tiraut, BtiU. Comm. Agric. Cochinchine, (3) 
i. p. 147 (1879). 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. Similar to 0. mongolus^ but 
paler iu general colour, and especially on the chest-band, which is 
lighter than in the last-named species. Specially distinguished by 
the black band on the forehead being united to the black ear-coverts, 
the white of the lores becoming gradually merged in the black of 
the forehead, which is therefore completely black with no white 
loral patch at aU : " bill black ; feet ashy blacJk ; iris brown " 
{F. Stoliczka), Total length 7*5 inches, culmeu 0*7, wing 4*86, 
tail 1*8, tarsus 1-25. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in plumage. Total length 
7 inches, culmen 0-7, wing 5*16, tail 1*8, tarsus 1*25. 

AdvXt in winter plumage. Similar to the winter plumage of 
0. mongolu8^ but with a slightly longer tarsus. 

Hab. Breeds in the Eirghb Steppes, and probably throughout 
Central Asia, wintering in Africa, India, and the Mblay Peninsula 
and Islands. 



a. Ad. sk. 
by c. $ ad. sk. 
d, e. Ad. hiem. sk. 
/, p. (S ? ad. CBstiv. 

sk. 
h. Ad. aestiv. sk. 

f , k. Ad. aestiv. sk. 
/, m. Ad. eestiv. sk. 

n,o.S9- ^' ssstiv. 

sk. 
p,q.(S^ ad. eestiv. 

r. (5 ad. aestiv. sk. 

8, t. Ad. sestiv. sk. 

II. Juv. sk. 

v-k'. S $ ad. hiem. 

sk. 
/'. 5 ad. aestiv. sk. 

m'. Ad. hiem. sk. 
n'y o'. Jad.hiem. sk. 



Egypt. 

Manda Isl., E. Africa, Nov. 

Mus(!at. 

Sirikol, Yarkand, May 9. 

Great Pamir. 

Western Tibet. 

Eastern Tibet, May, June 

(i. Mandelii). 
Kokonor, June, July {Prj'e- 

valsky). 
Karakash, July, Aug. (O. 

Henderson), 
Above Zogri, Ladak, July 

19 (G. Henderson). 
Ladak. 
Sind. 
Karachi, Feb. (A. O. H). 

Karachi, Aug. 3 (E. A. 

Butler). 
Kathiawar, Oct. 19. 
Etawah, Nov. 



G.TumbuU,E8q.rP.J. 
F.J.Jack8on,E8q. [P.J. 
Col. Mile« [P.]- 
Dr. F. Stoliczka [C.]. 

St. George Littledale, 

Esq. 
Earl of Gifford [P.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Purchased. 

T.C.Jerdon,£sq.[P.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Col. Haves Lloyd [P.]. 
Hume Coll. 



2Ck ocnTHODBOMUs. 229 

f '. i •«!. hiem. tk. C*ariliiniiiro U\., IjMcmdixtt, Hume Coll. 

f.xjuv. ftk. (*<iltini)Mi. (Vvlon, April I)r. K, R Shiirpi*^l\\ 

r . Ad. hiem. sk. Mulrti* {!(, U, W. R.), Twi^nldaU* ColL 

« £ ad. hiem. sk. Madr*.t. Ilum<* Coll. 

' Ad. hiom. Ilk. Ife'iipil. Hume Coll. 

M . r'.ir'. Ad.»«iti?.; Cjilrutu (lifyfk), Indi* Miueum. 

« '. jif'. Jur. Hk. 

2 .a '.& '. Ad.irttiv.: Calcutta, Dec. to .Vpril (^4. Hume Coll. 

*• •". c^ ? ad. O. //.). 

ki«-m. tk. 

i . Ad. bifm. tk. iKicra. Hume Cull. 

f , m . * ^ ad. .Mi*irantf. Maiiipur, Ffb. 10 Hiimo Coll. 

hi.-m. pk. {A. O. //.j. 

■ . *• . /' '. rf 9 *<I* Klt'pliant I'nint, Ik*c., April Hum«* Coll. 

hi<*oi. ak. [X Annfdnmif), 

y ■ / ad. kiem. »k. Cliinn-lia-Kerr, Dec. {J. Hume Coll. 

Arnutrtmy). 

r . i wA. hiem. «>k. PhaKAt, Nov. (/. Arm^ Hume Coll. 

• r . ^ J ad. et Teini. .S«pt. to M«v {E, If. Hiime Coll. 
juT. »k. O.). 

J i ad. hiem. i^k. Sittan^ Kiver, TenaMt'rim, Hume i'oll. 

Ffh. 14 < ir. i>nriJ'r»fi ). 
)f . vf imm. »k. Kaiikanit, Aug. 27 (J. Hume(*all. 

/mWim^). 
s . «' ' ad. hi«^u. \Vip|»itaii, lK*e. (/. Ihtr^ Hume Coll. 

•k. /i/iy). 

y\c\ ( ad. hirm. Amlifnit. Jan. (If. Davi^ Hume Coll. 

•k joif). 

^. rV ail. hiem.; Tbat*>ne, Nov., .Vu^r. (If. Hume Coll. 

/*. ^»l.a-MiT.»k. //». 
/ -4 J ad.hirm.«k. M*nnii, Nov. ( H'. />.). Hum** Coll. 

/.«•'. ; a<J. bi-m. I'akchan. Drc. < 11'. Jk). Hum** (oil. 

-k. 
« ■' »! ii:«-m. i>k. (tr*«at (*•<«>« I^^l., Maix-h Hume (oil. 

K H\ IK). 
'. . f '. * ; a«l. Li-m. S. AiK]aiiuiii% Jan. (i^. G. Tw.'tHldale (*oIl. 

•k n\ R.\. 

f'-m* . a«l ; r\ Port ItUir, S. .Xndamanw, Ilumt* (*iill. 
■ \ Juv vk. MaY to S«'|it. (/^. J, 

H'tnth^rlry). 
*Vir' ' ^ a«i. hirm. Ali»*nlf«*n. .^. AmUman^ Hum**(*oll. 

•a 1^1*.. .\|int( M\l^tr%mm). 

I ' •! biriB. nk. Miiint .\ii;!u»ta. S. .Vmla- Hume Coll. 

maim, Jau. l"* ( H'. />.). 
V* 'ail bi«^n »k. Mi>ul«biiU 1*1., Nir'»bar«, Hum«* Coll. 

Manh 4 ( W. //.). 
A .r' * . ai| hiem. riv]«ri>, .N'iroliars March Hum** < 'oil. 

•k *ji)(ir. //.I. 

^- { ati hirm. ak. (*amorta, Nio>biirii,F<*b. 2(( Hum«* Coll. 

• '.f* 'mi bi«-m. Tonka, .MabiT Pf-niniiUta, Hume Coll. 

^ Jan. LM {J, 'Iharlin^i. 

f Ju« vk. IVDAOg (/>r. Ciia/or). India .Mur«um« 



230 CHARADRnDJS. 

/l*-»^ cJ ad. hiem. ; Salnnffore, Aug., Dec., Jan. Hume Coll. 

o'-tK $ ad. hiem. ( W, D.). 

ak. 

«\ Juv. sk. Malacca {Dr, Matngay), Tweeddale Ooll. 

t>*. Ad. eestiv. sk. Malacca. Seebohm ColL 

tr*. $ juv. sk. Sinjfapore, Sept. ( W. Z).). Hume ColL 

j'. S ad. SBstiv. sk. Kula, Pahang, Sept. 1. Capt. Kelsall [P.]. 

ySr^. Ad.hiem.sk. Zslyk (HorsJMt), Inaia Museum. 

«*-/?*. 6 2 »d. Ijabuan, Sept., Nov. A.H.Everett,E8q.rC.l 

/*. $ juv. sk. Baram, Sarawak, Sept. 80. A.H.Everett,Esq.[O.J. 

y*. 5ad.8k. Borneo (i>*ar(?). Seebohm CoU. 

7. Ochthodromos asiaticns. 

Charadriiis aeiaticus, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, ii. p. 715 fl773: S. 
Tartary) ; Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 684 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. 
p. 746 (1790) ; Schl. Rev. Crit. p. Ixxxii (1844) ; Gray, Gen. B. 
lii. p. 544 (1847) ; Blasius ^ Bald, in Naum. Vog. Deulschl. xiii. 
pt. 2, p. 225, pi. 386. figs. 1, 2 (1860) ; Bree, B. Eur. iv. p. 18 
( 1863) ; Schl. Afus. Paya-BaSj Cursores, p. 38 (1865 : Tartary ; S. 
Africa ; Orange River) ; Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 209 (1867 : Coles- 
berg) ; Tristr. lbi», 1868, p. 323 (Palestine) ; Finseh, Trans. ZooL 
Soc. vii. p. 328 (1870); id. ^ Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 649 (1870); 
Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 14, no. 9990 (1871) ; Dresser, R Z. S. 
1875, p. 97 (Kirghis Steppes, breeding ; egg) ; Bocage, Om. 
Angola, p. 430 (1881: Rio Bengo; Benguela) ; Reid, Zod. 1882, 
p. 342 (Mouth of Umgeni R., Dec.) ; Feilden, t. c. p. 460 (Ben- 
nett's Drift Camp, Newcastle, Nov.) ; Holub (J- Peh. Beitr. Onu 
Siidafr. p. 241 (1882 ; Panta-ma-tenka) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1883, p. 28 
(Caucasus), 1884, p. 429 (Lenkoran) ; Fischer, Zeitschr. ges. Om, 
i. p. 392 (1884 : Little Aruscha) ; id. J.f, O. 1885, p. 115 (Use- 
giiha) ; Reichen. J.f. O. 1887, p. 47 (Ruwana River) ; Seehohm^ 
Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 144 (1888) ; BiiHik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 
xi. p. 78 (1889: Cunene R.) ; Reichen. Vog. DetUsch-Ost-Afr. 
p. 33 (1894: Ugalla R. ; Wualaba R.; Usegiiha ; Kar^ma ; Victoria 
Nyanza). 

Asiatic Plover, Lath. Gen. Syn, iii. pt. 1, p. 207 (1785). 

Charadrius caspius, Pail. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiai. ii. p. 136 (1811 : Cas- 
pian and Salt Lakes of S. Tartary) ; Gdthe, Vogeho. Helgol. p. 491 
(1891). 

Charadrius jugularis, Wngl. Sy^it. Av. p. 69, sp. 39 (1827) ; Nordnu 
in Dhnid. Voy. Russ. Mirid. iii. p. 233 (1840: Odessa, April). 

Eudromias asiaticus. Keys. Sf Bias. Wirb. Eur. pp. Ixx, 208 (1840) ; 
Bp.Cat. Met. Ucc. Eur. p. 57 (1842); Gray, List Grail. Brit. 
Mus. p. 68 (1844 : Northern Asia & Altai Mountains) ; Bp. Rev. 
Crit. p. 181 (1850) ; Licht. Noinmcl. Av. Mm. Berol. p. 95 (1854 : 
Aral Lake) ; Heugl. St/st. Uebers. p. 57 (1856: Coast of Red 
Sea, winter) ; Blasivs, Naumannia, 1858, p. 315 (Heligoland) ; id. 
Ibi^, 18J2, p. 71 ; Harting, Ibis, 1870, p. '202, pi. v. ; Blanf. Geo/. 
^ Zool. Ahi/88. p. 429 (1870: Rairo, Aug.); Ayres, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 263 (Transvaal) ; Gwney in Anderss. B. Dam. Ld. p. 271 
(1872: Otjimbinque) ; Shelley, B. Eqypt, p. 237 (1872); Stcinh. 
Ibis, 1873, p. 3(35 (Syr Darva) ; Cordeau.v, Ibis, 1875, p. 1^5 
(Heligoland); Blanf. East. Persia, ii. p. 279 (1870); Seebohm, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 1(>5; Pelz. Verhandl. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien^ xxxi. 
p. 155 (1881 : Lado, March) ; Hartl. Abhandl. nat. Ver. Bremen^ 
viii. p. 231 (1882 : Lado) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard s B. S. Afr. pp. 0U5, 



2<i. OCnTOODROMUS. 231 

H.V, (lrt84) ; RadiU, Ortf. (\nic. pp. W, 415 (18H4 : Canpian, April) ; 
uJ. Omu, t. p. \i)k\ (Ij^IM. 

(*hara(lriiu dftuian^iiMJ*, Stn'tkL (\mtr. Om. 18o2. p. 158 rl^amara- 
Undj ; FmmM, IbU, 1h7l>, p. Uti; Heitgl. Om. S.O.-Afr. ii. pt. 1, 
P. 101t», pi. xxxiv. tijr«. 1. 2 (IH73), App. p. clxxxi (S'. Ccmat of 
rlfTTpt ; liulf (if Suez ; Swaiiipi* of 8. Kordofkn ; Luwer White Jic 
Bluf Nil«^: (^.Uabat: Tana I^ko). 

.l-i^rialitin niHcolli« {nee (Wr), lleuyL Sv$t. Veben. p. 57 (1S50). 

Miinnrlluii ca!•piu^ lip, (\ R. xliii. ii. 4i7 (1H5(5). 

KudTDOiaii aniaticuis Srwt. IM Ii. Ai/r. lHantm, p. 17 (1^412). 

Chamdrius ifi-offrovi [ntc Wayl), Mtmt. P. Z. H. 1^J5, p. W (Ben- 
)ni«*la). 

Ku(lr<)niiaii cimpiii^ Fiiijmi, Viagg. Per$. p. 'iol (]8<(5: Enseli, Cw- 
ptaii) ; JhretiMr, Ifnn^ l^*7^K p. li'JT ; Uttgd. Cowtp. Ar. Imp. Rom. 
p. 74 (If^M: Arali>-C'aj«pian n*git»n ; Weatt-rn Tbian Shan; 
Kiwpian Sonyraria ) : Zarudn. Bull Imp. Sttc. Sot. Mom'uh, 18M5, p. (ft). 

Monnfllu« a«>iati(Mif(, I^rgi. ^ (irrhe, Om. Eur. ii. p. I.*i2 (18(J7). 

.i^rialitiA a.4iatira, Fnttck, Vdg. Fur. tab. aS. ti^r. ll> (1^70); 
I)rwitr, Ii. Eht. vii. p. 479, pl». 5i»0. 5l>l>, fi^f. 1 ( 187H) ; Hume, 
JStr. F. vii. p. 4:iS d^N). viii. p. 112 (ls7U): Agrf$, Ibu, ISK), 
p IW (TninMvaah: Salrin, Cat. Strirkt. OUl. n, WW> (18m>: 
kiiyhia Stt'pptfa ; l)aiiiara-land) ; Stiirad. Atti R. Accad. ScL 
Ti*nno, xxiii. p. 44 ( 1^**7) : SMeHiy, Ihi*^ 1n<H. p. .'Vio ( Maiida Isl.) ; 
1./ P. /. .V. \f^i^, p. 41> (IjuIo); />/m«t, ;/*!>, iNSl^, p. J>L> (Len- 
koran): liutlrr. Ibis, IKM), p. 4(1:) ((treat Yurmoiith): SoutAtctii, 
P. /. .V 1M¥>. p. 4<il ((Jnat Yarmouth. Mav); SMarpe, Ibis, 
I'^O. p. 113 (Fao, Aujr): Irby, Keg List lirit.' Ii. l>ud ed. y. 4S 
(IMW): Shatfte, Ibis, 1k<L\ p. 544 (Vict<»ria Nvauxa); Litfvrdn 
tU. Fig. lir. B. pt. xxi. (lsin>). 

Adnll male in Butnmer plumage. SimiLir to 0, veredus^ and 
baTifi^ a dark quill-linini; like that Hpi>ciea, but the axillnries 
whttr ; crown of head brown, like the biick : the foruhead, eyebrow, 
•i*lr» nf f.ice, and throat white, like the underpartA ; acro*« the fore- 
n*^k a bnvid band of briffht cheAtnut, followtni by a narrow Kind 
«»f bLii*k : (juillA dark browo, the primariest whitc-sihafted, but other- 
wiM- «ith no vhite on any of the ({uilU : tiiil iih in ff. awuitims, but 
w.tb ituU a narrow white e<l^ii)>: to the outer feather: ** bill hlturk : 
U^X frr««*ni«h olive, toea dui^kv ; irin dunkv ha/el " ( Amiiii Pusha). 
Total l'*ni^h 7 inchfa, culmm »»•<», win;? om;;*), tail ^'l.*), tardus l-Iio. 

Admit %n winter jdumnffe. Differ* fn»m the summer plumaj^e in 
v%utini; the rufuu^ brtMSt and the facial marking. Dark brown 
abiive, in^-ludinff the head, the Hide;* of face, forehead, and eyebrow 
Uri^ft^ with Moodv buff, a hhad«* of which colour \n evident round 
tbr bind-nerk ; thmat if»alN*llinc white, divided fmm the white of 
thr >«r*-aat bv a broad luind of ufihv brown, extending; from the 
lf*wrr throat to thv fore-neck and client and the i^iden of tlie upjHT 
breA^t. 

j'vumg. ItM4»ublef« the winter plumrij^f of the adult, but haa the 
fralbrrv of the up|M*r aurfa' f (*ili;ed with 8an>ly butf, and a more 
(ifoiMKiDrr<l ttnjpe of this colour on the sitht «if the fact* and on the 

th/trnt-luUid. 

li't**. Hreetla in the Kinchia St4>pp(»H and (*entrnl Aiiia, winterioK 
IB Africa aod the wett«m iHirtioo of the Indian PenioauU. 



232 CHAEADRUD2. 

a. Ad. sk. Altai Mountains. Mr. Bmndt. 

b. $ ad. sk. River Irtisch. Mr. Brandt. 

c. Imm. sk. Fao, Persian Gulf, Aug. 11. W.D.Oummmg, Esq. 

[P.]. 

d. ^ imm. sk. Ratnagiri, S. Eonkan, Oct. (O. Hume Coll. 

Vidal). 
€. Imm. sk. 600 miles from land between Seebohm Coll. 

Aden and Galle. 
/. $ imm. sk. Massowa, Aug. 24. W. T. Blanfoid, Esq. 

[P.]. 
g^h, c^ ad. sk. Lado, Equatorial Africa, Emin Pasha [P.]. 

March 30. 
t. Ad. sk. Manda Island, Nov. 13. F. J. Jackson, Esq. 

[P.]. 
k. Ad. sk. Benguela. Monteiro Coll. 

/. c^ ad. sk. Damara-land. C. J. Andersson, Esq. 

fc.]. 

m, n.Imm. sk. Damara-land (C. •/'.^mZ^«9<m). Gumey Coll. 
^i P' c^ $ ^< Otjimbinque, Damara-land, Feb. Tweeddale Coll. 

(a J. A.). 

q, r, ^2 ^* Ondonga, Ovampo-landy Nov. Seebohm Coll. 

sk. (C.J.A.), 

a. (S ad. sk. Potchefstroom, Transvaal, Jan. Gumey ColL 

( T. Ayres), 
t, S ftcl* sk* Durban, Natal, Dec. (S, Q. Seebohm Coll. 

Reid). 
ii, V. Ad. sk. Kingwilliamstovni. MajorTrevelyanrP.]. 

w. Ad. sk. Near Frankfort, British Kaf- Major Trevelyan [P.J. 

fraria. 

8. Ochthodromns veredus. 

Cursorius isabellinus (nee Temm.), Mors/. Trans, Linn. Soc. xiii. 

p. 187 (1821 : Java). 
Charadrius veredus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1848, p. 38 (Northern Australia) ; 

id. B. Austr. vi. pi. 14 (1848 : Port Essington ; Sydney) ; Reichenb. 

GraU. Novit. tab. Ixxvii. hg. 2679-80 (1851)'; Gray, P. Z. S. 

1858, p. 197 (N. Australia to 14° S. Jat.; Islands of Torres 

Straits); Finsch, New-Guinea, p. 181 (1865); Stvinhoe, P. Z. S. 

1870, p. 430 (Pekin) ; Gray, Hand4. B. iii.p. 14, no. 9992 (1871) ; 

David et Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 425, pi. 120 (1877) ; Dresser, B. Eur. 

vii. p. 480 (1878: China; Japan) ; Bosenb. Malay. Archip. p. 373 

(1878-79: Kei Isl.); Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 425 (Samarkand); 

Blasius, Omis, 1888, p. 319 (Palawan) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr, 

Charadr. p. 115 (1888) ; id. B. Japan. Emp. p. 311 (18lK)), note ; 

Styan, Bits, 1891, pp. 330, 503 (Lower Yangtse, spring migrant). 
Pluvialis xanthocheilus (nee WayL), Bp. C. B. xliii. p. 417 (1856). 
Charadrius xanthocheilus (nee WagL), Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 34; 

Bosenb. Malay. Archip. p. 563 (1878-79). 
Cirrepidesmus asiaticus (nee Pall.), Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. 

p. 229 (186,5). 
Charadrius asiaticus, Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 38 (1865 : 

Ternate, pt.), 
^Egialitis veredus, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 141 (Shanghai) ; Salinid. 

()m. Papuami, iii. p. 290 (1882) ; id. Ayin. Mus. Gen. xWii. p. 325 

(1883) ; ii. Agg. Orn. Papuasia, iii. p. 200 (1891). 



20. OCHTHODROMUS. 233 

FudrnmiM v^i*e<luM, Harting^ IhU^ 1870, p. :K>0. pi. vi. ; Swinh. 
P. Z. S. 1K71. p. 4(KJ (Shaiijrhai ; iVkin) ; U'alH. Trans, /ahM, Soc, 
Tiii. p. 88 (lH72: Maka-wnr) ; S$r.nM. IbtM, 1873, pp. »(W>, 424 
|CWo<>); StUrod. fn'. Horn. p. :{ir> (1874); I'rjer. in lOtwieyt 
fVn. MiMt. \\. p. 4H4 (1877: S.K. Mon^iliii, bretnliDfr, Junf); 
Hatmrnff, Proe. Linn. S'»c. S. S. H*. i. p. 1^7 (1877), ii. p. 197 
< 1M7H)*; .S«/«irf. P. /. -Sr. 1m78. p. 82 (.\mboina) ; iil. .4itit. Mus. Uen. 
x\\. p. (MH (187U: Kei I^l ) : \d. Vmf. * Ckallengrr; ii. Bird*, p. 64 
<1881); //'<^. r^/Mp. ^r. Imp. Rn*M. p. 73 (18H4: Samarkand); 
Rammy, Tab. LiM Awtr. Ii. p. 19 il88'<: Port Darling; Port 
KMington ; Wid«« liar diittr. ; Kirhnumd and (Mart*nce llivers; N<*w 
South Waltti) ; A'/rrr//. Joum. StraiU Hmnck A$, Soc. 18M>, 
p. ^04: Heine ^ ReicAen. yotnemck Mas. Jlein. p. IMiii (1890: 
lNiert4i IViticeM, Palawan). 

Charadriun aniaticun {ner Pait.), Finnrh, Ihu, 1872, p. 144 (Sai^^n) ; 
Rotenh. ReiMt. naar (ieelvinkb. p. 9 (1^75). 

AiMt ifi summer plumatje. Similar to 0, ijfoffro\i\^ but with a 
Ii»n^*r and more slender hill, and diHtin^ished by iu» smoky-brown 
axiUarira, Qodor m-in^ir-coTorta, and quill-liniogs. Upper |Mirta 
uniform brown, with slightly indicated mfous edfdngs to many of 
tho feathers ; baMtanl-wing, primary-ooTertM, and quills dark brown, 
the firvt primary oii/y having a white shaft, and no white present 
on the inner webs of the quills ; the siTondari(*8 also uniform dark 
bmm-n. with an obsolete white fringe to the tips ; innermoftt second- 
arit^ like the back ; tail-feathers brown, with white tips and a 
^ul^-terminal shmle of darker brown, the out4.T feather white along 
the outer web ; cn>wn of head brown like the back, slightly washed 
With nifouK, as also the hind-neck, where, however, there is no 
difitinct cx»llar as in <). tjtnffmm ; the forehead white to the middle of 
thee}e: eyebrow, sides of face, and throat white: lower throat, 
fnre-nct-k, and che^t bright chestnut, extemiing down the sides of 
the upfier bn-ast and followed by a horse-shoe mark of bla<'k ; 
^r^>a«t, a^xlomen, and under tail-coverts pure whit4.' ; under wing- 
rovrrta and axillaries dark smoky brown, with ashy- whitish ti[>s to 
the ft-athers ; quill-lining also dark smoky brown : ^* bill de<'p 
«*hre-brown. blicker on the terminal portion ; feet light brownish 
f!e«h -colour ; toes washed with grey, bl.ickish on joints; claws 
bUrk ; eyelids greyish black" {R, Swinhof), Total length 8-5 
tiuhes, culmen 1, wing 0*5, tail 2*4, tardus 1*75. 

Admit im winier plumivjt, DifTc^rs from the summer plumage in 
wanting the rufous cheHt-l>and. Above dark brown, including the 
rrown of the head; forehead and e)ebr«>w isabt^lline white, the 
htndrr part of the latter sha<led with sandy buff, which colour al^o 
|#>ri acini the sides of the face and sides of neck, and forms a faint 
f»41ar roond the bind-ne<k ; throat isaMline white; lower throat, 
fore-firek. and cheat |Mile brown ; n'maiuder of under surface of 
UmIt white ; under wing-coverta, axillaries, and quill-lining smoky 
brown. 

//«^. Breeds in Mongolia, wint4*ring in the Moluccan and Aus- 
tralia. 



234 CHARADHIIDJ5. 

a. Ad. sk. Shangrbai {Reeves). Gould Coll 

b. $ad. sk. ShaD^hai, March (Oi/)^. /mre). Mrs. Ince [P.]. 

c. S ftd- sk* Shanghai, April 3. Shanghai Museum. 

d. Ad. sk. Penang. Wallace Coll. 
^y/. Ad. sk. Jtiva. (Hnrsjiefd). India Museum. 
g, h. Ad. sk. W. Java {A, R. Wallace), Tweeddale Coll. 
i-m, (S S ad. Labuan, May, June, Sept. A. H. Everett, Esq. 

sk. [C.]. 

n. Ad. sk. Baram, Sarawak. Charles Hose, Esq. 

0, p. Ad. sk. Celebes. Tweeddale ColL 

q. Ad. sk. Celebes. Gould Coll. 

r. 2 <^d. sk. Makassar {A, R. Wallace), Gould Coll. 

«. Ad. sk. Amboina. Wallace Coll. 

t, (S imm. sk. Amboina. Voy. H.M.S. 'Chal- 
lenger.* 

u, 2 *d. sk. Derby, N. W. Australia ( T, H, Capt. Bowyer Bower 

Bw^er Bower). [P.]. 

V. Ad. St. Port flssington. Capt. Chambers [P.]. 

«7. Ad. sk. South Queensland. Tweeddale Coll. 

X, Ad. sk. Melbourne. Salvin-Godman ColL 

27. EUDEOMIAS. », 

Type. 
Eudromias, Brehnif Vbg. Deutschl. p. 644 (1831 : ex Bate 

MSS.) E. morinellus. 

Morinellus, Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 417 (1856) E. morinellus. 

Range, The same as that of the single species of the genus. 

1. Eudromias morinellus. 

The Dotterell from Lincolnshire, Albiny Nat, Hist. ii. p. 68, pi. 63 

(1738). 
Le Petit Pluvier ou Le Guignard, Briss. Om, v. p. 64, pi. iv. fig. 2 

(1760). 
Le Guignard d^Anffleterre, Bi-iss. Om. v. p. 68 (1760). 
Charadrius morinellua, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 254 (1766); Gni. Syst. 

Nat, i. p. 680 (1788); Fallas^ Zo<>gr. Rosfto-AsiiU. ii. p. 134, 

tab. Mi. (1811) ; Temm. Man. cTOm. p. 326 (1815) ; Leach, Syst. 

Cat, Mamm. ^ B. Brit. Mus. p. 28 (1816) ; Vieill. N, Diet, d'Hist. 

Nat, xxvii. p. 140 (1818) ; Temm. Man. d'Orti. ii. p. 637 (1820) ; 

Rota-, Om. Prov. pis. 273, 274 (1825); Werner , Atlas, Courews, 

pi. 5 (1827) ; Wagl. Syst. Av, p. 69, sp. 38 (1827) ; Naum. VUg. 

Deutschl. vii. Taf* 174 (ia34) ; Gould, B. Eur. iv. pi. 295 (1837 j ; 

Cresp. Om. Gard, p. 360 (1840) ; Nordm. in Demid, Voy, Russ. 

M4rid, iii. p. 232 (1840: Odessa); Selys-Longch. Faun, Beh, 

p. 121 (1842) ; Schl. Rev. Crit. p. ixxxii (1844) ; Gray, Gen. B. 

lii. p. 544 (1847); Kjcerh. Damn. Fugle, pi. 30. fig. 4 (1852); 

Schl. Vog. Nederl. pi. 212 (1854) ; Cass. Proc. Phiiad, Acad. 

1858, p. 195 (Japan) ; Jauf). et Barth.-Lapomm. Rich. Om. p. 446 

(1859) ; Schl. Dier, Nederl. Vogelsy pi. 21. fig. 4 (1861) ; Malmgr. 

(Efv, K. Vet.'Akad. Forh. Stockh. 1863, p. 115; Gray, List Brit. 

B. p. 140 (1863) ; Sundev. Sv.Fogl. p. 334, pi. xxxvii. tig. 1 (1856- 

72); Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 14, no. 0989 (1871) ; R. Gray, B. 

West Scotl. p. 254 (1871) ; Paim^n, Finlands Foglar, p. 78 (1873) ; 

Heugl. Om. N.O.-Afr. ii. pt. 1, p. 1016 (1873: Blue Nile and 



27. EUDKoxuB. 2:^ 

I-ower E^rrpt), Anp. p. clxxx ; Svn^ier. CEfr. K. Vet.^Akad. Fork. 

SfockK lHt4, p. 21 (Spiub(*r)ren) ; FailoH, (H$. B^lg. p. 151 (1^75) ; 

Fitm-ky Verkandl. z.-A. (reiieU$ck, Wien, xxix. p. 244 (187)>: 

Schturhutachjal; BHrnge, MH, Biol, BuU, Acad. Imp. St. Pieterth, 

xii. lirr. 1, p. &2 {\f^f*4: l^^nn IMu): SrfhoMm, Hi$i, Brit. B. iii. 

p. HI), pi. »\. tipi, 1 .*< (IHH.5) : Bf>oik, Boujfh \Ur9, ii. cum Ub. 

(IHM7); *€*.iAw. (ici>ffr. Dittrib. Ckmradr.p. 113(1HH»<); RficM^, 

IVfT. roti. DeuUcM. p. h\ (1889): ikthtJtm, B. Japan. Emp. 

p. 305 ( iHdO) ; Frimld*ky, Attn Hung. p. 122 (1801 ) ; Madartuz, 

AtuMi. rmjtar. V*>gr{f. p. 102 (IKU). 
CliAfmdriuii tartllri^u^ J^Uas, Beit. Bmmh. Beichu, ii. p. 715 (1778). 
1^ Uui^niAnU I/Aubent. PL EnL ix. pi. 832: Bujf. JIi$t. Sat. Oi». 

%ni. p. 87 (17m1). 
riuradnu'* An}rlu^ P. L. S. MiiU. Syfi. >V., Anhang, p. 117 (1770) : 

(nu. /Vt<. mtad. Arad. IMIW. p. 240. 
Thf I>.»ttiTvl. Lath. Grm. Sgn. iii. pt. 1 , p. 208 ( 1 785) : Yarrell, Brit, 

B. ii. p. a>i>(lK43). 
(*lur»(lnu« Pibiricus T^pech, Iter, ii. pi. ri. (1771-80) ; Gm. Sgft. 

Xit, i. p. «IU(17^M). 
KiidmmiaA niontnim. Brekm^ loy. I)rut»rhl, p. 540 (1K3]). 
Kuilrmnia* utolitU, Brthm, Vitif. l)rut»chL p. 547 (1831). 
Eafin'roiai* tnnriii4*llu^ y/rt^m, I'lig, De^tscm.n. 545 (1^31): Bp. Comp. 

Lift B. Eur. ^ y. Amrr, p. 45 (l?s*^) ; Kiys. 6r BiaM. H'irh. Eur. 

p. •/!►* ( 1H4(>) : MuMlr, Beitr, Om. Griecheni p. «J ( 1844) ; Gray, 

LiM Grail. Brit. Mum. p. 07 (1>*44): TAomfu. B. Irel. ii. p. JW 

M^-jC)); IJcMt, Sommvl. Ar, Mua. Brrol. p. {Kt (1854: Khinrhi* 

Su-ppwiJ; Jleuf/l. Sgnt. Cebert, p. 5«> (18-Vl: Kjf.Vpt ^nd l^»d S«i 

in winttTl; TriMr.Ihit, iNlO, p. 78 (N. Africa): Litvierm. Vttg. 

tirtfrhenl. p. l.^ll (1H««)): ^om///, //. Gt. Bnt. iv. pi. 43 (1H(LM ; 

B»yidr, Bri,. .SiAiV.. IV p. 323 (IH^W: K. Siberift) : l/on/f/r. Vogelf. 

yonideut4>4 M. p. no \\KiV): I^odrrl. Arif. Sicil, p. l^** (18IW); 

Sammdert. lbi», li^ai.p. 173: /i/w/r, Vm/flK>. Borkum,^. 1 18 (18IHM; 

tiUlett, JhiM, 1m70. p. :«)0 (Novavft Zi»ml>a): Fritj»ck, Vttff. Eur, 

Uh. ;«. Htp4. 10, 17 (1^70): StrrrMJum, B. Xtrf. ii. 



p. 70 (1870): 




Jef4m, p. «B» (1>»73: inikTAiit): Brm^ke, I hi*, 1j^73, n, ;i:l7 (Snr- 
ditiia): .MnAy. 7/. Shetl. y l<»i> (1x74): hr^Mrr, il. Eur. vii. 
p. .'lie, pi. .V.M (H75): /r^<^. Oni. Strait* Gihr. p. 101 (1H75): 
i**tnUau,t, Bhm, \t*7-\ p. IM (Ileli^iland) : Bln»tf. Ea*t. Per^ia^ 
il. p. 27'* (l**7il: KajrTiin, W. of Shiraz): SrrimJtm ^ Ilarrie- 
Bn,tm, IhiM, 1»*70, p. •><♦ (I»wcr IVti'lioni) : DreitA^r, t. c. p. 327 
lTurkt*i»tAn) : Tacz. UhU. Sm-. /in J. Fninrr, i. p. 24H (If^rtJ: iitfuta 
in IUiUnI. iHiiiria). ii. p. l.V» (l^i77 : I'uland. cprir.^ and autumn) : 
Sr^»km, Jhis, 1h7!». p. l.V, (IC. K.H.ravika. lat. 71 ): (W/r/r, 
Sorget Fugir, p. ;15;» (1^-1) ; K-rhJt,,,^ ihit, Ih^2. |). 221 (A..tra- 
khao: Kinrliin St»-|i|H-«i. Iir»i«dinir) : Salrin, (\it. Stritkl. i^dl. 

5K 51*5 (|K^2): //. O. r. Am/ Brit. B. p. 1«JI> iIk^I): SauHdm. 
Am, IwCl, p. ;MJ»; ,J. «/. Yarrfir* Brit, B. iii. p. 240(1nk3); 
rri«/r. Faum.^ Fl^r. PulrMt. p. 130 (IhM: IWr-h.brt): /A*/*/, 
f '<«•#/>. .-Ir. Imp. B'»*a. V. 72 (IHh4): Badd^, ()m. TuMr. iip. 43, 
415 (lHH4: (*a«pian): (hapman, Ihi*, 1hm.'». p. 175 (I^pUiid); 
Gi^. Anf. Itai. p, 371 (1hh») ; .Vn^ivf//. A7r;i/v, t'rc. Bat, p. 211 
O^^l); h«**». fVArr- .Sri.fy. m. Tov. AV/i-//«i/A/'m. p. 32»MI8H«) ; 
T*U, Ibit, 1m»7. p. 380 (I'urtu^l) ; Bucklrg 4* liarvit^Br^wn^ 



27. lUDBOMUS. 237 

■treaked with dark brown; chin white: throat ashy brown, streaked 
with dunky brown, with a faintly indicated bund of white on the 
rhe«t : remainder of under surface of body isabelline white, with the 
aides of the body tinirod with i»andy buff. 

Vamny, Differs from the winter plumage of the adults, which it-, 
otherwiae renemblcs, in having the mantle blackish brown, with 
whitish edgings to the feathers ; the eyebrow and the throat and 
underparts wafihed with sandy ochreuus. 

AiMf/iHf/. lilack altoTe, mottled with spots of rufous or sandy 
buff: head iwttenied with black, with a conspicuous white forehead 
and evebrow, with a black loral streak and line of black down the 
centre of the forehead ; round the back of the head a creamy - 
white band. 

i/ah. Nests in Nortlieni Europe and across Siberia, wintering in 
ihi* countries of the Mediterranean and North-easteni Africa. 

«f &• cT 2 ad. S. Iknflshire, N.R, June. F. D. Godman, Erq, 

•t. irruup . [V.]. 

t i 'a<L St. ' 8. Banffshire, N.R. Julv. F. I>. Uodroan, Esq. 

rp ^ 

^. ^. (f ad. ikk. Lancashire. Mimtagu Coll. 

/. y. (^ 'i ad. Mflbourm*, Csmbrid|rei*hire, Tweeddale Coll. 

•k. May 10 (// ^umlrrs). 

A. j ad. Ak. Cauibrid:r(*shire, May IH (O. i^alvin-Gi»dman Coll. 

iSri/rm). 

i.i. / ad. >k. ( ambridgt>«bire, May 14 {F. iK Salvin-Codman CoIL 

Lm,n. .\d. it. (*aii)brid^tiihire. INirchamHl. 

" \d. lit. Yarmouth* Aiu;. J. K. Ilarting, Esq. 

(W 
P Jut. ^k. SurtM-x. Old C«»ll. 

I Ad. rk. Nvar lirightou, autumn. J. F.. llarting, E>>q. 

^ • • 

r Jttv. ik. IVmbrukeahiiv, Nov. :2>*i. lion. 'W. Edwardt^ 

C.'. 
i Pull. »k. Quickiock, UpUnd(//. H'A<y>/- GoWcoU. 

r i ad. ak. Jutland, lK*nmark, June 2b (A. Twevddale ColL 

u. ' (f ad. «t KuMia. Mubcow Mus. 

jut *k, 
r ' ail. »k. VallfV of the Y«n-e-fai, N. lat. StH.'bohm ColL 

7P,July aTiC//. .V). 
..jr. ' birm. llr«'mh«.*ba,' Paleatine, Ftf b. Canon Tristram T.]. 

X « S birm. \Vildt«rn«*«tt uf Jud.i*a, Frb. (//. Salvin-OfHlman and 

•k /y. r.). IVottldalf tolls. 

h \4 •k. Mmtucco {Olcrne). TtriNiMak* Coll. 

r I mm »k. Granada, Spmin, I>ec. (//. ^mm- Twveddale ColL 

4 Skrlrioa. EnglaoiL TurcliajHTd. 

r >t«-rBum. EngUad. Ji»hn lUy, Em. [P.l 

/ .*9tmiuii. St. Urid<;*s. lion. W". Eawardea 



238 CHARADBlIDJS. 

28. ZONIBTX. ,^ 

Zonibyx, Iteichenb. Av, Syst Nat. p. xviii (1852) Z. modesta. 

Range. South America, from Tarapacd on the west and Buenos 
Ayres on the east, to Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands, 

1. Zonibyx modesta. 

Charadrius modestus, Licht, Verz. Doubl, p. 71 (Montevideo) ; 
Wagier^ Syst. Av. p. 36, sp. 44 (1827) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 16, 

no. 9996 (1871) ; Seed. Geoyr. IHstr. Charadr, p. 105 (1885 : 

Santa Lucia, La Plata). 
Tringa ur^illii, Gamot, Ann. Set. Nat. vii. p. 26 (1826). 
Vanellus cincta, Less. Voy. CoquUle, i. p. 120, pi. 43 (1826) ; id. Man^ 

dOm. ii. p. 309 (1828). 
Charadrius uebulosus, Less. Man. cTOm. ii. p. 315 (1828). 
Charadrius rubecola, King^ Zool. Joum, iv. p. 96 (1829) ; Seeb. 

Geogr. Disir. Charadr. pi. i. (1888). 
Squatarola rubecola, Jard. ^ Selhy.IU. Om. ii. pi. 110 (1830). 
Squatarok cincta, Gould, Voy. * Beagle,' ii. p. 126 (1841) ; id. P. Z. S. 

1859, p. 195 (eggs). 
Squatarola fusca, Gould, Voy. * Beagle,' ii. p. 126 (1841 : Maldonado). 
Squatarola undllii. Bridges, P. Z. IS. 1843, p. 18 ; Gray, List GralUn 

Brit. Mus. p. 63 (1844) ; Gay, Hist. Hs. ChUe, Zool. i. p. 401 

(1847). 
Squatarola modesta, Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 543 (1847) ; Licht. Nomencl. 

Av. p. 95 (1854). 
Zonibyx cincta, Beichenb. Av. Syst. Nat. p. xviii (1852). 
Vanellus modestus, Burnt. Th. Bras. iii. p. 362 (1856) ; id. Beis. La 

Plata-St. ii. p. 363 (1861 : Pampas ; Rio Quarto). 
Hiaticula fusca, Cass. U.S. Expl. Exp., Zool. p. 328 (1858 : Tierra 

del Fuego). 
Eudromias urvillii. Sel. P. Z. S. 18G0, p. 386 (Falklands) ; Abbott, 

Ibis, 1861, p. 156 (Falklands). 
Morinellus modestus, Schl. Mus. Pays- Bos, Cursores, p. 48 (1865). 




id. ^ Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neutr. p. 143 (1873); Dtimf. Ibis, 1876, 
p. 164 (Buenos Ayres); id. Ibis, 1877, p. 197, 1878, p. 402 
(Chupat) ; Scl. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 438 (Gray Harbour; Tom 
Harbour ; Puerto Bueno ; Port Famme ; Falkland Isl.) ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1881, p. 66 (Tom Harbour; Puerto del Morro; Port 
Henry ; Cockle Cove) ; Scl. ^ Salv. Voy. * Challenger,' ii. Birds, 
p. 108 (1882) ; Barrows, Auk, i. p. 313 (1884 : Concepcion, April, 
May) ; Withinyton, Ibis, 1888, p. 472 (Lomas de Zamora) ; ScL ^ 
Hudson, Argent. Om. ii. p. 171 (1889) ; Berkeley James, List 
Chilian B. ip. 11 (1892); Holland, Ibis, 18$)2, p. 210 (Estancia 
Espartilla, March to Aug.) ; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 200 (Uruguay, 
winter). 
Squatarola durvillii, Martens, J. f. O. 187o, p. 440 (Chili). 

yiduU male. General colour above brown, including the scapulars 
and parapteral plumes, some of the latter being broadly edged with 
white ; rump blackish brown ; upper tail-coverts a little darker 
brown tban the back ; wing-covcrts like the back ; bastard-wing, 
primary-coverts, and quills brown, the primaries blackish on the 



28. BoaiBTX. 239 

oQter web and at tho tip, having also white shafts ; inner small 
■ccorulariM tipped with white; tail-feathers brown, shaded with 
blackish sab-terminally and fringed with white, developing on the 
outer tail-feathers, the ante-|)enultimate one broadly tipped and 
edged with white, the penultimate one almost entirely white, with 
only a small brown spot beyond the half of the inner web ; outer 
tail -f<*at her entirely white ; head brown like the back ; lores, base 
of forehead, and sides of face and ear-coverts a^hy grey, separated 
from the crown of the head bv a broad band of white, which crosses 
the forehead and is continued into a broad eyebrow, extending 
t4» the sides of the (»cciput: upfier throat pjiler ashy grey, the chin 
mhitish ; lower throat, fore-neck, and cho!«t oningv-chestnut, fol- 
luwi-d by a broad pectoral baud of black ; sides of upper breast |mle 
brown like the sides of the neck ; remainder of under surface of 
body pure white ; thighs brown ; axillaries and under wing-coverts 
whitf* ; outer wing-co\ertB and lower primary -coverts light ashy 
brown, like the quill-linings : '* bill black ; feet grei*ni»h grey ** 
\ 11. liHrmfisUr); " iris brown " (J. Bnihftg), Total length 7 inches, 
culmcn U-^, wing 5*4, tail 2*3, tarsus 1*2. 

Adult frmali, Kesembles the male. Total length 7*3 inches, 
culmcn O'O, wing 5-45, tail 2*2, tarsus 1*15. 

Adult in winter plumatjt. Similar to the summer plumsge above, 
but differing in the colour of the underparts ; throat white : lower 
throat, fore- neck, and chest ashy brown washed with sandy buff, 
•lid only a slight indication of a line of black below. 

Yonnn. Distinguished by its black upper surface, streaked with 
baify-m hite margins to the feathers, the wing-coverts brown with 
ikandy margins ; chest- baud sandy brown, mottled with subterminal 
bars of blackish. 

llaK Falkland Ulandn : South America from Tierra del Fuego 
to burnoa Ayres on the east and Tarapaca on the went. 

« Ad ik. Falkland IMnndn. Salvin-(ti»dn)an Coll. 

6. r \d.:ti,e,/. Falklju.d IiUiid». Antarctic Kxii«*di- 

Juv. ftk. tiou. 

f j-ad. Kk. Falkland Mauds. Vuy. 1I.M.8. *Chal- 

ltMi>:«*r.' 

A (f ad. ftk. lierki'lfV Sound, K.FslkUnds, MrOiriuirk I)t*quest. 

Nov. 2:J (//. McConnuk). 

I. A. Ad. ftk. TuTfE dfl Fuego (f. iJar* ZtMiliyiml Sofiftv. 

trin). 'fyi*"* "f •*>♦ cintift.) 

i .\d. »k. Hermit Ldand. Aii'turctic Mxpfdi- 

tion. 

•> • juv. ftk. Port Famim?, StraiU of Ma- V«iy. II M.S. •Chal- 

g«*lUu. l(ii;:fr/ 

■ t ad tk. <trmy Harbour, Meseir (*han- Vov. H.M.S. * Chal- 

*. .\d tk. Porto IJueno, Jan. 9. V.iy. H M.S. * CTial- 

'♦•inri'f.* 

p ^ jut ftk. Pu«rtodt«l Morro.lVb..'>(/>r. \u\. H.M.S. 'Alert.* 

C«mpinf^r\. 

f , r. cf i: ad. ak* Cock U ('••%#•. St mi tji of Ma^rl- Salt ih-< lod man Coll. 

Un, < »ct. It) ( Ih-, ( ""fifint^rr). 

» \d ak. TuBllay,Feb.(/>r.G/p/»Mycr). Voy. H.M.S. 'Alert.* 



240 CHARADRIIDJE. 

t, $ ad. 8k. Tom Bay. Vov. H.M.S. ' Chal- 

lenger.' 
UjVyfff, Ad. et juv. Chupaty Patagonia, April. H. Durnford, Esq. 

sk. 
X, S ad. sk. Chili {Reed), Salvin-Godman Coll. 

y. c^ ad. sk. Pampas Argentinas(Z«y&oM). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Zy a\ $ ad. sk. Tarapadl, <^uly, Aug. (A. A, Berkeley James ColL 

Lane), 
V, (S ad. sk. Buenos Ayres, May ( W. H, SalTin-Godman Coll. 

Hudson), 
c'. Ad. hiem. sk. Maldonado. Sir W. Burnett & 

Capt. Fitzroy [P.]. 
(Type of S, /uica.) 
df e. cJ ? juv. sk. Lomas de Zamora ( With" Sclater Coll. 

inffton), 

29. PODASOCYS. 

Type. 
Podasocys, Cottes, Proc. Philad, Acad. 1866, p. 96 ... . P. montanus. 

Range, Western States of North America, from Montana to 
Mexico. 

1. Fodasocys montaniis. 

Cbaradrius montanus, Towns. Joum. Acad. Philad. yii. p. 192 (1887 : 
Central tableland of Rocky Mountains) ; Audub. B. Amer. pi. 350 ; 
id. Om. Biogr. iv. p. 862 (1888) ; id. B. Amer. 8vo, v. p. 213, 
pL 318 (1842) ; Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 544 (1847) ; id. Hand-l. B. 
lii. p. 15, no. 9997 (1871) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Bistr. Charadr. p. 153 
(1888). 

Ocnthodromus montanus, Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 417 (1856). 

^gialitis montanus, Baird, B. N. Amer. p. 693 (1858) ; Blakist. 
Ibis, 1863, p. 130 (Upper Missouri) ; Coues, Ibis, 1866, p. 159 
(Arizona) ; Vresser, t. c. p. 317 (S. Texas) ; id. Ibis, 1866, p. 33 
(San Antonio) ; Cones, t. c. p. 266 ; Snow, B. Kansas, p. 13 (1872) ; 
Hetish. Rep. Zool. JSxpl. 100th Mend. p. 447 (1875) ; Belding, 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. i. p. 440 (1878: Stockton & Marvsville, 
California) ; A. O. U. Check-l N. Amer. B. p. 164 (188<5) ; Ridgtc. 
Man. N. Amer. B. p. 176 (1^7) ; Beckh. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. x. 
p. 637 (1887 : Bexar Co., Texas) ; Cooper, Auk, iv. p. 91 (1887 : 
Sacramento Valley ; San Francisco) ; IJogd, t. c. p. 186 (Western 
Texas) ; Allen, Auk, x. p. 134 (1893). 

Cbaradrius asiaticus, pt., Schl. Mus. Pags-Bas, Cursores, p. 38 (1865). 

Podasocys montanus, Coues, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1866, p. 96 ; Elliot, 
New <f Unjig. B. N. Amer. pi. 39 (1869) ; Allen, BuU. Harv. CoU. 
iii. p. 181 (1872 : Middle Kansas ; plains of Colorado & Wyoming ; 
South Park) ; Coues, Check-list N. Amer. B. p. 98 (1882); Baird^ 
Brewer, 8f Ridgw. Water-Birds N. Amer. i. p. 172 (1884) ; Coues, 
Keg N. Amer. B. 2nd ed. p. 604 (1884). 

Eudromias montanus, Harting, Ibis, 1870, p. 202 ; Coues, Check-list 
N.Amer.B. p. 135 (1873); id. Amer. Nat. viii. p. 600 (1874: 
Montana, breeding); id. B. N.-Wesi, p. 450 (1874); id. Bull 
U.S. Geol. Surv. iv. p. 634 (1878 : Frenchman's River, breeding ; 
Milk River). 

iEgialitis asiaticus, var. montanus, Cones, Keg N. Amer. B. p. 245 
(1872). 

Adidt male. General colour above pale brown, with a faint tinge 



29. roBAMCTt. 241 

of undy bnfl!^ efpecially about the hind-neck and mantle ; nimp a 
little more duaky brown ; apper tail-coverta light ashy brown ; 
wing-eoTerta like the back, the lesner ooverta darker brown, forminff 
a band along the edge of the wing ; greater neriea aUo somewhat 
darker brown and tipped with white ; bastard-wing, primitry- 
coTerts, and quiUs dark brown, the primaries with white shafts 
and baring a darker outer web und tip ; secondaries slightly fringed 
with whitish, the innermost like the back ; tail-feathers light ashy 
brown, with white tips, preceded by a broad sub-terminal band of 
blarkiah brown ; crown of head brown ; forehead white, extending 
backwards orer the eye and se|)anited from the crown by a broad 
band of black ; a lural streak of black from the base of the bill to 
the eye ; i^yelid, cheekM, and under surface of body white, with a 
tinge of isabelline buff on the fore- neck and chcHt : *' biU black ; 
fevt light dull brownish yellow " (J. J, Audubon). Total length 
d*o inches, culmen 1, wing 5, tail 2*4, tarsus 1*55. 

Atimli femaU, Similar to the male, but with the black frontal 
baiid n«*t so defined. Total length 8 inches, culmen 0*9, wing 5*8, 
tail 2'b^ tarsus 1*55. 

AduU in u*inter plumage. Differs from the summer plumage in 
wanting the black band on the crown. The hind-neck is washed 
with sandy buff, and there are slight evidences of sandy colour on 
the rdges of the feathers. 

yimmj. Similar to the adults in winter plumage, but distinguisheil 
by baring dutirict sandy edgings to all the feathers of the uppi»r 
•urfaiY ; the sides of the face and eyebrow washed with sandy 
ruf^'Un, which extends over the chest and sides of the body : on 
rarh »ide of the fonsneck a large [>atch of ashy -brown feathers, 
rd/rd mth tandy rufoun. 

SfBilimj. C(iv(»red with samly-buff down, beautifully mottled 
with blaik on the head und baik, the principal features bfing a 
black line dnwn the centre of the back and s|)Ot4 of black on (*ach 
•ide of th<* rump ; owing, howeTer, U> the general dintribution of 
the t>Uek spots, nune are particularly prominent ; round the ni*ck 
an Isabelline collar ; forehead, eyebrow, and sides of face, as well 
as the under surface of the btMiy, isabelline buff, with a tinge of 
\rKtfW on the chei»t ; a bare line on each hide of the lower throat. 

Tbr downy pattern ii* retained «>n the ]t>wer back and rump till 
thr Urd is of ((immI i»ize, and the block markings become very dis- 
tiJiCt, The fin»t feathers are brown, with sandy-rufous margins. 

Hit*; WeKtem Tnittnl Station from Montana and Dakota, 8outh 
to Te&as, Luwer California, and Mexico. 

«, i Ad. tk. 4(Hh Parallel, June {d. Ikiw- N. .\mer. Itoundary 

mm ). Commi Anion, 

e l*uZL sk. Frenrhnisn** Kiver, July SalTin-^iodiuan (NiH. 

{Dr. ri/iTM). 

4. d ima ; 't/* ^^ .%utiiDio, Texas, June 8alviii-4todDUUi Coll. 

\ iam. ak. (//. K. Ifrrtter). 

f m. tf I U.9i CoTvuM ('hh»ti, Nov. (F. n. Salvin^iodman ColL 
ju«. ik. Armutrvmy). 

vot. XXIV. m 



242 CHABADBIirUB* 

n. Ad. fik. Fort Bridger, Utah. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

o, Pf q, Imm. ek. Pueblo, (>)lorado, July (J7. Salym-Godamn GolL 

t^z, (^ ad. ; a'-f, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Salym-Godman Coll. 
2 ad. ; /-«'. June (JT. W. Henshato), 

PulLsk. 
t'. Pull. pk. AlgodoneSy New Mexico, June Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(S, W. H.). 
u\ Ad. sk. Mizpah Creek {Dr, F. B, Salvin-Godman CoU. 

Jamtden), 
v'-C. cT $ juY. sk. San rrancisco, Oct. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

a". Juv. sk. Fort Tejon, Cal. (C. B. Moh Salvin-Godman ColL 

h". S juv. sk. La Paz, Lower California, Salvin-Godman ColL 

Dec. 26 (A, Forrer), 
c", tt'* (S ad. sk. Hermosillo, Sonora, Dec Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(Femxri' Perez). 
^"ff",Sf"' d ? ad. Zacatecas, Feb. (W. B. Salvin-Godman Coll. 
sk, Bichardsan). 



30. OXYEUUUS. ^ 

Type. 
Oxyechus, Beichmb, Av. Sh/st Nat p. xviii (1852) . . , • O. vociferus. 

Bange. North America generally, migrating into South America. 
Africa, 

Key to the Species, 

a. Rumjp and upper tail-coverts cinnamon vociferus, p. 242. 

b. No cmnamon colour on the rump and upper tail- 

coverts. 
a'. One dark band on the inner web of the outer 
tail-feather, 
a". Forehead entirely white, not continuous 

with the eyebrow tricoUaris, p. 247. 

b". Base of forehead ^rey, like the throat, fol- 
lowed by a white band, which is con- 
tinuous with the white eyebrow bifrontatus, p. 249. 

b\ Three dark bands on the inner web of the 
outer tail-feather; forehead entirely grey, 
like the throat forhesi^ p. 250. 

1. Ozyechus Yocifems. 

The Chattering Plover, Catesby^ Nat, Hist. Carol i. p. 71, nl. 71 

(1730). 
Le Pluvier a collier de Virginie, Briss. Om. v. p. 68 (1760). 
Le Pluvier a collier de S. Domingue, Bris8. Om, v. p. 70, pi. vi. 

fig. 2 (1760). 
? Le Pluvier a collier de Jamaique, Briss. Om. v. p. 76 (1760). 
Charadrius vociferus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 253 (1766) ; Gm. Syst. 

Nat. i. p. 685 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 742 (1790) ; Wilson, 



Biogr. v. p. 577 (1839) ; id. B Amer, 8vo, v. p. 207, pi. 817 



do. OZTBCHUI. 243 

(1S49); Oram, Lui GraU, Bni. Mm, p. 71 ^1844) : id. (hn, B. iii. 
p. 544 (laif); id. List Brit, B. p. 142 (18G8) ; Sekl, Mui, i\iy«- 
Bms, Cunont^ p. 2S (1865); Gray, Handel B. iii. p. 14, no. 0087 
(1871) ; Lam-, Pr. US, Nat, Mas, i. p. 4rjO (1878 : Quadeloope) ; 
&»Mii», Hiti, Brit, B. iii. p. ^ pL 36 (1885); id. Qtogr, Didr, 
Ckaradr.^ ldO(lH88). 

Chandriiu ton^UAtiu, Linm. 8yd. Nat i. p. 255 (1766) ; Om, Syd. 
AW. i. p. 355(1788). 

PCharmdnita jammiceiijtiii, P, L. 8, Mali, Sytt. Nat., AnManff, p. 117 
(1776) ; Om. Syd. NaL i. p. 685 (1788; ; Cas$. Proc. PkUad, Aead, 
1864, V. 246. 

Nobj PloT«r, Lath. Om. Syn. iii. pt 1, p. 190 (1785). 

Nob? noT«^, Tar. A, Lath. t. c. p. 200. 

P C\>flarwi Plorer. LatA. t. c. p. 901. 

i£giAliu« Tociferm, Bp. dmtp. Lid B. Ear. ^ JNT. Amer. p. 45 (1838) ; 
Omtr, B. Jamaica, p. 330 (leM7): Bairdy B. X. Amer,j^, 602 
(18o8); Xania$, Proc. Philad. Acad. 1851), p. 102 (Fort Ttfjon) ; 
SciaL 4- 8alr. Ibis, 1851*, p. 227 (Doenas) ; Bryant, Proc. Bo$t. 
Soc. N. H. y'\\. p. 121 ( 1850 : BahaniM) ; A. Newton, Ibis, I860, 
p. 307 (St Thonuui) ; Tayhr, t. c. p. 313 {TiztS Lil., Ilondunui) ; 
BtaJkisi. Ibis, 1862, p. 8 (SaBkatcbowaD) ; Selater, t. c. p. 276 
(dirifteharch, Hanto) : Blakist. Ibis, 1863, p. 120 (Fort Carlton) ; 
8eL P. Z.8. 1864, p. 178 {dtj of Mexico) ; Chocs, Ibis, 1865, 
P. 158 (Ariiona) : Satrinf t. e. p. 101 (Quatemala) ; Dresser, Ibis, 
1866. p. 33 (Oalfeston, 8. Texan); Later. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 
p. 200 (1868: Sital, Yucatan); Brown, Ibis, 1868, p. 428 (Van- 
coaT«r Ul.) ; 8d. ^ 8air. P. Z. 8. 1868, p. 176 (Tambo Valley, 
Pern) ; 8aJv. P. Z. 8. 1870, p. 210 (Volcan de Chiriaui) ; Harting, 
'id Brit. B. p. 134 (1872) ; Alien, Ball. Ilarv. OoU. iii. p. 355 
872) ; Snow, B. Kansas, p. 13 (1872) ; Omes, Key N. Amer. B. 



(187: 
p. 244 
Chaes 



1 (1872) ; Sd. ^ Salv. Nomenel. sip. Neotrop. p. 143 (1873) ; 
c«wM, J^. N.- Wed, p. 452 (1874) ; Lawr. Mem. Bost. 8oc. N. H, 
ii. p. 307 (1874: Maiatlan); Hensk. Rep. Zool. ErpL lOOtk 
Merid. p. 445 (1875); Ijawr. BuU. U.S. Nat. Mas. it. p. 46 
(1876: Tehuantepec, Aug., Feb.); Ridyw. Rep. Sarcey 40tA 
Par. p. 603 (1877: Carnon, Ne%*ada; Gt Salt Lake); Senneti, 
Ball US. Geol. Sarv. ir. p. 53 (1878: BrownaviUe, Texaa) ; 
Omes, t. c. p. tVU (DakoU k Montana) ; Merrill, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mas. I p. 16U (1878: S.W.Texas): Bdding, t. c. pp. 301,440 
(MurpbjV, Cal.); Taea. P. Z. 8. 1870, p. 244; Sd. ^ Sals. t. c. 
p. MT (Medellin); Cory, B, Bahamas, p. 145 (18H0); A.Sr E. 
Neaion, Uandh. Jamaica, p. 1 15 (IHHI ) ; Zelcdon, Cat Aves Coda 
Rica, p. 30 (1882); Omes, Ckech4. N. Am%er. B. p. 07 (1882); 
Samnders, ed. YarrelTs Brit. B, iii. p. 266, note (1883) ; B. O. U. 
list Brit. B. p. 160 (1883); Cory, B. 8. Domingo, p. 141 (18K4); 
Camisk, Zool. 188.^ p. 113 (Scillr Isl.); Tacz, Om. I'^roa, iiL 
p. 512 (18H6 : Pacasmaro) ; FerrarnPh^et, Pr. US. Nat. Mas. ix. 
p. 178 (lHH6: PofbU;' JaUpa) ; A. O. U. Ckeck-l. N. Amer. B. 
p. 161 (iKrtH); J?nrfN.^iiA,iii. p.02 (1886: Ventura Co.); Seton, 
t. c. p. 152 ( W. Manitoba) ; Antkony, t. e. p. 1(U (Orefmn) ; /or, 
t.c. p. 310 (TenncMee); Scott, t. c. p. 387 (Arizona): Ridaw. 
Mam. N. Amer. B. p. 174 (1887); Beckk. Amk, \y. p. 124 (1887 : 
Fveblo, C<ilorado) ; Lanyd<m, t. c. p. 120 (Tetin«*Me«*); iJoyd, t. c. 
p. \m ( W. Texaa) : Towns. /V. U.S. Nat. Mas. x. p. IW ( 1887 : 
H. (3alifunua ) ; Beckk. t. c. pp. 637, 6M ( Itexar (*o.. 8. W. Texa«) ; 
Maekm. Auk, ▼. p. 20 (188A: Diatnct Columbia); Merrill, t.c, 
f. 146 (Fort Kkaatb) ; Ckapm. t. c. p. 270 (Uainefrille, Florida) ; 

b2 



30. oxrmmv%. 245 

•jdbrow ; btte of forehead blaak, as wall as a broad streak from 
the base of the bill to below the eye ; ear-oorerts brown ; a black 
streak ftom the eye along the upper edge of the ear-coverts ; cheeks 
and throat white, extending backwards to the sides of the neck ; 
across the fore-neck a broad black collar, united to the collar round 
the hiad-neck; this black collar followed by a narrower one of 
white, and again, on the chest, by a second black collar ; remainder 
ef under surface of body, as well as the under wing-coverts and 
axillarics, pure white ; quill-lining ashy whitish : ^* bill black : 
feet pale pinkish or pale greyish yellow ; iris dark brown : eyelids 
orange-red or scarlet "^ (Baird, Brewer, 4f Ridgway\ Total length 
9 inches, culmen <>-i>5, wing 5*9, tail 3*8, tarsus 1*3. 

A^imli ftmale, Similar to the male. Total length 10 inches, 
culmen 0-95, wing O-iS, tail 3*8, tarsus 1*35. 

Admli in winUr plumage. Rather browner than in summer, and 
not quite so grey. 

Yommg. Differs from the adult in having sandy-rufous margins to 
the feathers of the upper surface. 

Hah. Temperate North America, extending to Central and South 
America in winter. 

a. Ad. sL North America. J. J. Audubon, Esq. 

[P.l 

i. Ad. ik. Ntvrth America. Riocour Coll. 

r. Ad. ik. IludKon*s Day {Sir 0, Back), Arctic Land Exped. 

4. Ad. ak. New Jctm^t (H. E. Dre»$er), Salvio-OiHiman Coll. 

f. Ad. sk. Fort DuflTerin, Manitoba {Sir N. A. lioond. Com- 

O. Daicsom). misition. 

/-k. Ad. St jttv. sk. Britinh Columbia. J. K. Ix>rd, Eiiq. [P.]. 

/. Imiu. tk. Vanrouver IaUixL J. K. I»rd. Ksq-TP.]. 

■k fS juv. sk. Umatilla .\|rency, Oregon, Salvin-Qodman Uoll. 

AuK. IM (HrtJk, Coil), 

a. J jav. sk. W8ah«>e l^ke, Nevada 5^1vin-Oodman Coll. 

{Hensh. CM). 

•. ^ ad. sk. Waahin^rton. D.C, March 5 Salvin-Godman Coll. 

{IlenMM. Coll.), 

^ 9 ad. sk. Ixmiftiaoa, March {Hmsk. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Coti). 

f. (f ad. ak. Ogden, Uuh, Julv {C. H. Salvio-Qodman Coll. 

Merriam: Hmak, VolL). 

r. d jav. sk. Florida. Ot. i^H JimsAX'oU.). Sah-in-TKidman Coll. 

i. (f ad. sk. Tarpon Springs. Florida, Dec. Sal\m-(i<>dman Coll. 

:J5 ( M . J?. />. Sc^t), 

r, m. Imok. ik. Deniiuda, Not., Dec. Capt. Savile Reid 

fc.]. 

w ff mLtk. Port RrntAn {J. P^rtaU). Salvin-4f<>dman Coll. 

w. X <f ad. sk. Oakland, (^lUifoniia, l)ec. Salvio-Oodman Coll. 

(//ni«A. CoU.). 
f , s, sT. cf ad. el Ikllina. San IHt^ Co., Call- Salvin-Godman Coll. 
jav : h\ ft. 2 fiirnia. March to June (/*. 

ad. ik. StepA^HMi. 

£,t. (S'lmm.tk. San Jim^ del Cabo, Lower Salvin-Godman CoU. 

California {H\ B metier : 
Hensk. CoU.). 



246 CHABADBIIDiB. 

f'lff'f^*' 6 imm.; Corpus Chriflti, Texas, Oct, Salyin-Godman ColL 

t*. $ ad. sk. Nov. (F, B, Amutrong), 

A:', cf ad. sk. Kendall Co., Texas, Dec. 27. Dr. R B. Sharpe I 

r. cJ ad. si. Mexico. J. Taylor, Esq. [F.J 

m'. Ad. sk. Rio de ^ledas, Chihuahua, Salyin-Godman 

Dec. ( W. Lloyd), 
n'. $ ad. sk. Hermonllo, Sonora, Oct. 18 Salvin-Godman ColL 

(Ferrari-Perez). 
o\p\ S &d* ot Nueyo Leon, April, May {F, Salyin-€k>dman ColL 

imm. sk. B. Armstrcng), 

9^,r',«'. d$ad.sk. Tampico,Feb.( ^.j&J2teAar<^ Salyin-Godman ColL 

mm), 
€, «', ^'. cT $ ad. Aldama, Tamaulipas, March Salyin-Godman CoU* 

sk. ( W, B, Bichardson). 

«/. $ ad. sk. Cofre de Perote. Vera Crus, Salyin-Godman ColL 

Noy. (F. D, O,), 
y. Ad. sk. Patzcuaro, Vera Cruz, Jan. Salyin-Godman ColL 

{F, D, O,). 
y', ^ imm. sk. Vega del CasaderOyVeraCruz, Salyin-Gk)dman ColL 

Dec. (M, Tn^iUo). 
s'. Ad. sk. Oaxaca (Boucard), Tweeddale ColL 

a", c^ ad. sL S. Balthazar, Puebla, Noy. 4 Salyin-Godman ColL 

{Ferrari-Perez) , 
b", c". ^ imm. sL Mayorazzo, Puebla, May 14 Salyin-Godman ColL 

(Ferrari-Perez), 
d'y e", (^ $ ad. sk. Ixtapalapa, Valley of Mexico, Salyin-Godman ColL 

April,July (Ferrari-Perez), 
f". (f imm. sk. Mexicalcingo,Valle^ of Mexico, Salyin-Godman ColL 



y", (J ad. sk. 



Feb. 20 (Ferrart-Perez), 
Chimalpa, valley of Mexico, Salyin-Godman ColL 

Marcn 6 (Ferrari-Perez), 
h",i:\k",^2 Calyillo, Ajsruas Calientes, Salyin-Godman ColL 

imm. sk. Auff. ( W. B, Bichardson). 

r, $ ad. sk. MazaUan, Dec. 24 (A, For- Salyin-Godman ColL 

rer). 
tn"-p", cJ $ ad. sk. Zacatecas, Feb., Aug. ( W, Salvin-Godman ColL 

B, Bichardson), 
jr", r '. cJ ad. ; $ Jerez, Zacatecaa, Sept. ( W. Salyin-Godman CoD. 

imm. sk. B. Bichardson). 

s", (S ad. sk. Calotlan, Jalisco, March ( W, Salyin-Godman ColL 

B. Bichardson), 
t". cT imm. sk. Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Aug. Salyin-Godman CoU. 

( W. B. Bichardson). 
u". c^ ad. sk. Teapa, Feb. (D, TV, Smith). Salvin-Godman ColL 

r". Ad. sk. Peto,Yucatan((?.2^.G'aw»icr). Salvin-Godman ColL 

w"-z". Ad. sk. Cozumel Isl., Jan. (G. F, Salvin-Godman ColL 

Gaumer). 
a^j h^y c'. (5 $ ad. Cavo» British Honduras (F. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

sk. ^lancaneaux). 

(Pyf^^f^. S $ ad. Panajachel, Guatemala, Dec. Salvin-Godman ColL 

sk. ( W. B. Bichardson). 

g^. (S ad. sk. Atitlan, Guatemala, Dec. ( W. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

B. Bichardson). 
A^ 2 ad. sk. San Geronimo, Guatemala, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Oct. 29(0. S.). 
i\ Ad. sk. San Joe^, Costa Rica (J. Salvin-Godman ColL 

Carniiol). 



90. oxncHVi. 247 

A^, /*. ^ ad. sL Southern Slope, Volctn de SalTin-Oodman Coll 

ChiriquiyPaiuunA {KAm), 

m\ m\ Ad. ak. Jamaica. OoMe ColL 

«\ir*. Imiii.ili. Sao Cristobal, Cuba (O. F. Salvin-Oodman Coll. 

G owner), 

f». Ad. *k. St. NVria. W. Cottle, E«|. [P.]. 

r". 9 »1 tk. MedeUin, U.S. Colombia {T. Salfin-Uodman Coll. 

A'. Saiwtom). 

«*. Ad. aL Ecuador. Gould Coll. 

r. Ad. ak. Sical, Ecuador {Buckley). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

mK <^ ad. ak. Tambo Vall«»T. S.W. Peru, Salnn-Godnian Ctdl. 

(tec 2.5 (if. n'JkUefy). 

r*. Ad. ak. Chili. Berkeley James Coll. 



2. Oxjechoi triooUaris. 

Iharadritts indicua, Latk, Ind, Om. ii. p. 750 (1790) ; Des Mur$ m 
Lf/B6rrr's I'tHf, Ahjfs$,v. 1(K)(1846: Gondar). 

Charadrius triioUarvs viUi. N. Did. ifHUt Xat. xzrii. p. 147 
(1^18); Oray, den, B, ui. p. 544 (1847); Bp, (\ B. zliu. p. 417 
(loVi): La^ni, B, S, A/r. p. 21W (l407: common throiurhout 
the Colon V, brt^diotf); uL IbU, 18dl^ p. 70; Fmsich ^ HartL 
Vog. i)^0Jr. p. tVWS (1H70); Gray, Hand-L B. iii. p. 15, no. 10002 
(1H71); UntyL Om. SAK-Afr, ii. pt. 1, p. 10l< pi. 34. tip. 5 
(1873: Samhar coa«t; Tigre; Amhara, weiit wards Vt> Qualabat; 
ivaidrnt between lOUO and 8000 feet) ; Hekken. J,f. O. 1877, 
p 11 (I.4MiiK«*) ; Hulub ^ /V^ BeUr, Orm. Siidafr. p. 240 (1882 : 
thn»u|rfaout Central Africa); ScA4jA,w, J,/, O. 1883, p. 340: 
Bndken, J J. O. 1H87, p. 44( (Iranfri); Sethukm, Ibis, 1887, p. &'» 
lojouth of Lmffeui U.); id. (ietiyr. DUtr. CMaradr. p. 134 (1888: 
Table BaT, I'uroaii) : BeieAen. JaMrh. Hamburg. WiuerntcM.Anst. z. 
p. (» iltiKM: Zaiiiibar, Oct.); id. rag. iJetUsch-Ottafr. p. 34 
(ISM: Ciiaipira; l>allall.; Tantranvika; Iranfri) ; SJielleg, IbiM, 
1M«4, pp. 2«i, 475 (Lake Shirwa). 

Charmdnus bituiquatiis, LicAt. rent. DtmhL p. 71 (1823); WagL 
Sgti. Ar., Charadriuii, p. ti(i, sp 30 (lH*>7) ; Lets. Man. d'Om. ii. 
p. :t2U (IMJK) ; OriU, Amd. Anterkn. p. 52 (1851M. 

IIuiti< uU trimlUriit. Gray, List GraU. Brit. Mus. p. (fl)(l^^ : Cape). 

iltaticula indii-a. Bupp. i^tt. I'eben. p. \\H (1H45: Hed S««). 

lltatiruU bit4ir4uat«, LieAi. Somend At. Mum. Bend. p. U4 (1854). 

.Er^alitis cincnficolliis Jlrugi. .W. Uebert. p. M (1856). 

.KinaUtia iiidicm, Ileugi. Sy$t. Vebert. p. 56 (l85<t). 

.f^4rialitia tricullaria. Kirk, Ibis, \mU, p. 3.'i2 (Elephant Mamh, 
R. 8hir«); Garney, Ibis, 1865, p. 271 (NaUl); .SrAL Mus. I\iys' 
Bus, CufiM445«, p. 24 (1865: (!apt»; lUl Sea; Adi>a) ; Blanf. 
Gmd. ^ XtMd. Aftyst. p. 42i)(lM70: near Maaaowah) ; Gumeyin 
Amderts. B. Ihtm. Ld. p. 274 (1872: l»aniara and Great Nama- 



r. p. Z4 4 I 
U P /. S. 



oua I^andii) ; Hurting, P Z. S. 1874, p. 457, pi. Is. fi}r. 5 ; SAelUy, 
lUs, lK7:i, p. <i iCape (%>loDV ; Ourban) : SAurpe ^ Bou9ier, Buii. 
Ak. Zt0d. Frumce^ L p. 313 (1876: Ijuidana); Ayrf, Ibis, 1877. 
p. 348, IHHU, p. 2i;«) (Transvaal) ; B*xngt, Gm. Ang^da, p. 433 
llHHl: Bei^uela; C^uillenfni<«; llunbe); SAartte in (Mttes'g 
MuiuMe Land, App. H,p. 326 (18Hl : Durban) ; BuiJer, Feitden^ 
k Rfid, /tW. liv^ p.:i4I (throuirhout Naul, bn*<<<iin9) ; Jiurtmg, 
XuuL lnH3, p. 417 ; HAurpe. ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 6112 (18HI : 
On^^ U.; Port Eliiabeth; Eaat LuiuUm); iSulvad. Amt. Mus. 



80. ozncnt. £49 

d,f,Ad.tk, KingwiUiaiiistowii. MiijorTreTelTAorP.]. 

/. (f ad. «k. Onnpe River. Dr. Bradabaw [d]. 

tAd. tk. NaUl {A^rt*). Beebohm ColL 

Ad. ak. NaUl. Dr. OueiDiiuii [C.]. 

I, k, L Ad. 9k. DurUn, NaUl. 8e«bohm ColL 

m. 9 ad. ak. Inngani Kirer, Natal, Capt Sarik Reid 

Jane 3». [C,]. 

n. 9 Mi. tk. Newcastle, Mar 14. Capt. SaTile Reid 

[CI 

•. 9 ad. tk. KroonttadtfOnuifce Free State, Gumev ColL 

Not. ^ {F, S^mamU). 

p, 6 ad. i4. TraiwTaal. Dr. R. R SharpefP.]. 

f . 9 ad. tk. TransTaaL A. Foreaman, liltq. 

[P.'. 

r. (^ ad.ak. Traimraal, Dec 9 (T. £ Shellej Coll. 

Bufklty), 

$^Uu. i ^ mLA. OtjimbiD^aey Danai^and, 8HebohiD ColL 

J une, bepi. ( C. /. ^ndlerv- 

mm), 

V. 9 ad. ak. O^imbinque, Not. (C /. Tweeddale Coll. 

Andenmmy 

ir. Ad. nk. ZambeM (Z>r. Metier), Tweeddale Coll. 

t «'. Ad. ak. TetP, Zambedi (^'r J. Kirk), Uviiigiit«>De Exped. 

4'. Ad. ak. Taehirmo, NTasa-land, Sept H. II. Johnston, Em|. 

(A. Wh^e), C.R [P.]. 

e\ 9 ad. ak. Laki* Shirwa, NTaa^-land, H. H. Johiwtoo, Eaq. 

Maj 6 {A. Wl^te). C.H. f P.l 

^. r. (f 9 ad. ak. Lamu, Sept 20. F. J. Jacluon, £m. 

[P.]. 

r, 9\ A*. 9 Mi. aL KibiDH Ec^uatorial Africa, Eniin Pasha [P.]. 

NImT 

r, 4r'. (f 9 ad. ak. Ai'ut,' h(jfm-land, June. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

f . m'. «'. e Mi. >k. Ailat, June ( W, Je4se). TW«<«^da]e <& Salvin- 

(fiKiman ColU. 



3. Ozjeehoi bifrontatoi. 

«^Vnalitia tricollaria (n#v Vi^iU.), Lirht, S»mfncl. Av. Mum, Bfrol. 

p. m (lf<>4); Uartktt, P, Z. S. lH7U, p. ($7; Hihrrt, IbU, lMll>, 

p. 11.V 
Charadrioa tricollaria (nee I'ieiU. ). Hnril. Fhun, Madag. p. 72 ( 1 84)] ) ; 

Urm^, Her, M Mag, de XmL 1H07, p. 419; UariX. V^, Madag, 

p. WH1H77). 
CkaffMlriua bifr^mUtua, Ctd^. Om, Cemtralbi. 1882, p. 14: id, J,/, O, 

In^Cf. p. 112: Miime-Edwmrd» 4* Gnmdidier, X, //. Mada^f,, Ou, 

p 610 (1HM2) : fViA. y./. O. l8Hi5, pL tL tip. 6; Seebohm, Oeugr, 

iHMr. Ckmrndr, p. 137 ( l^iKH). 

Admit, Himilar to 0. tricoHaru^ bat having only on«' Inif on the 
oolrr tail«featbrr : baae of forehead Rrej, aucoeedcd by a white 
band, which ia united to the whit4» eyebrow and oontinuvd to the 
hind-nerk : ehin and throat aahy grey. 

Hah, Madagaacar. 



31. jwiAunji» 251 



Ckandrioa hkticalA (mm Z.), Ord, ed. Wiimm Amer. Om. tiL p. 60 
(1814); SMme m I^mkL Norr. Joum, Polar Sea, App. p. GS4 
(18S8); JUek. m Burl's Sefmtd Toy., SuppL p. 851 (1824). 

iEmlitk Mmipdnuuiit, Bp. Omp. Lid B, Eur, 4* N. Amer. p. 45 
(1888) ; Oo$$e, B. Jamaica, p. 388 (1847) ; Iteickenb, GralL NovU. . 
Tif. ira fiA 2844-45 (1851) ; Cab, J./, O. 1856, p. 425; Com. 
M Bmir^s B. N. Amer, p. 6U4 (1858: Puget Sound); Bryanif 
Prwf. BoeL Soe. N.H, tu. p. 121 (1859: BahamM^May); Marek^ 
Firve. FkHmd, Acad, 18(V4, p. 66 (Jamaica) ; Ihrtster, Ibi$, 1866, 
p. 847 (T«zaa. winter) ; ikUviny t, e, p. 197 (Guatemala) ; Lawr. 
Amn, 4r Xye. N. Y. rm. p. 100 (1866: Sombrero lal.), ix. p. 288 
(1868: Puna hi); 8el,^ Saiv, P. Z, 8, 1867, p. 591 (Mexuma) ; 
Dail ^ Bmmn. Tr. Okie. Acad, I p. 290 (1869: Nukto; St 
Micliael*a; mouth of Yukon) ; Sei. ^ Sah P. Z, S, 1870, p. 828 
(Indfllaldlgable laL) ; Peh, Om, Bra$, pp. 297, 455 (1871 : Sapitiba, 
rVb. ; metinga, March ; I'aranagna, Dec ; Caiutuha, April) ; 
Alien, Bull. Harv, ColL ii. p. 85.5 (1871) ; Coue», Key N. Amer, B. 
p. 244 (1872); Sd. Ifr Sah. NomencL Av, Neotr, p. 148 (1878) ; 
amtm, B. Kammu, p. 9 (1878) ; Caue$, B, N,- Wed, p. 458 (1874) ; 
Later. Meat. BoU, 8oc S. H. ii. p. 807 (1874: Mazatlan; Tree 
Maria* laL); Halvin, Traiu. ZooL Soc, vl p. 501 (1875); SeL 
P. Z 8. 1876, p. 14 (St Luda) ; Gundi, Om, Cuba. p. 182 (1876) ; 
La^. BuU. L.S. Nat. Mus. \y. p. 46 (1876: Tehuantepec, Aug., 
F«b.); Beid, ZooL 1877, p. 475 (Bermudas); Tacz, P. Z, S, 1877, 
p. 560 (C^orilloa) ; Lamr, Proe. U.8, Nat, Mat. i. p. 197 (St Vin- 
cent), p. 241 (Antigua); Beldmjf, t,e, p. 895 (C. Califomia); 
Lawr. t.c. p. 461 (Ouadeluupe), p. 48o (Barbuda); Alien, Bull 
Ntdt Orm. Club, w, p. 169 (1880: 8. LucU) ; Biifyw, Proe. U.S. 
Nat. Mut. iii. p. 19h (IHHO); A. ^ E. Newt. Handb, Jamaica, 
p. 115 (1881); Ome», Oieclc-iiH N, Amer. B, ja, 97 (1882); Zeie- 
dam, Qit, Are$ Conta Bica, p. 80 (1882); Brldinf^, Proe. U,8 
Nat, Mum. t. p. 528 (18^2: St Quentin Bav, I^ Califomia); 
NeUom, CYmse R.S, * Chrwin,' p. 84 (18K): botk iihoree of Bering 
8ra to Point Ikrrow ; coast of N.R Asia; Norton Sound; 
St Uwience Id.); Sairin, P. Z, 8, 18Ki, p. 422 (Pararai Ikj; 
Coquimbo; Chili); Steams, Proe. U.S. An/. Mu*. ri. p. 119 
( 1^83 : Labrador) ; Brldiny, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mys. vi. y. 851 ( 1888 : 
Lowrr Califomia); Baird, Brewer, Of Bid^tc. Water- Birds N. Amer. 
tp. 154(lH84) ; Tristr. Ibis, lMK4,p. 1«VH (S. l>omiu^)) ; Cvues, Key 
N. Amer, B. 2nd ed. d. (OJ (lf^84) ; RidaM?, Proe, U.S. Sat, .Mum. 
Tii p. 177 ( 1^84 : Saoanilla, near Granaiia) ; Cory, B. S. Domingo, 
p. 144 (1HH5: winter); Zeled*m, Proe. U.S. Nat. .Hum. Tiii. p. 118 
(10^5: Cu*U Rica); Turner, t.c. p. 2M\ (I'n^rava); Murdoeit, 
Amk, iL p. 201 (18H.>: Point Barrow) ; NeieonJ. e. p. 241 ; Ayertb. 
t.e. p. 2H5 (S.K. I)akuU); Toes. ^^ Berl. P. Z S. 1885, p. 119 
(l*ttna, Ecuador) ; Tacz. ()m, I'irou, iii. p. :U.> ( 1886) ; A, O. U. 
Ckerk-i. N. Amer. B, p. 162 (1HH45) ; Scott, Auk, iii. p. :^7 (1H86: 
Tuewo, .\rix4ina); Cory, i. c. p. 502 (Grand Cavman); Saiein, 
IUm, \9^^ p. 17H (Bnti>h (iuiana); WelU, Proe. t\S. Nat, .Mum. 
is. p. 627 (lHh6: (tranada); Turner, Omtr. Nat. Hid. Alwdca, 
p. l50(lnH6: St Micba«*l\ Oct.); Neimm, Bep. Nat, Jlist. VolL 
Alaska, Birds, p. ]2tS (lhh7: Nulato; Yukon U.); Bidgw. 
Man. s\. Amer, B, p. 176 (1H87); Toims, Auk, iv. p. 12 (1887: 
Alaska); Cooper, I, c. p. 91 (Ventura Co., Cal.) ; Sci»tt, t, e. 
p 219 (Florida) : i«r<^. Proe. U.S. Nat, Mus. x. pp. (Vt7, (V12, 654 
(1887: Bttur Co., Texa«); Salvin, Ibis, 1889, p. 879 (Cotumal 



31. JnULK€%. 



253 



«rui|r* ; fett pak flesh-ooloar, daws black ; iris deep h&sel '* (J. J. 
Amdmbom). ToUl length 6*5 iocbcs, cnlmen 0*55, wing 4*75, Uil 2*1, 

AduHfewmU. BimiUr to the male in ooloar, but with the facial 
Barkings not qaite so strong, the ear-eoTerta brownish black, and 
the sides of the pne-pectoral collar mixed with brown. Total 
kagth 6*6 inobea, culmen 0*55, wing 5, tail 2*15, tarsus 0*9. 

loiii^. Simibur to the adults, but easily distinguished bj the 
MUTow whitish edgings to the feathers, and bj the absence of the 
hUck frontal bands, only the white band being present and extending 
ID a narrow line orvr the eye : ear-corerts and pnc-pcctoral band 
brown ; the nape also surrounded by an indistinct shade of dusky, 
of which eolour a similar trace is perceptible on the upper mantle, 
below the white collar. 

UnK North America generally, from the Arctic regions and 
Gf««nland, wintering in Central and South America. 



«. Imm. sk. 
A, e. Ad. fk. 
d, 2 aa.sk. 

#. Jav. sk. 



f. 9 imin* sk. 
V .%d.ak. 
k, %. (f ad. tk. 
f. KttlLsk. 



k. L Ad. tft pull. 

sk. 
«, II. / ? ad. ; 

•. Tull. ik. 

^t. ^ ^ mi. tl 

IBIBI. »1l 

«. i ad. ak. 

V. .\a. tk. 

w Ad Jt. 

#. y. I. t ad. tk. 

4 ^ ;/ ad. sk. 

r ./ <f 5 .a. dc. 

p Ad •k. 

a ' ad tk. 

■ . k ^ ^ ad.sk. 



Ctn^enland. Si*i*b(>hm Coll. 

N.W. America. Cai»t. Colliimon f P.l 

Ilorton Kiwr,Arctic America, SaIvin-(todman Cull. 

JuD«* :29. 
St. Michael^ Alsska, July Salvirr^Sodman CoU. 

{E, W. Sdwni Hensk. 

CoiL). 
Fort SiniDMn, July. 
Itfpulfe mr. 
liudsuDB l£iy, May. 
Jam«s liay/lludtton's Bay 

Terr. (C. Urexier : Utnsk, 

ChU,). 
Di^rger Isl , Hudson's Day, Cnlonel Feiklen 'P.} 

July {A. JI. MarkAam). 
Kurt Chimt), Unfcava, Jun«), Salviu-GodmaD Cull. 

July {L, M, Turner : 



B. K. It^tfi, F^. ^VX 
Dr. Kae'P.]. ^ 

Could C\>11 

Salvio-Oodman Coll. 



Hengk, CiM,). 
Lunir Nland, New York, 

Aug. ( lirHsA, CW/.). 
Ipvwich, Mjus., May (1/ajf- 

nard). 
WapbioKtuo, U.C, June (C 

DrtjUr), 
Florida. 
Murida, .\utf. (H', JLuie: 

iietuk. Colt.). 
Cellar K«*v«. h'lurids, Nov. 

( iietuk' CoU. ). 
Itrr>wiuTine, Texas, Aftril, 

May {F. B. ArmMrona). 
CofMM Christi, T«*xas, S'ut. 

( r. li. ArmMnmg). 
('alti'oniia. 
( laklatid. ( *fdifum'ui. 
San Jdii^ did (*abu, Ixiw^r 

('aliiomia, Sept. {lirtuk, 

CkdL). 



Salvin-Godman ColL 

Seebohm Coll. 

Sal\in-Oodman Coll. 

Se»*bi»hin (*oll. 
SalviiMitNlmiui Coll. 

Sal vin-4f Oft mail CulL 

Salvin-^ttxlnuiii ( olL 

SalviQ-(tudin:if) Coll. 

S'fboliiii ('«dl. 
Si** bidiiu (Ndl. 
Sal% ili-( fuduiau Ctdl. 



254 CHAEADBTTPJg. 

r. 2 ^* ^^* '^^^ Marias Islands, March 14 SalTiii-Ck)dmaii OoU. 

{A. Forrer), 
tn'. Ad. sk. Oozumel Isl. (G. F. Oaumer). Salyin-Godman CoD. 

n'-p'. Ad. sk. Chiapam, Guatemala, Jan, Salyin-Godman CoIL 

(O.S,). 
^-9'* c^ $ ad. et Grenada, West Indies, March, Salvin-Gk)dman ColL 

imm. sk. Sept., Oct. (2>. W. Smith), 

a. 2 imm* ^' 3^ Vincent, Sept. 2 (2>. W. SalTin-Godman CoR 

Smithy 
u'. Inmi. sk. Santa Lucia {Semper). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

v\ S ad. sk. Aneprada, Dec. 20 (C. S. Salvin-Gudman CoU. 

Wynch). 
It/. S ad. sk. Guadeloupe, Sept. 6 (C 8, Salvin-Godman CoU. 

Wynch). 
af. Imm. sk. Barbados. Sir R. Schombonrk 

[O.J. 
y', s'. $ ad. sk. Cartsf^na, U.S. Colombia. Capt. Milner [P.]. 

a"-c". Ad. sk. Trinidad. Old ColL 

a". Imm. sk. Cayenne. Seebohm ColL 

€*'. Ad. sk. Island of Meziana, Dec. {A. Salvin-Godman ColL 

R. Wallace). 
/". Ad. sk. Pemambuco (W. A. Forbes). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

g"-k". Ad. sk. Bahia (Dr. Wucherer). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

r. Ad. sk. Hio de Janeiro. Sir W. Burnett & 

Capt Fit«oy PP.]. 
m", $ ad. sk. Paranagua, Brazil, Dec. 12 Salvin-Godman ColL 

(J. Natterer). 
n'\ S A^* Bk. Coauimbo Lajg^oon, Chili, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Nov. (A. H. Markham), 
o". Ad. sk. Coquimbo, June (Dr. Cop-- Voy. H.M.S. * Alert,' 

ptnger). 
p'\ S imm. sk. Paracas Bay, Peru, Oct. (A. Salvin-Gk>dman ColL 

H. Markham). 
ef's", Imm. sk. Indefatigable IsL, Galapagos, Salvin-Godman CoD. 

Sept, Oct (Dr. Habel). 

32. iBOIALinS. ,^ 

Type. 

iEgialitis, Boicy Ists, 1822, p. 553 iE. hiaticola. 

Leucopolius, Bp. C. B. zliii. p. 417 (1856) JE. marginata. 

.^^alopbilus, GotUdf Handh. B, Austr. ii. p. 234 
(1865) iE.alexandrina. 

Range. Almost cosmopolitan. 

Key to the Species, 

a. Throat white. 

a'. No black on the mantle, or, when present, 
the black not continuous with the black 
ear-coverts. 
a". A black streak from the base of the bill 
to the eye. 
a'". A distinct white collar round the 
hind-neck. 
a*. A black band on the fore-neck. 
fl'. Both mandibles bright orange- 
yellow at base hiaticoUij p. 256. 



32. jwuum. 855 

h\ BiUbkck,orwithaUtUej6llow 
at tbe bftM of the lower man- 
dible onlj. 
«*. Shafts of iiriiiiaries dark, ex- 
cepting the firrt, which maj 
be partly or entirelr white. 
m\ Laiger; wing 5'5-i-6 inches: 
outer primaiy with the 
shaft whitj Hown before 

the end piaekUif p. ti62. 

k''. Smaller ; wing 4*6 inches : 

outer primaiy with the 

shaft entirely pare white • dubia, p. 263. 

M. Shafts of all the Quills white ; 

Mu^eoTerts whitish, black 

along the upper maigin; a 

black collar, often interrupted, 

on the f«ire-neck per&mi^ p. 273. 

if*. No black band on the fore-neck; 
crown of head rufous, the nape 
also of this colour, followed bj a 
white collar, which is sometimes 
accompanied bj a line of black . . ak zu n d rima, p. 275. 
k"\ No white collar rdund the hind- 

DPCk. 

c*. No black collar on the fore-neck. 

c*. £ai^«oTerts with a line of black 

along their upper mar^n, not 

extending down the sides of 

the neck; hinder crown rufous ; 

feet pale. 

^. Witn white inner secondaries 

adjoining the long innermost 

ones . . . . .^ tttarginaia^ p. 2d2. 

^. With the inner secondaries 

brown, like the others. 

c^. Breast shaded with rufes- 

cent buff, a shade of white 

is on the sides of the 

neck jMlttlff, p. 284. 

tT, Ilreast with a rufous band, 
ciintioued along the sides 
of tbe neck to the erebrow. vaiHsto, p. 286. 
^. Eai^«orerts with a black line 
along the upper margin, con- 
tinued in a hne down the sides 
of the neck ; hinder crown, neck, 
and mantle rufous ; feet black . f^^ficapHia, p. 286. 
#. A black collar on the fore-neck; 
no bUck or white collars on the 

hind-neck coUarit, p. 2^. 

k". No blark streak from the base of the 
bill to the eje, the lures perfectly 
white. 
€<". Rand on fore-neck either abeent or 
only a single one. 



^"* 8i&ftUc : Mcoiiduiaft reuihiiur to 
abont the lerel of die ptinmiT- 
coverts ; primarieB with white 
ah&fta , ezceptiii^ on the third, whkli 

it alwaja bUckuh pttmria, p. 397. 

J"'. Laq^er : Mcondariaa w ehing to 
ftbont an inch beTond the lavel of 
the primar^-ooverta ; firat primanea 

onlr with white ihafta tmeUt-helmtm, p. S99, 

i'. Beapuan vinotia dMBtont ; a buwl 
baud of black on the fbiMieek ez- 
tending down the centra of t^ chat . mtbmepi, jk flOO. 
b, Tbroftt black, like tha vown and lidea of 

hce eueut la t ut, p. 302. 

1. .Sgialitie hiaticols. 
The Kinged Plover. 

The Sea Larli, Albin, Nat. HUt. S. i. p. 76, pL 80 (1738). 
Le Pluvier & collier. Brut. Om. v. p. 60, pi. v. fig. 1 (K^) : D'At- 

btnt. PI. Enl. ix. pi. 920; Buff. Mitt, ^^at. Oi». viii. pi. 90 (1781), 
Le Petit Pluvier ft coUier, Brut. Om. v. p. 6S, pi. t. fig. 2 (1760). 
Charadiius hiaticula, Linn. Sy»t. Nat. i. p. 263 (1706) ; Otn. &at. 

Sat. L p. 683 (1788) j PaU. Zoogr. JU)**o-A«iat. ii. p. 146 (18il) ; 



32. jBouunt. 257 

FML .V. IHri. ttHUt. Sat zxTii. p. 130 (1818); lUmr, Om. 
TVat. pL 27r) (1825) ; WagL SyBt, Av,, Chandriiu, p. 81, tp. 21 
(Hsn*); Wemer, Atlas, Coureun, pi. 6 (1827); yaum. Vog. 
I>tmi$M. TiL Taf. 175 ( 1834) ; O^mld, B. Ar. ir. pi. 296 (1^37) ; 
MaeyilL Man. Brit, B. ii. p. 52 ( 1840) ; Creijxm, Om. Qard^ 
p. .iltl (1840); Nordm. in Dhnid. Toy. Rum. Mind. iii. p. 233 
(1840 : a KoMia) ; Sel^»'Ijongck. Faun. Belg. p. 120 (1842) ; 8ckL 
Hier. Crit. p. Ixxxiii (1844); HevUs. J^« Brit. B. iijp. 255, 
pi. t». fign. 1, 2 ( 184(t) : Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 544 (1847) ; liienem. 
AMU. VoQeleiem, Taf. lix. (184«5-5i() ; Tkomp$. B. Irel. ii. p. 06 
(iSTiO) : MaeuiU. Brit. B. iv. p. 110 (1850) ; Middend. Rei$. Sibir., 
Znai. p. 213 (1M51 : Taimrr K.,74" N. Ut. ; l^ranida R.) ; KjiBrh. 
Annii./V^,pl.:iO. fig.:{(1852); Scki. FTm. AW^r^ pl.2l3(18M); 
BrtAm, yaum. 1855, p. 288 ; Bp. C. B. xliii. p. 417 (1856) ; Jaub. 
et BariM.-lMomm. Kirk. Om. p. 446 (185()); Sunde9. ^. Fogl. 
pi. 37. fifr. i nH56-72); RowUy, Ibi», 1800, p. 101 (Hrighton; 
•mall race) ; Schl. Ih'er. Sedfrl VogeU, pL 21. figs. 5, 6 (184(1) ; 
Malm^. (K/c. K. Vet.'Akad. lorh. StoekJk. 1863, p. 100 (Spitn- 
Ift-nreD); ScAi. .Mum. Paw^Boi, TanonMi, p. 26(lH<k'>): Lat^ard, B. 
S, A /r. p. 208 ( 18457) ; UartL P. Z. S. 184fr, p. 827 ; Dtgl. if- Gerhe, 
fW Eur. ii. p. 134 (184(7) ; Loche^ Rrjd. Sei. Ahir., Oiti. ii. p. 266 
(I'^C); «<!«•*. B. yorf, ii. p. 84 (1870); >W/teA, Vbg. Eur. 



S'ile ValW to Upper Kir district; Tana Lako; AoTsiiinia; Qua- 
lahat and t^>ara}r<>: IM S«fa in May and June, bree<iin|r) ; Sa.rhi/, 
B. SketL p. I(i2 (1874) ; ^ndev. (E/v. K. V^t.-Akad. /VA. StockM. 
K4. p. 21 (.Seren 1»1., Hl§= N. laL) ; FaUon, Ois. Belg. p. 151 
(H:.",) ; n^eker, J.f. O.^ 1^77. p. IHO ; Fitrker * Bricken. J./. O. 
1 ••7''. p. 24?* ( Zanrihar : Formosa llav) ; Fiitcker, t. e. p. 21W ; Finsrk^ 
Vrrk. t.-h, 6rW. IfVrw. xxix. p. 245 '(1870: 8chtM*huti«*hja; Little 
<»b; Olnlonk); Bokm, J.f. O. 1H82, p. 184 (/anxibar); BiH4k, 
k^mijk SMeM, viil. ii. (\t^\) ; Buttik. yotes 1.^1. Mus. \ii. p. :tt>7 
4l•^K.-,: Ijb'na), xi. p. 134J<1H8J»); Brickm. J.f. <). lMS7, p. 47 
<Kji^'i hi) ; MntBckie, t. c. p. 138 (Karema, March) : iSethokm, Gttyfr. 
Jhatr. rknratir.y. I2.*i (1^88); Brickm. Si^tt. I'rrz. Vikj. /MutJirki. 
p .M |l^8i»); Ifarti. Abkandl. nat. IW. firemm, xii. p. 4.*((1^»1 : 
lUifaniiijo; Tuniruni) : Ser/mtkm, Phm, 1i02, p. 23 (lloli^'oUml, 
ikprinfT and autumn) ; Btu-km. J /. O. 1^02, p. t (Hukoha) ; Emin^ 
t.r. |». ;M5. 

Charvlriuj airrpticiis. Linn. S^tt. yat. i. p. 254 (17*WJ) ; Gm. S^»t. 
ynt i. p. 1.84 (17138) ; I'ifiiL A*. Uict. d'Hist. yat. xxvii. p. 130 
(l-l-**. 

Itif>/*^1 IMn%-iT, J^tk. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 201 (178o) ; Yarrell^ 
Brit. //. ii. p. 4411 (1*^13). 

(*bara<)riu« httttici»lfi. Tetnm. Man. (TOrn. p. 328 (1815), 2nd fd. ii. 
p .VR»il**2«»): Brickrn. J.f. O, Is^W. p. 4J2.''H Zanzibar ) : Olj^ke- 
ti*iU (**mtr. Faun. Om. Eur. Occid. fai*c. xiii. i». .'M)( 1MJ<) : Ni>\nya 
Zf-mlra ; N. HiiAiiia and .**^ib<*ria, stiuth to 55^ 'm' N. Int.) : .SAaAiir, 
//. 'O. 1M1»|, p. •j.-i) (.mtrha M.); Britken. Jakrb. Unmhun;. WitH 
snurA. Anat. I. p. 4t (iMM: Zanzibar); id. Vtty. Ihuttck-Odafr. 
p. ^ fWM: Kafr«*hi: Hukitba). 

("harailnut t>n|uata, Leaek, Sy»t. Cat. Mamm. ifc. Brit. Mut. p. 28 
(1-«I6|. 

.fdrialitU hiaticula, Boie, Jmt, 1822, p. 558 : Bfh Comp. Jjut B. Eur. 
^ y. Amer. p. 45 (1838) ; Kfy$. ^f BUn. Wirb. Eur. p. 200 (MO) ; 



258 CHABABBIIDJB. 

Heugl Sya. U^>en. p. 56 (1856) ; Qunuy, Ibis, 1860, p. 218 
(Natal) ; Newton in Baring-GoultTs Iceland, p. 411 (1863) ; Gray, 
List Brit B. p. 140 (1863) ; Gigl Ibis, 1865, p. 59 (Pisa) ; Wright, 
t, c, p. 465 (Malta) ; Newton, t, c, p. 504 (Spitsbergen) ; Gould, 
Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 231 (1865) ; Biytk, Ibis, 1867, p. 165 ; 
Gumey, Ibis, 1868, p. 255 (S. Africa) ; Tristr. t. e. p. 823 (Pales- 
tine) ; Borpgr. Vogelf, Norddeutschl p. Ill (1869) ; Doderl Avif. 
SiciL p. 176 (1869) ; Cab. in Von der Deckm, Eeis. iii. p. 46 
(1869) ; GiUett, Ibis, 1870, p. 306 (Novaya Zemlva) ; Elwes * 
Buckley, t c, p. 330 (Turkey) ; Saunders, Ibis, 1871, p. 386 (S. 
Spain) ; Salvad, Faun, Ital., Ucc, p. 205 (1871) ; Harting, Handb. 
Brit. B. p. 44 (1872) ; Feilden, Zool 1872, p. 8245 (Faroes) ; 
Heugl. Ibis, 1872, p. 62 (Novaya 2^mlya, breeding) ; Gumey in 
Anderss. B. Dam. Ld. p. 276 (1872 : Walvisch Bay) ; Gould, B. 
Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 41 (1873) ; Severtz. Turkest. Jevotn. p. 69 (1873 : 
breeding rarely) ; Alston ^ Harvie-Brown, Ibis, 1873, p. 67 (Arch- 
angel) ; Brooke, t. c. p. 337 (Sardinia) ; Tacz. J.f. 0. 1878, p. 101 
(ifiiltuk), 1874, p. 336 ; Dumf. Ibis, 1874, p. 398 (N. Frisian Isl.) ; 
Irby, Om. Straits Gibr. p. 161 (1875) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1875. p. 85 
(Durban) ; Dresser, B. Eur. vii. p. 467, pi. 525 (1876) ; id. Ibis, 
1876, p. 327; Blar^f. Bast. Persia, ii. p. 280 (1876); Uliarton, 
Ibis, 1876, p. 26 (Corsica) ; Seebohm, t. c p. 289 (Lower Fetchora) ; 
Tacz. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, i. p. 248 0876: Dauria; Kultuk), 
ii. p. 155 (1877 : Poland) ; Feilden, Ibis, 1877, p. 406 (Smith 
Sound) ; David ^ Oust. (Hs. Chine, p. 429 (1877 : Pekin) ; Kund, 
BuU. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 15, p. 83 (1879 : Cumberland Sound) ; 
Hume, Str. F. viii. n. 197 (1879 : Gurjraon) ; Bogd. B. Cauc. p. 152 
(1879) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1879, p. 155 (Siberia, lat. 71i<>) ; Cimon, 
t. c. p. 369; Ayres, Ibis, 1880, p. 267 (Transvaal) ; BicU^. Froc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. iii. p. 198 (1880), p. 229 (Greenland and W. side 
of Cumberland Gulf), iv.p. 217 (1881); Gigl. Iconogr. Avif. ItaL 
fasc. xi. (1881) ; Biddukth, Ibis, 1881, p. 94 (GUgit) ; Sadly, t. c 
p. 587; Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 221 (Astrachan) ; Biddulph, t. c 
p. 268; Coues, Check-l. N. Amer. B. p. 97 (1882) ; Severtz. Ibis, 
1883, p. 73 (Pamir) ; Irby, t. c. p. 287 (Santander) ; B. O. U. List 
Brit. B. p. 159 (1883) ; Saunders, ed. YarreWs Brit. B. iii. p. 257 
(1883) ; ^aird, Brewer, Sr Ridgw. Water-Birds N. Amer. i.p. 157 
(1884); Tristr. Faun. ^ Flor. Palest, p. 130(1844: breeding); 
Bogd. Consp. A v. Imp. Boss. p. 75 (lo84) ; Badde, Om. Cauc, 
pp. 43, 418 (1884 : Lakes of Armenia) ; Coues, Key N. Amer. B, 
2nd ed. p. 603 (1884) ; Chapm. Ibis, 1884, p. 99 (Spain) ; Saunders, 
t. c. p. 389 (Pyrenees) ; Sharne, ed. Layard^s B. S. Afr. p. 660 
(1884 : Cape Town ; Port Elizabeth ; E. London) ; Salvad^ 
Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) i. p. 217 (1884 : Shoa) ; Chapm. Ibis, 
1885, p. 178 (Lapland); BiUtik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. p. 237 
(1885 : Liberia) ; Hartert, J.f. 0. 1886, jp.OlO (Kaura) ; A. O. U. 
Check'l. N. Amer. B. p. 162 (1886 ; W. shore of (Jumberiand 
Gulf, breeding) ; Gigl. Avif. Ital. p. 373 (1886) ; Salvad. Elenco 
Ucc. Ital. p. 212 (1886) ; Plenkey Uehers. Sdug. ufid Vdg. Kola 
Halbins. p. 324 (188G) ; Tait, Ibis, 1887, p. 385 (Portugal) ;'i?iVvtr. 
Man. N. Am. B. p. 177 (1887) ; Koenig, J.f. 0. 1888, p. 84 (Tunis) ; 
Buckley 41* Harvie- Broken, Vertebr. Faun. Outer Hebr. p. ll'o 
(1888) ; Beidy Ibis, 1888, p. 78 (Teneriffe); GuiUem. t. c. pp. 104, 
113 (Cyprus) ; Shelley j t. c. p. 30o (Manda Isl.) ; Chapm. t. c. p. 44o 
(Spain) ; Saunders, Man. Brit. B. p. 523 (1889) ; Guillem. Ibis, 1889, 
p. 210 ; Li/ford, t. c. p. 338 (Cyprus) ; Fei/deyi, t. c. pp. 480, 491 (Bar- 
bados) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. xi. p. 130 (1889) ; Gigl. Avif 



32. jMiAuns. 251) 

Ji^. lit JU»oe, p. iS74 (18H9), 2ml Remie, p. fUi (1800), Snf Remn:. 
p. ^07 (18U1); CAam5rr/. Auk, vi. p. 217 (188U: Oodhavn, S. 
lirscolaod); linmna, Motr, etc, (Orn. Croatica), p. 8« (1^4I0); 
i?«aN«, /^'j, 1^1, p. 7U (incubation); FricaUtMky, Am Hung. 
p. 122 (18U1); Ilaverup, Ji. GrtenL p. fiO (1K«1: breeds alunK 
whole coMt) ; liucklfy ^ Jlarn^Iinncn, VeHebr, Faun, Orkney 
1$. p. 2(M (I8ia: rvnident); Madardsz, Erldut, AuM$t, Vngar. 
r<^. p. 103 (IHil) ; IMf*^, LhL Fiy. Brit. li. part xx. (It4)l) ; 
JiuekUy ^ Harde-Brourn, Vertebr, Faun, Arj/yU, p. 105 (lh)»2) ; 
Fofttm^ Ibis, IH^y p. 471 (Mrfrador) ; Berkeiey Jamef, AVtr L»$t 
(%Umn //. p. 11 (1^U2) : ir<*a^/<r. Ha/c/o, Jbis, l^<U:i, ». 203 (C^anarj 
I*.); Biaw, t, c. p. 3*K> (Shetland I«.): ^/^t, ^m/t, x. p. 124 
(1^1) : I'rasak, Orn. Jahrb. iii. p 23 (It^S : lioheiuia) ; Ptarmm 
it BidKeii, Jbit, lb»4, p. 2:M (N. Norway; breeding). 

«'l'IinaUtu aeptentnunalii), Brekm, Votf. I/eutscM. p. r>48 (1831). 

lliaticula aunidata, Oray, List (ren, B. p. 03 (1640); Biipu, Suit. 
Vthen, p. 118 (lb4«'i: lltfvpt k ICed Sea). 

Hiattcula t<irr|uaU, Gray, IJ*t iiraU, Brit. Mum, p. 08 (1844). 

lliaticula hiaticula, Lickt, yotnencl Ar. Mum. Brroi. p. IM (18o4). 

lliaticuU arabn, Lickt. yummci. Ar. Mus. Berol. p. iM (1K54). 

M'haradriuA humeveri, Brekm, y'aumannia, i860, p. 288. 

.t^haliti^ auritUfiy iletujl. Sytt. I'ehen.y. />0 (ld''>({). 

.f'Vialititf hiatacul«)ide«, Ileuyl. Sy$t. I rit^n. p. 5<( (ISoO). 

.Kfh^^* iulL'nuedius {nee Men^tr.), Gumey, Ibit, 1808, p. 205; 
Skan»e. ed, DiuarWi B, S, A/r, p. 0»jl (18^). 

llui-ialiii hiatictila, l>ro$te, Vtujrlw. Burkiim, p. l^'K) (1>^M. 

C*harmdriuji hiaticuU mnjor, See6okm, Hitt, Brit. B. iii. p. 20, pi. 20. 
tig. (1^85); id. Ueuyr. Distr. Ckaradr. p. 120 (^1888). 

Adutt male. General colour above lifrht brown ; m'ing:-oovert8 
like the haek, the greater aeritia tip|M.Hl with white ; ba»tard-wing, 
lirimarv-cuverta, and (|uillH brown, the primaries dark brown on the 
ciuter weba and round the ti|M, with more or leas white towarda 
the l>aM* of the inner webi*; the ahufta white, increubing in extent 
4*o the ionar onea and fonuiug a distinct |»atch on the outer web ; 
the brown colour diminibhing, and the white graduiiliy extending, 
uU the inner i»ccondariea U-como pure white, the innermost long 
•econdarioa brown like the back ; lateral up]K*r tail-coverts white, 
the centre onea brown like the back; tail-feathera p'ile brown, 
tipped with white, with a sub-terminal black bar; the whitu 
iiicrraaing towards the outer feuthent, the |ieuultimate one lieing 
white with a ]Nile brown inner web und u narrow black »ub- 
irnsinol bar ; t)ie uute^mo^t toil-teat her pure white ; crown of head 
pale brown, aeparated from the wliite frontd band by a broad 
band of black ; a narrow line acrubs the ba^e of the forehead, 
Icrca, aidea of fa<*e, und ear-covertb bhu-k, with a narrow whito 
Mripe from aboTe the fort* ]iart of the eye to a)x)ve the eur-ioverts ; 
chrrka and sides of neck white, continued in a collar round the 
Lir^'Orck, fuIlowe<l by an ill-detin4*d blackibh oUar acru*!<a tho 
upfM-r mantle; uniier Hurface of body pure whit^*, with a black 
Cfiliir a(Ti»«a the funvnock, widfuing on the ^idl!4 of the chest; 
ub«lrr wing-eovrrta and axilloriea white, the lowrr primary-cuvert:» 
|ialc ashy, hke the i|UiIMining : ** bill black at the end, oraugt* for 
the reat of its extent ; feet orange ; clawa black ; iria brown ** 

• 12 



260 



CEJLSLAWUDMm 



(J. MacgtUufray). Total length 7 inches, cnlmen 0*7, wing 5*1, 
tail 2'3« tanas 1*05. 

Adult female. Not distingaishable from the male. Total length 
7'7 inchei, colmen 0*65, wing 5-1, tail 2*25, tanas 1. 

Young, Paler than the adolts, and dbtingaished by the pale 
margins ot ashy baff to the feathen of the apper sarface ; ear- 
corerts brownish black ; no black band on the fore part of the 
crou-n ; the white forehead and eyebrow tinged with baff ; band on 
the fore-neck brown, tinged with baff in the middle, the sides of the 
collar blackish. 

Mr. Beebobm has separated the British Kinged PloTer as 2E, nu^ar^ 
bat every link between this large form and the ordinary J?. hicUi* 
cola is fonnd in a series of specimens. 

Bab. From Greenland and Camberland Gulf in Arctic America, 
throughout Europe generally, wintering in Africa down to the Cape 
Colony. Eastwards to Lake Baikal, and extending rarely to 
N.W. India. Accidental in other countries (Barbados, Chili, &c.). 



a. $ ad. sk. 



Voy. H.M.S. ' Alert' 



Twin Glacier Valley, Aug. 4 

(H. W, Feilden), 
Greenland. 
LichtenfelA, S. Greenland, 

Aug. 17. ^ 
Great Britain. 
Orkney IslHuds. 
Scotland (R. Q, W. i?.). 
o-v. cJ 2 *^d. sk. Warkworth, Northumberland, 

June & Nov. {O. S.). 
Holy Island, Northumberland, Salvin>Godman ColL 

June 19 (P. GodTnan), 
Newbif^gen, Northumberland, 

AuK. 24. 
Liucolushire, Sept 5. 



/>-/. Ad. flk. 
ff. (^ ad. fik. 

h. Ad. sk. 
t-m. S 2 ad. sk. 
n. Ad. sk. 



w, 2 ^* ^k. 
.r. cJ juv. sk. 
l/f z. Imm. sk. 



Br. R B. Sharpe 

[P.]. 
Montagu Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Salvin-Godman ColL 



Hume ColL 



Snlthouse, Norfolk, June 15. 
Aldeburgh, Suffolk, Sept 19. 
Dungeness, Kent, Marcii, May. 



a\ .Tuv. sk. 
//. Imm. sk. 
c'-/'. cJ ? ad. ; 

g\h\ PuU. sk. 
C'^f'. fT 2 ad.et Romney Marsh, Kent, May, 

Aug., Sept. 
Lydd, May. 
Sussex. 
Brighton, Aug., Sept 



num. sk. 
q\ Pull. sk. 
I'', ji'. Ad. sk. 
t'-v. Ad. ot 

imm. sk. 
»r'-M". 6 $ftd. 

ot imm. sk. 
o". $ lul. sk. 

p". 2 imm. sk. 



J. H. Caton Haighj 

Esq. [P.]. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Colonel Irby [P.]. 
Gould Coll. 

Dr. R. B. Sharpe 

[P.]. 
Tweeddale ColL 
Hume Coll. 
Gould CoU. 



Pagham, Sussex. 



y" s". Ad. ot 

inini. sk. 
/". ^"^ ad. >k. 



Kinprsburv, Middlesex, Aug. 21 Seebohm Coll. 

(./. !•]. Jlartint/). 
KiuiTsburv, autunm (J. E. Gould Coll. 

llarthuj). 
Carmarthen, Wale?. ^fontacru Coll. 



(T\"pe of C. torquata. Leach.) 
St. Ikide's, S. AVales, Dec. 12. Hon. W. Edwardes 

LP--- 
// , r' . 1mm. sk. lleliogolaud, Sept 20. F. Nicholson, Esq. 



!^. JMUUTII* 



2G1 



y". 9 inun. ak. 

s '. IMIL tk. 

•'. S mA. tk. 

*'. 9 mL tk. 

r*. Imm. sk. 
iT. Ad. Ilk. 
f\ 9 ad. nk. 
/». f' ttd. tk. 

/*. Iniin. ak. 
»'. Ad. ftk. 
a*. 9 ad. ak. 

^, /I*. Imm. tk. 
f '. Ad. ik. 

H. Ad. tk. 

ff\ i\ 9 ad. ak. 

•i'. (f ad. ftk. 
r\irV .\d. tL 
J^ Ad. »k. 

y*. Ad.«k. 
t*. / ad. ak. 



r*. .\d Ilk. 
</' ' a.1. Pk. 
r*. k ad. »k. 

»k. 

AV V ^. •k. 
I*. Ad ftk. 

iV .' imm. ftk. 

/'. Ad. ak. 

-' 'ad. ftk. 

"' >i»-iiittm. 



Yoraah, Lower Petchora, 

June 9. 
Liul« Ob R., Aug. 17 (Dr. O. 

^VfurA). 
Tampriuipan, Uiver Ob, SqiL 

(/>r. O. /macA). 
SchtarhutachJA, July 24 (Dr. 

O.FinscM). 
Vall«v of tbe Yen-e-aai, June 

2a'(//- Srehokm). 
Valler of the Y«n-e-aai, June 

tt-j'lH.S.). 
Weaei, on the lUiiue. 
Gtrnoa, Itnly. 
(Virfu ( h'Uim Satendera), 
Vnluncia, IM;. (//. Saymden), 
ftibrmltAr, March, ApriL 
l'iirtu|(al. 
Man)cco. 
THiMiH, April 9 (Diek$om 4* 

Jiou). 
SeD«*fral. 

Faj.t«?(//. T. r$$Aer). 
Accrm, Gold CoaaU 

Walviach Rav, Oct 22 (C J. 

Ander$mm), 
Kujk^na, Nov. 29 (C/. A.). 
Stiith .\frica. 
K itigirilliamato WD. 

Zaniibar. 
Maoda 1*1., Nor. 



c*, &'. 9 ad. ak. I^amu. 



Kf|uatnrial .\fnni. 
I-Vfpt. K.b. lL»(^i^. -P. 5.y 
liajuiftu. Mav 1» (A. .S'. Alien). 
Cv|»rui*, Ut. '(//. i/. OuUie- 

mani). 
CfeDwaarvt, Paleatine* 
IVraia. 

Sultanpur, CSuivann, India, 
Sn%.M{ H\y. ChiU). 

** Piirt StfTeika, New South 
Wah-a.- • 

ChatK*rrv I^aoe, Ilarbado^ 

StL lo. 

KnirlaiMl. 
f-Inylaiid. 



Seebohm ColL 
GeoflT. Soc. Bremen 

Geoffr. Soc. Bremen 

[1 ._,. 
Geoffr. Soc. Bremen 

[P.l 
Tweeddale ColL 

Seebohm ColL 

E. Ilartort, Eaq. [C.]. 
Tweeddale CoU. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 
Colonel Irby fP.J. 
Dr. L. VieirafP.j. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Gould Coll. 

I^ Latrhiite [C.\ 
Capt. ShellevfP.''. 
Ih-. K. a Shiirpe 

[P.\ 
Seebohm Coll. 

Si*ebohm Coll. 
Sir A. Smith [C.]. 
Major Trevelyan 

Seebu^m ColL 

F. J. JackauD, Esq. 
'in 

F. J. Jackaon, Kaij. 

fP.'* 
Eminl'aaha [l\\ 
Tweeddale Co.l.' 
(iould CnIL 
Lord Lilfoitl [P.]. 

Canon Triatram 'C.\ 
Kenneth I^>ftua,l:^. 
P " 

a • • 

Hume ColL 
Gould Coll. 



'!> •» 



Colonel Feilden ' P. 

Purrhaw**!. 
PurehaiHNl. 



* Thw •puninrfi la lh» authorit? fi»r inrluditkK the •{nhSm in the Auttralian 
avifauna. A •fMnm^n of l^itferiJ%m» yuLtru o\ Africa naa ala«i drtmbnl hy 
«»«j«Ul M Hffvdis$ fommcta fmm ** Purl tfUieua.'* 1 bate no duubC thai the 



262 eHARABRIID^S. 



2. iEgialitis placida. 

Charadrius placidus, Gray, Cat. Mamm, 8^. Nepal pres. Hodgs. 

p. 70 (1863) ; id. Hand4. B. iii. p. 16, no. 10001 (1871) ; Hartwg, 

Ibis, 1873, p. 826 ; Se«^>hm, Geogr. DiU. Charadr, p. 307 (1888) ; 

id. B. Japan. Emp, p. 307 (1890) ; Stt/an, Ibis, 1894, p. 830 (Kiu- 

Kiaug, July). 
Charadrius indicus (nee Lath.), Schl. Mtis. Pays-Bos, Cursores, p. 25 

(1865). 
Charadrius hiaticula (nee Linn.), BIyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 165. 
Charadrius longipes {nee T. <$* S.), Band, N, Arch, du Mtis. 1867, 

Bufl. p. 38 (PeMn, winter). 
-^Efrialitis hartinji^i, Swinh. P. Z. 8. 1870, p. 136, pi. xii. (Yangtse 

Kian^), 1871, n. 404 ; itf. Ibis, 1873, p. 9(5. 
-^gialitis hiaticula {nee L.), Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 404. 
Charadrius hartingi, Gray, Hand-L B. iii. p. 15, no. 1(XX)3 (1871) ; 

Giebel, Thes, Orn. i. p. 642 (1872). 
Eudromias tenuirostris, Hume, Sir. F, i. p. 17 (1873: Burma), 

p. 417 (Darjiling); Blanf. Ibis, 1873, p. 217; Hartiny, t. c. 

p. 326. 
Eudromias (iEgialitis) tenuirostris, Hume, Sir, F. i. p. 495 

(1873). 
iEgialitis placidus, SrvinH. Ibis, 1874, p. 162 (Hakodadi), 1876, 

p. 129; Blyth, B. Burm. p. 163 (1876); David ^ Oust. (Hs. 

Chine, p. 428 (1877) ; Blakist. ^ Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 219 (Yezo^ ; 

Hume §• Davidson, Str. F. \i. p. 455 (1878 : Tenasserim) ; Hume, 

Str. F. viii. p. 112 (1879) ; Jauy, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vi. p. 113 

(1883 : (]!entral Hondo, Japan) ; Oates^ Handb. B. Brit. Burm. ii. 

p. 369, note (1883) ; Blakist. Amended List B. Jap. p. 107 (1884) ; 

Bogd. Cansv. Av. Imp. Boss. p. 76 (1884 : Askold) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 

1887, p. 610 (Corea, Jan.); Salvad. 8c Gigl. Mem. JR. Accad. Torino, 

xxxix. p. 128 (1888 : Kii Straits, Japan) ; Hume, Str. F. xi. p. 314 

(1888 : Dibrughur ; Cachar ; not observed in Manipur). 
iEgialitis placida, Swinh. Ibis, 1874, p. 162 (HakodacTi), 1876, p. 452 ; 

ScvUy, Str. F. viii. p. 351 (1879 : Nepal VaUey); Hume, Str. F. 

ix. p. 258 (1880 : Barak R., N.E. Cachar) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1888, 

p. 408 (Corea, spring & autumn). 

Adult male. Similar to J^. hiaticola, but with a perfectly black 
bill, and only showing a narrow dusky line from the base of the 
bill to the eye ; no pure white inner secondaries, these being brown, 
with a narrow edging of white near the end of the outer web ; 
primaries with dark shafts, the first primary only having a little 
shade of whitish towards the sub-tenniual portion : ** bill blackish 
brown, the basal third of the lower mandible orange-yellow ; eyelid 
orange-yellow ; iris full and dark ; feet pale ochreous, darker on 
the toes ; claws black " {R. Swinhoe). Total length 8 inches, 
culmen 0*75, wing 5-55, tail 2*9, tarsus 1*25. 

Adult female. Similar in colour to the mole : " bill black, the 
extreme base of the lower mandible yellow ; feet pure ochre-yellow ; 
claws black ; iris dark brown ; margin of eyelid ochre-yellow " 
{J. Sculhf), Total length 8 inches, culmen 0*85, wing ^Q, tail 3*1, 
tarsus 1*2. 

Young. Only differs from the adults in having rufescent margins 
to the feathers of the upper surface, the forehead and eyebrow 



82. JUiiAima. 2(t3 

UnitM with aandy buff ; pnepectoral collar brown, and not to broad 
a* in the adnlti. 

Hah. From Manchnria, Corea, and the Japanese islands, south 
throoghoat China to Cachar, and west to NepaL 

a. &. r. Ad. et Nepal. HodirMn Coll. 

juv. *k. n^ypt* of species.) 

If. 9 ad. sk. Nepil Vallej, Not. 20 (/>. Hume ColL 

f. Jut. sk. NstiTe Sikhim, Sept (Z. IfoiH Hume CoH 

ilW/i*). 
/. Jut. ik. Sikhim {L, Mand^Ui). Hume Coll. 

jr. Ad. Ak. I' I)arjilin)r (/>. ^^nicM). Humt* Coll. 

(Type of JSl fMKiroifrM.) 
A, i'. k. Ad sk. Hhotan Doara (Z. Mandelli), Iluroe Coll. 
(. cf ad. »k. Dibrufrhur, A^am (/. J^ Hume ColL 

CripM), 
m. ; ad. sk. IKlku^ha. Carhar (/. InglU). Hume Coll. 

M, o. Ad. sk. Ichanir, W. l^hinii. A. I'ratt, Km. [P.]. 

f. (f ad. sk. bxechuen, May 17(J{.^tfiAoe). Beebohm Coll. 

(Type of AC, hartingi) 
f. .\d. »k. S. Manchuria. l)r. 11. M. Jamea 

[P.l 
r, ». I. 9 ad. sk. Cuiva. C. W . Campbell, 

E*q. [P.]. 
«. 9 ad. sk. llakodadi, Japan, May (Ci^if. Tweeddale ColL 

BlnkUtim). 
r Ad. ftk. Yokohama ( //. Prgmr). Tweeddale ColL 

«*. Ad. 9k. Ytikiihama (//. Shww), Heebohm Coll. 

•If jr- (^ ? sd. kk. Nai^asaki. F. Uinger, Esq. [P.]. 



3. JEgiaUtia dnUa. 

Th«* Iittl«» UinffiHl Pltivor. 

P*'tit IMuTier ii rnllivr de Tlsle de Lu^o, Stmn. Toy. Ncmv, Ouin. 

p. M. |il. 4«J (177«). 
Le iVut Pluvi«r A oillii-r, D'Auhent. PL EnL ix. pL 021 ; Buff. 

Hut. Snt. fPiM, viii. p. IN), note (17H1). 
('Ura^lrius dubiim, tiotp. Del. Faun. H Fhr. ln$ubr. ii. p. 03 (178(5) ; 

Hartert, IhU, 1M»2, p. 510 (K. Prui^ia). 
Ch«r«.|riui. cun.nicut, ^'m. .Syiif. Sat. i. p. flO-2 (17ftft); JViV/. .V. 

Mr/. ir/Zif/. .Va/. xivii. p. i;J7 (IhIH) ; Heteke, Vog. Kurt. p. «7 

( 1**:.M ) : firay, (im. II. iii. p. M4 ( 1^17) ; Jauh. et HartM.'Laptfmm. 

Hick. (Pm. p 447 (1>^M)) ; .VArrviril, HeU. Amurl. p. 412 (IHT^M ; 

higtk, Ih»M. 1H«J7. pp. IfU. 170; /y/rA^*, JEr/i/. .Vri*. Aljf^r,, Ou. ii. 

p L1W <1M{7): //tf4^r. /Aif, 1H4II, p. IKI (Sikbiui): Sa-ink. 

i\ Z. .V. 1^70, p. 137 ; Frit^k, I'cy. Fur. tab. 3«. figs. 3, 4 (1H70) ; 

Fheea ,V Burkiey, Hhm, 1h7(), p. .'i-'tO (liul^raria; lV>iiphoniii) ; 

AiM-tiiA. i.e. p :if(l ; .S:*Ar;«*, Ihu, 1872, p 73 (FantM*); HVi/r/. 

jKi», lM7:t, p. aiK (Aiidamanii): Cordenu-r^ Ihu, 1h7/>, p. 1M5 

<H-h|fiUiKi): hreuer, Ihi^, lH7rt, p. 32f<: />Mni/'. /Au, 1k78, 

p. 33 (.\aia Minor); Iteicken. Sggt. Verz, Vtmj. JfeutttckL p. ttl 

IliKM ; I'Miak, (Pm. Jakrb. iii. p 2:) (lH|i3: Ik.hoiuia) ; Riieken. 



lug. Deutwek-Odmfr. p 34 (IKM : IValU Ui\«*r). 
^ r^kandriui errthrupua, dm. Aytf. AW. i. p. UM ( 17K^). 
rharadnm phtlippioun, Latk. Imd. (Prm, ii. p. 74«''> (1700); %&», 

/'. Z. 8. Iiv'i2, p. l«yi; Jeni, Madr, Juum. liL p 212 (1^10); 

ifrimk. IhiB, im, pp. 2U0| »2; «rA/. JTm. l^ag^-IioM, Conom, 



264 chahapbttpA 

p. 28 (1866) ; Degl ^ Gerbe, Om. Eur. u. p. 136 (1867); Gray, 
JHandrl B. iii. p. 16, no. 10000 (1871) ; Vorderm. Nat. Tijdtchr. 
Nederl Ind. xlu. p. 204 (1882 : Java). 
Gharadrius minor, Wolf ^ Met/er, Vog. DeuUehl. Heft xy. (1805) ; 
Meyer <$• Wolf, Taschenb. p. 824 (1810) ; Temm. Man. eTOm. 
p. 380 (1816), 2nd ed. u. p. 642 (1820) ; Bout, Om. Prav. pi. 276 
(1826) ; Werner. Atlas, Coureurs, pL 7 (1827); WagL Syat. Av., 
Gharadrius, p. 62, sp. 22 (1827); Naum. Vog. DeutschL vii. 
Taf. 177 (1884) ; Gould, B. Bur. iv. pi. 297 (1837) ; Macgm. Man. 
Brit. B. ii. p. 63 (1840) ; Creswm, Om. Gard, p. 363 (1840) ; 
Nardm. in IHmid. Voy. Rubs. M^id, iii. p. 284 (1840 : Odessa) ; 
Seliys-LoMch. Faun. Belg. p. 120 (1842) ; Schl. Bev. Crit. p. Ixxxiii 
(1844) ; Hewits, Eggs Brit. B. ii. p. 268, pL Ixix. fig. 4 (1846) ; 
MacgiU. Brit. B. iv. p. 128 (1860) ; Kjarb. Danm. FugU, pL 80. 
^a. 1 (1862) ; Stihl. Vog. Nederl. pi. 214 (1864) ; id. Dier. Nederl. 
Vogels, pi. 21. figs. 9, 9 a (1861) ; Sundev. Sv. Fool. pL 37. fig. 3 
(1866-72) ; Fallen, Ois. Belg. p. 162 (1876) ; Seeb(Sim, Hist. Brit. 
B. iii. p. 16, pL 26. fig. 8 (1886) ; id. Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 130 
(1888) ; id. B. Japan. Emp. p. 806 (1890: breeds) ; Styan, Ibis, 

1891, p. 830 (Lower Yangtse, spring & autumn) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 

1892, p. 23 (Heligoland) ; Campbell, t. c. p. 246 (Gorea) ; Seebohm, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 63 (Liu Kiu Is., Jan.). 

Gharadrius nuviatilis, Bechst. Gemeinn. Naturg. Deutschl. It. p. 422 
(1809) ; Wyatt, Ibis, 1870, p. 17 (Tor, Sinai) ; Heugl. Om. N.O.- 
Afr. li. pt. 1, p. 1029 (1873 : Red Sea ; Nile to the Equator ; 
westwards to the Req swamps) ; Seebohm ^ Harvie-Broum, Ibis, 
1876, p. 290 (Lower Petchora) ; Oust. Bibl. Eoole Hauies-Etudes, 
xxzi. Art. 10, p. 12 (1886: Somali). 

Gharadrius hiaticula (nee Linn.), FaU. Zoogr. Bosso-Asiat. ii. p. 144 
(1811). 

Gharadrius minutus. Pall, Zoogr. Bosso-Asiat. ii. p. 146 (1811). 

Gharadrius pusillus,. Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. ziii. p. 187 (1821: 
Java). 

Gharadrius hiaticula, var., Baffl. Trans. Linn. Soc. zilL p. 328 
(1822 : Sumatra). 

.^^^alitis minor, Boie, lets, 1822, p. 668 ; Brehm, Vog. DeutschL 
p. 660 (1831) ; Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. ^ N. Amer. p. 46 (1888) ; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 366 (Zana); Tristr. Ibis, 1860, p. 79; 
Adams, Ibis, 1864, p. 29 (Egypt & Nubia); G^l. Ibis, 1866, 
p. 69 (Pisa) ; Lilford, Ibis, 1866, pp. 184, 878 ; Chambers, Ibis, 
1867, p. 100 (Tripoli) ; Tristr. Ibis, 1868, p. 828 (Kishon ; Lake 
of Gaulee) ; Swinh. Ibis, 1869, p. 847 (Formosa) ; Saunders, Ibis, 
1871, p. 886 (S. Spain) ; Gtmld, B. Gt. Brit. iv. pL 42 (1871) ; 
Sharpe, Ibis, 1872, p. 278 (Accra) ; Shelley^ Buckley, t. c. p.290 ; 
Brooke, Ibis, 1878, p. 387 (Sardinia) ; Severtz. Turkest. Jevotn, 

5. 69 (1878) ; Durnf. Ibis, 1874, p. 392 (N. Frisian Is.) ; Lilford, 
his, 1876, p. 21 (Alediterranean) ; Bogd. B. Caucf. 162 (1879) ; 
Bp. Consp. Av. Imp. Boss. p. 76 (1884) ; Zarvdn. Bull. Soc. Imp. 
Nat. Moscou, 1885, p. 68 (Teke, breeding) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1887, 
p. 610 (S6oul, Oorea, April), 1888, p. 467; SheUey, t. c. p. 49 
(Lado) ; Koenig,J.f. O. 1888, p. 83 (Tunis) ; Guillem. Ibis, 1888, 
p. 104, 113 (Cyprus) ; Liiford, Ibis, 1889, p. 338 (Cyprus) ; Shelley, 
bis, 1890, p. 169 (Yambuya, Aruwhimi K.) ; Olphe-Gati. Contr. 



I 



Faun. Om. Eur. Occid. fasc. xiii. p. 37 (1890) ; Reiser, Vogels. 
Mus. Sarajevo, p. 106 (1891) ; De la Touche, Ibis, 1892, p. 496 
(Foochow, spring ; Swatow, winter), 
^srialitis fluviatilis, Brehm, Vog. Deutschl p. 549 (1831); E. C. 
Taylor, Ibis, 1867, p. 68 (Egypt) ; Finsch §• Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. 



32. MBikunM. 265 

p, 6fi9 (1S70) ; Gmy, HaHd4, B. Hi. p. 15, do. 0099 (1871) ; Hwne, 
Am#j 4* J^ Ind, b, p. 672 (1873) ; Taez. J.f. O. 1873, p. 102, 
lt*74, p. &«S; Irby, Om. Strmts Gihr. p. 162 (1875); BUitf. 
Earn. hrnm. ii. p. 279 (1870) ; SnUfy, Sir. F. iv. p. 185 (1870) ; 
Tmts. B^M. Soe. ZooL France, i. p. 248 (1»76: Dauna; Kultuk), ii. 
p. 165(1877: Poland): /Yn^rA, VerAamdi. ff.-6. Oei. H'ien, xxix. 
p. 246 (1879: Marka-kul) ; Bammy, IVor, Lmm. Hoc, X, JH, H\ iv. 
pp. U3, 101 (1880: Port Mor«*tbv) ; iWx. Verkandi, t.-h. Of. 
Witn, zxxi. p. 16A (1881) ; MiUkr.'j.f. O. 1882, p. 8a (Salanga) ; 
Mmdmrdn, Auui, Untfar, Vdg. p. 103 (1891) ; FrivaUUk^, Av. 
Jimm^.^ 122(1801). 

Charadriut hiaticuloidea, fhimki. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 125 (Ganges) ; 
iktimk IIm, 1800, p. 03 (Aiuov). 

Charadriua intonnediiu, MenHr, Cat, Bait. Onir. p. 53 (1832: 
Lrnkormn) ; Bp. Cump. U$t B. Eur. j- S. Amer. p. 45 (183(5). 

Cbaradhiu xonatua, Hwains. B. H'. Afr. ii. p.235 nH:t7). 

.ilfrialiua curonicus. AVvj. 4* Bias. H'irb. Eur. p. Ixxi (1840) ; Bp, 
V. B. xhii. p. 417 (*185(S) ; Gray, Li$t BrU. B. p. 141 (1803); 
Buryar. Vo^f. SarddeutMekL p. Ill (18419); Jh^ierl. Avtf. SieU. 
p. ifrt (1809); Salrad. Faun. Itai., i'cc. p. 205 (1^71); Oiuet, 
Kff y. Amer. B. p. 003 (1872); Drf$$er, B. Eur. vii. p. 491, 
pi. 524 (1^76); Arm$hnmg, Sir. F. iv. p. 340 (1870); Prjev. in 
Boriey'i Om. Mite. u. d. 435 (1877: 8.E. Mon^lia; iMlos; 
Alaahan : L^ke llanka, breeding) ; Hume Sjf iJavimm, Sir. F. 
vi p. 456 (1h78: Tenasaerini); Datidton ^ U'enden,op. at. vii. 
p. 88 ( 1878: l)«ccan) ; SeuHj^, Ibis, 1881, p. 587 ((nlgit) ; Blakist. 
4r I'ruer, B. Japan, p. 106 (1882) ; AViiiA. But, 1882, p. 120 
(Kandahar, Frb. ; Chanian, April ; Quetta, Mav) ; SerdoMmj t. c, 
p. 222 ( IMu of Volga ; S«al I«. in Caiipian) ; Sinter, t. e. p. 435 
< Hankow) ; B. O. U. IJ$t Brit. B. p. 159 (1883) ; Saundert, ed. 
Yarrrttt Brit. B. iu. p. 262 ( 1883) : BlakUt. Amend. List B. Japan, 
p. 10 (18K1): Baird, Brete^,^ Bidffw. Water-Birds S. Amer. 
1. p. 164I(1K84) ; Brvoks, Ibis, IHKI, pp. 237, 2:i8; Tristr. Faun. 
^ Flor. I'aiett. p. 130 (1HK4); Badds, Om. Caue. pp. 43, 417 
U^^^^: Unkuran, Ffb.. March): Whitehead, Ibis, 1885, p. 42 
(C orwcm) : Giyl. Arif. Itai. p. 373 (1886); Saitad. Eiencv Vce. 
Hal. p. 212 (1886) ; Stejn. lYfte. r.S. Sat. Mus. x. p. ;tt>4 (1887 : 
till KiuM.): Tait, Jb,s, 1^87, p. 385 (Porlujnil); ScH'ly,J.A. 
S. Bmg. hi. p. H7 (1Kh7); Snundrrs, .Man. Brit. B. p. 525 (18'^M: 
St. JtAn, Ibis, 18M», p. 176 (Kandahar) ; Eagfle Cinrh', t. c. p. .V>2 
{VmmX P%-rvnt^): Bendaii, Ibis, 1K»2, p. 229 ((tambia, April); 
Mumn, ibis, l8|i|, p. 72 (CaliutU distr.) ; Chajwtan, t. c. p. 'M7 
(\Vr«t Jutland) ; LU/ord, (U. Fitf. Brit. B. pt. xxx.(M).S). 

Th« LitUe Uinirt^d Plover, Yarrtll, Brit. B. ii. p. 44HI (1843). 

lliatirttla cumnioa, Gray, List (Jraii. Brit. .Mus. p. i]H (1n|4); id. 
C W. .Mamm. V. Sepai tnrs. Hm/as. p. I.'i3 (1846) ; Licht. SumencL 
Ar. Mus. BervLn. IM (i8.''>i : Nubia). 

lliatirttla inin<ir, uodyt, Jean. ined. in Brit. Mus. Grail, pi. 55. 
ti^. 2. no. 6:>4 : if/. M Gnty^a Z^U. .Misc. p. 8(i (1M4) ; Bupp. Sysi. 
t*eber: p. llK (1k|5: FV.vpt & lU^ .^m). 

I'bafadriiu al«*xandrinua {nt^ Linn.), Thienem. Abbild. V*ipele*em^ 
Tut. lis. (1M5 5«S): Srhabnc, J. f. O. 18IU, p. 2-''4» (Ulaiid of 
K*«!iak» : Beiekem. Jahrb. Hamb. Wissenseh. Anst. x. p. 6 (1893: 

lliatK^a philipptna, Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Sm^. p. 263 (1840: 

i'alctttU). 
JliaticnW mmUIa, BfyiA, CmL B. Mu$. At. Soe. p. 264 (1&I9: 



966 QHABADKHDJe. 

Hiaticula nmplex, LichL Nomend, Av, Mm, BeroL p. 94 {1854 : 
E. India). 

Charadrius gracilis, Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 288. 

Charadriufi pjgmsBus, Brehnif ^aumanniaf 1855, p. 289. 

iEgialitis pygnisea, Brehnif Vogelf, p. 282 (1855). 

-dEgialitis gracilis, Brehmy Vogelf. p. 282 (1855). 

iEgialitis zonatus, Hartl, Om. Weit-A/r. j^. 216 (1857: Gktmbia; 
ElmiDa; Saccondd). 

iEgialitis pusillus, Swinh. Ibis, 1861, p. 842. 

iEgialitis philippinus, Swinh, Ibisy 18(51, p. 342 (Peldn), 1862, p. 255 
(Foochow), 1«63, p. 406; Scl. RZ,S. 1868, p. 222 (Banjarmaa- 
aing) ; Swinh, t, c. p. 310; Humef Str. F, liL p. 179 (1875: 
Thavetravo) ; Biddtdph, Ibis, 1881, p. 94 (Gilgit), 1882, p. 287 ; 
Bidgto. Proc, U,S, Nat, Mus, iv. p. 330 (1881) ; Murray, VerUbr, 
Faun. Sind, p. 227 (1884) ; Olphe-Gall. Contr. Fami. Om. Eur, 
Occid, fasc. xui. p. 80 (1890). 

iEgialitis minutus, Jerd, B, 2nd. iii. p. 641 (1864) ; Blj/th, Ibis, 
1807, p. 164 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 389 (Umbala) ; Wald, Ibis, 
1873, p. 816 (Andamans) ; Hayes Lloyd, t, c, p. 41(5 (Kathiawar) ; 
L^ye, Str, F, iii. p. 372 (1875 : Ceylon) ; Hume, op, cit, v. p. 212 
(1877: Deeaa) ; id. 8f Davison, Str. F, vi. p. 546 (1878 : Tenaaaerim); 
BaU, op. cit, vii. p. 227 (1878 : Raipur) ; Oripps, t. c. p. 300 (Farid- 
pur); Hume, op, cit, viii. p. 112 (1879); Brooks, Ibis, 1884, 
J)p. 237, 238 ; Swinh. ^ Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 132 (Mhow diatr.). 

i^gialitis intermedins, Swinh, Ibis, 1870, p. 361 (Hainan). 

ifijnalitis dubia, Sunnh. P, Z. S. 1871, p. 404 (breeding in N. China ; 
S. China, Formosa, & Hainan in winter^ ; Wald. Trans, Zool. Sor. 
viii. p. 89 (1872 : Aver Pannao, Celeoes) ; Salvad, Ucc, Bom, 
p. 316 (1874) ; Blyth ^ Wald, B. Burnt, p. 163 (1875) ; Wald, 
Trans, Zool. Soc, ix. p. 227 (1875 : Philippines) ; Swinh, Ibis, 1875, 
p. 452 (Hakodadi) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 51 (Sibu) ; Tweedd. 
P. Z, S. 1877, p. 701 (Monte Alban), p. 833 (Placer) ; David <f- 
Oust. Ois, Chine, p. 429 (1877) : Ball, Str. F, vii. p. 227 (1878 : 
Ganges to Godavery) ; Tweedd. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 712 (N. Bohol) ; 
Blakist. (J- Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 219; Seebohm, Ibis, 1879, p. 25 
(Japan) ; Scl. P. Z. S, 1879, p. 147 (New Ireland) ; Vidal, Str. F. 
ix. p. 81 (1880 : S. Konkan) ; Bingham, t. c. p. 196 (Thoungveen 
Valley) ; Barnes, t, c, p. 458 (S. Afghanistan) ; Betd, Str. P. x. 

&66 (1881 : Lucknow) ; Kelham, Ibis, 1882, p. 10 (Singapore, 
ov.) ; Gates, Handb. B. Brit, Bttrm. ii. p. 370 (1883) ; Davison, 
Str, F. X. p. 412 (1883 : S. W. Mysore ; Nilghiris) ; Vorderm. Nat, 
Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind, xliv. p. ^ (1884 : Java) ; C. Swinh. ^ 
Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 132 (Mhow) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1886, p. 167 
(Muscat), p. 492 (Fao, March); A. O. U. Check-l, N, Amer, B, 
p. 162 (1886: California; Ala&ka); Bidgw, Man, N, Amer, B, 
p. 177 (1887) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Gen. (2) v. p. 621 (1887 : Kau- 
karvit); Stejn. Proc. U.S. Nat Mus. x. p. 394 (1887: Liu Kiu 
Isl. ) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1888, p. 203 (Palawan) ; Hume, Str. F. xi. 
p. 315 (1888 : Manipur) ; Everett, J. Straits Branch As. Soc. 1880, 
p. 20') ; Vorderm. Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. xlix. p. 415 (1889: 
Sumatra); Sharpe, Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) v. pt. 3, p. 89 (1889: 
Tirphul) ; Brusina, Motr. etc. {Om. Croattca), ip. 86 (1890); 
Whitehead, Ibis, 1890, p. 68 (Palawan) ; Sharpe, t. c. pp. 142, 284 
(Piilo Tegu, April) ; Steere, List B. i^ Mamm. Eap. Philipp. 
p. 25 (188K) : Paraguay ; Mindanao ; Guimaras) ; Oates,ed. Hume's 
Nests Sr Eggs Ind. B. iii. p. 3:38 (1890) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, 
f . 113 (Fao) ; id. Sci. Ees. 2nd Yark, Miss. p. 137 (1891 : Yarkand, 
May). 



32. Moikum. 267 

PloTudit flaTiatifis, DnmU, Vog^w, Burhim, p. 163 (1860). 
ifurialiUt microrbjrncliiit, Jiitfyw. Am, Nat. viii. p. 109 (le574 : San 

Fraociaco). 
^CiriAlitit aUzandriDtis (nee Linn,), Dun\f. lUs^ 1874, p. 806 (N. 

FrUian laL) ; Reirken, J,/, O. 1880, p. i65 (QitUimaiitf). 
ifilfriatitia hiatieola {me Lum.), Smwuay, /Voe. Lmn. Soc. X. S, W. i. 

p. SM (1877 : IVirt MoMbt), ti. p. 107 (1878 : S. New Guinea), 

uL p. 279 (1879: Laloki KiTer) ; id. Tab. Lid Austr. B. p. 19 

iE^itit jerdoni, Legoe, P. Z. 8, 1880, p. SO; id. B. Oylon, 
p. i*l^ (1880); fin/Mil/. Om, Ptipnasia etc, iii. p. 303 (18c$2): 
Biddmipk, Ilns, 1882, p. 287 (GiVit, May, S«pt) ; D*trid4im, Str. 
F. X. p. 276 (1882: W. Kandeiah) ; llume, Str, F. xi. p. 315 
(1888) ; Bammg, Tab. Lift Audr, B, p. 19 (1888) ; Saitad, Agg. 
Om. Jiapmasia etc, iiL p. 200 (1891) ; id. Ann. Mu$. Gm. (2) xii. 
p. 76 (1H91 : Sumatra) ; Legge, I^rtte. Austr. A$$oc. M^J, p. 41. 

Cbaradriua mioor jerduui, iitboAm, Geogr. Didr, Ckaradr. p. 132 
(1888J. 

Admit malf. General colour aboTe light brown, a little darker on 
tlie romp and central upper tail-coverta ; sides of rump and lateral 
upper tail-coTerta pure white; wing-coverts like the back, the 
frathen round the bend of the wing darker brown ; bastard-wing 
feathers blackish with white tips; primary-coTerts blackish ; primar)' 
quills blackish, internally lighter brown, with dark shafts to all the 
primaries except the first, whore it is white ; secondaries dusky, lighter 
and more ashy brown internally, inner secondaries smoky brown, 
with a good deal of white on both webs, the long inner secondaries 
like the back ; tail-feathers ashy brown, tipped with white, and 
with a broad sub-terminal black bar, the outer feathers more distinctly 
edged with white, the two outermost almost entirely white, with a 
black patch on the inner web corres])oiiding to the sub-terminal bar 
oo the n*st of the feathers; base of forehead, lores, feathers aboTe 
and below the eye, and ear-coverts black ; a broad frontal band of 
white, followed by another broad band of blsck above the eye, which 
U again succeeded by another black line, which widens out above 
tlfte eye and forms a distinct eyebrow ; hinder crown as far as the 
nape ashy brown ; round the neck a broad white collar, continuous 
with the white throat, and followed by a broad band of black on the 
lower hind-neek, and continued right across the fore-neck, widening 
out on the sides ; cheeks, thnmt, and under surface of bo<ly pure 
white*, including the under wing-coverts and axillaries : ^ bill du^ky 
black ; te«*t lleah-enluur ; irin dusky brown ; ring round the eye 
bnght yellow** (ATmin). Total length 6*8 iuchen, culmcu o'o, 
wing 4'*t, tail 2*«i>, tarsus 1, middle toe and claw OH. 

A'iult fimaU. Similar to the male, but with the markini^ not so 
Well developed, rs|iecially the liUck markings of the face and the 
black bands on the hind-neck and for^neck, the Litter being much 
at led with brown: ** bill black; feet |>ale Hoah-colour; iris dark 
brown; ring round the eye bright yellow** (K. linrUrt). Total 
Wogth 6*5 inches, eulmen iH\3, wing 4*0, tail 2'«i5, tarsus 1. 

yimmg. IHifera from the adulta in wanting the black on the head, 
•a well as the blaek collars on the mantle and fore-neck; the general 
t4iQa of tbo ptomage is more rufesoent than in the adnlta, and the 



26S 



CRARADBIU>JE» 



whole of the upper 8iirfaoe is varied with wavy lines of pale sandy 
buff, before which is a sub-terminal dusky bar ; the forehead is pale 
sandy buff ; ear-coverts dusky blackish ; the collar on the fore-neck 
is composed of brown feathers, with generally a tinge of sandy buff 
on the throat. The black markings on the head and the black collars 
are gained by a moult in the following spring. There appears to 
me to be also a change of f eather^ especially on the neck-coUar. 

I regret to say that I am unable to follow Colonel Legge in 
recognizing ^, jerdoni as distinct from ^. euronieuSy and for the 
purpose of comparison, I have given the measurements of the lai^ 
series of skins possessed by the British Museum, but, as Mr. Seebohm 
says, ^Hropiod. examples completely intorgrade with those from 
temperate regions." Neither do I find much difference in the extent 
of the black frontal line, or of the swollen eye-ring, which Colonel 
Legge considers to be specific characters for the Indian species; 
the only character which I can admit, and this, too, is a variable 
one, is tbe more distinct yellow base to the under mandible, which is 
invariably present in the adult breeding birds from the Indian r^on, 
but is absent or only feebly developed in European specimens. 

Hah, Europe generaUy, except the northern parts, across Siberia 
to Japan, wintering in North-eastern Africa, India, the Moluccas, 
even to New Guinea and the adjacent islands. Accidental in Great 
Britain and western North America. 



a.5ad.sk.[w.4-7]. 

b. Pull. sk. 

c Ad. sk. [w. 4'36]. 

d. Ad.8k.[w.4-76J. 

e. (S ad. ;/,(7. Juv. 
sk. [w. 4-66]. 

A. $ ad. sk. [w. 

4-75]. 
t. $ ad. sk. [w. 

4-45]. 
k. $ ad. sk. [w.4*551. 
/. Ad. sk. [w. 4-25T. 
m. Ad. sk. [w. 4*6' . 
n-q. d" ad. ; r. $ ad. 

sk. [w. 4-5-4-6]. 
s. $ aa.8k.rw.4*4]. 
t, d ad.8k.[w.4-6]. 

u. 2 ad. sk. [w. 4*4]. 

Vf w. Ad. sk. [w. 43 

-4-5]. 
.r. 5 ad. sk. [w. 

4-6]. 
y, z. Ad. sk. [w. 

4-30-4-4J. 
a', b\ S ad. ; c'. 2 

ad. sk. [w. 4*(i- 

4-65]. 



Freshwater, Isle of Wight, 

Aug. {H, Roger i), 
Europe. 
Holland. 
Germany. 
Germany. 

Germany. 

Halle^ Aug. 

Weael, Rhinei May 24. 
Vienna. 
Transylvania. 
Hungary, May 26. 

S.E. Rusf^ia. 

Near Constantinople, May 7 

{T. Itobson), 
Piedmont, Italy, May (T. 

Salvador t). 
Malta, April, Sept. (C 

Wriqht). 
Malta,' April (C. W.). 

Granada, Spain, Oct. (ZT. 

Saunders), 
Gibraltar, March. 



Seehohm CoIL 

Gould Coll. 
J. Gould, Esq. 
Tweeddale ColL 
Hume Coll. 

Gould ColL 

Hume Coll. 

E. Hartert, Esq. [C.]. 
Sharpe ColL 
C. G. Danf ord, Esj. [P.], 
Hungarian National 

Museum [P.]. 
Seehohm Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Colonel Irby [P.]. 



32. jMUunt. 269 

4. (f ftd. tk. [w. BUkim, Alfceria, Bbj 5 Seebohm CoIL 

4M; (C />trofi). 

t\f\ Ad. et JUT. River UambuL OoTernor RendalL 

•k w. 4-7AJ. 

#'.JaY.tlL[w.4'0]. DAkAr, Senegal (£. Z»- Seebohm Coll. 

A'. Jut. aL [w. Cape Verd, Senegal. L. Laglaize [C.]. 

4 '35^ 

i\Jk'. <^'ad.ak.[w. Lado, Equatorial Africa, Emin Paaha [P.]. 

4*45}, April. 

r. Imm. 9k. [w. 4-7]. Socotra. Prof. I. H. lUlfonr [C.]. 

m, (S imm. tk. 'w. Aniba, Samhar, Aug. 21 Tweeddale Coll. 

4^15'. ' {W.Je$se). 

m\ fS tmm. tk. V. Kgrpt, March 12. Capt. Shellev [P.]. 

4-6\ 

o\ d! Ad. ak. [w. Egypt (E. Larkimy). Gould Coll. 

f. 9' ad. sk. [w. Palestine. Canon Tristram T.]. 

4-3r,;. 

r'. Ad. 'w. 4*«%t5^ ; Fan, Penian Gidf, Aug., W. I). Cnmming, Esq. 

f*. f , 'u\ Juv. sk. Sept. rp.l 

9. Imm. sk. 'w. Muscat. Colonel Miles rp.l 

4«>> . 

w. (^ ad. sk. [w. Near Tehran, Persia, Sir 0. St. John [C.l 

A-^W March 28. 

s. y ad. sk. Rmht, (Vipian Sea. Nor. Sir O. St. John [C.l 

jr. .\d. sk. V. .O-Oo]. lUjkote, Kathiawar, June Major lUyes Uoyd^P.]. 

t. ? ad. sk. >. IV^<(a, Nov. 4 (J?. ^4. Hume Coll. 

4 2.'»;. ' //•!//«•). 

•". A '.' ? juT. tk. Judhpur, Sept. (^. King). Hume Coll. 

r% V \ ? ad. w. Jodhpur, Feb. (A. O. If.). Hume Coll. 
4*-4.Vi ;«.'. 2 

jUT. nil. 

f .g' .^wX. H jur. Sambhur, Oct., I>ec.(i2. .V. Hume Coll. 

A r . 9 S(l K 
juv. Ilk. w. 4 l'>'' 
4-4 . 

m' . -'ad. sk. 'w. Ijawrf*nrepur, Punjab, Tweeddale ColL 

4 Xt . Ff b. 2«) ( n, a. n. hx 

m\ ^' .\d. sk. 'w. Siraa Distr., Punjab, May. Hume Coll. 

4 4'#4«L'». 

m. * ad. »k. 'w. H«-mbara Hirer, rai«hroi«rp, Humo Coll. 

4 4'/ May lo ( \\\ K. Ihw»k»). 

f r 'ail 'w.4-4.'S Gilgit', April, Mav, Aug. Colonel Hiddulph [C.\ 

• 4-: ; u'\ r '. 9 to Oct. 

ad. 'w 4;i 4-.*# ; 

ir . J '. Juv. Ilk. 

jr'. -^ ad. ik. w. Kumai^n nhaburi March 2il Hume Coll. 

4 -.• - i^'. Kiwj). 

ff" A'l ftk 'w 4 3r>\ lK*hra Dh.MMi. Hume Cill. 

«*. 4V .\d. sk. w. Itareilly ( IVo/fPuiii). Hume C ill. 

*-- 

<*, ^'. Ad. sL 'w. Siberia, April| May. Moscow Muwum. 

4^4«. 



270 



CHABADSIISJC. 



'. Ad.8li.[w.4-6]. 
f\ $ ad. sk. [w. 

4-65]. 
g^, 2 ad. sk. [w. 

4-5]. 
h\ P. Ad. fik. [w. 

4-6]. 
k^, (S ad. sk. [w. 

4-7]. 
i». ?ad.8k.[w.4-6]. 
m'. (S ad. sk. [w. 

4-5]. 
n"*. iS ad. sk. [w. 

4-361. 
o'.<^a(f.8k.[w.4-0]. 

©'. $ ad. sk. [w. 

4-5]. 
y*. 2 ad. sk. [w. 

4-761. 
r«.?ad.sk.[w.4-6]. 

«*. 2 ad, sk. [w. 

4-36]. 
t^y tt". c? ad. sk. 

[w. 4-1 5-4-4]. 

v^, ttr*. 2 *<!• '^k' 
[w. 4-3-4-4/)]. 

sk. [w. 4-5-4-66~ 
a*. Ad. sk. fw. 4*6 
b\ Ad 



Kaslipfar (JDr, BeUew). 

Yarkand, April 24 (J. 
Scully). 

Tirphuly Northern Afgha- 
nistan, April 20. 

Candahar (GriffUh). 

Candahar, April 23 (Sir O. 

St. John), 
Candahar, Feb. 21. 
Chaman, April 7. 

Chaman, Aug. 7 (Sir 0» 

St. John), 
Quetta, May 10. 
G wader, Mekran Coast, 

Feb. 18 (A. O. H.). 
Kulugan, Baluchistan, 

March 12. 
Sehwan, Sindh, Jan. 22 

(A. O. H.). 
River Jhelum, Nov. 22 

(A. O. H.). 
Bhawulpur, Feb. (C. H, 

T. Marshall). 
Bhawulpur, Feb. 



India Museum. 
Hume Coll. 

Dr. Aitchison [C.]. 

India Museum. 

Hume ColL 

Colonel Swinhoe pP.]. 
Colonel Swinhoe [P.J. 

Hume Coll. 

Colonel Swinhoe [P.]. 
Hume Coll. 

W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

[C.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Seebohm ColL 

Hume Coll. 



I. sk. [w. 4*6^ . 
. sk. [w. 4-6j. 



€*-€*. (S ad. [w. 4 2 

-4-5] ; //, g\ 2 

ad. et juv. [w. 

4-6] sk. 
h*. 2 ad. sk. [w. 

4-35]. 
«*-/*. d ad. [w. 4-25 

-4-55] ; m*-p*. P 

ad. [w. 4- 1-4-65] ; 

9*,r*. 2 juv. sk. 
s*-u*. Ad. [w. 41- 

4-45]; V*, w\ 

Juv. sk. 
T*. Ad. sk. [w. 4-45]. 
v\ z*. Ad. sk. [w. 

40-4-25]. 
a^-h'^.(S ad. etimm. 

[w. 4*05-4 -65] ; 

r-w*. 2 ad. et 

imm. sk. [w.41- 

4-7]. 
v\ 2" ad. sk. [w. 

4l>o]. 
?f*. .i*. ^c? 2 j"'^- sk. 

[w. 4*4-4o]. 



Karachi, March 29 {E, A, Hume Coll. 

Butler). 
Kutch, Feb. (F. Sfolicska). 
Rohtuk Distr., Feb. 16 

(A. O. H.). 
Sultanpur, Gurgaon Distr., 

Oct., JaD.(#.A'. CAi//). 



Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 

Hume ColL 



Delhi, Feb. 20 (C. T. Hume Coll. 

Bingham). 
Etawah, Aug. to March. Hume Coll. 



Etawah, Sept to Jan. Hume Coll. 



Gwalior — Cawnpore. 
Cawnpore, May ( W. E, 

Brooks). 
Allahabad, Dec. to Feb. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Hume ColL 

Hume Coll. 



Futtelip'urh, April 5 ( W. Hume Coll. 

Moirul Serai, Sept. 11 ( W. Hume Coll. 
E. Brooks). 



32. JuiAum. 271 

y*. sV cf Ml. ''w. Ntjml VaUev, Dec., April, IIimM ColL 

4 :» I f, 1^/2 May (J. to<//y). 

•«i. ik. 'w. 4*3]. 

f', d*. A(f. »k. [w. Neptl. llodinon ColL 

4iWi-|-45', 

f' y*. Ad. tk. 'w. Nepftl (^. //. Hodgmm). India Museum. 

4 15 42\ 

h\ A«i. ftk. V. 4*1'^. DurjiliDK ( tUmfl Sharoe). 8et*bohin ColL 

^. Ad. hk. V. 4ij. Dux* Ikmr*, Jan. (L, Hume CulL 

Mantieili), 

i'..\d.ftli/w.4'15\ hboun Hoars, Jan. (£. Hume ColL 

MantleUi), 

f. All fkk. [w. 4'<)\ AAf^am {Mrdeiiamf), India MuA<>um. 

Ml*. X imui.sk. ^w. AwAui, Feb. {A, IV, Chen' Twevddale Coll. 

A^^i . " neU\. 

ii\ ; jur. sk. ""w. HmmAhpiHitra Uiver, Ilec. Hume Coll. 

4 I . ' 2 ( H'. /InrtAm). 

^.j^' "^9 Ad. fk. Maui|>ur,.Marcli(ji.O.//.). Hume ColL 

,m. 4 4 4-4.V. 

7'- i juv. sk. 'w. Matnia Hiver, Mnrch 21 Hume ColL 

4 4 . ^ (.4. O. //.). 

t^ - ad. sk. 'w. I-:aMt**rn STlhft,Jan. iVi Hume ColL 

4.'.. \ {A.O,)Li, 

tf*. f*. ^r aiL nk/w. Fiuidpur. April, May (J. Hume ColL 

4iiV-4 .Vi . ' Ji. CYipyn), 

M'.Ad.i^k w.4'4.V. iWca. Hume CIL 

r , tr\ -r Vi. ».' I'litna, F«-b. 9 {H\ R Hume ColL 

4iW; 4 » ; J*; /, JitiMJu). 

f. X sd. nk. 

a*, i ju^. w. 4 2] ; A^M'nwil*', Jan. 7 ( FK £ Hume ColL 

6' f ad. sk. w. Brvula), 

4 1. 

r /ad. sk. >. Chunar, Nov. 17 (W. E. Hume ColL 

4 1 Hn0»kM). 

X. X m\. ya.V'l ; Dinnpur, Nov. (W, K Hume ColL 

y,f' ' (Sd. tk. Bnfoks). 

m'. 4^J 4 .'# . 

/ Ad w. 4 4.'>. Ikrhar. Hodgson ColL 

4»» . A ,r. Jur. 

k\r Ad. w. 4 <^ Calcutta, IK*c., Jan. (.4« Hume ColL 

4 ■'* . m' -/t\ (^ O. y/.). 
j.»* w. |'l>4'*f ; 

•' I'um •k. w 44. CsIoutu.Ft*b.(A.CZ{famii). TwwnldaV CnlL 

r'. k' Imiu. Ilk. «'. CokuUa, Ftb. Colunol Hiddulph X\]. 

4.V4»l. ' 

t\ w' Ad. »k. ^w. ManbliiN.m. I>ec., March Gould & Twecddale 

4 -.' t :t . ' </f. f '. lieutan). ( olU 

j'. y'. .\d. »k. 'w. Jubbftlpur. Twveddale ColL 

4 .'i . 

r \-i ^k w. 4.')'. SaufPT. Hum«' (\>IL 

#' ; a.1 >k' W.4 4*. Mhow, Marrh 1. roli>nt*l Swinhoe P.]. 

b'-r ^ sfl. w. 4'f Kbandfinb, Nov. to Maj Hume ColL 

' 4 i . /. A". 2 {J. iMiidm/n), 

•<i « . 4 ::-4-:f;i^; 
I- I*uiLsk. 



272 ,CHASADBXIDJU 

h?-m'*. Ad. sk. [w. Deccan {SykeB), India Mtiaeam. 

4-2-4-35]. 

n". $ ad. sk. [w. Badrachellum, GodaTery W. T. Blanford, Esq 

4-5o]. River, Feb. 16. [P.]. 

0^. 5 ad. sk. [w. 4*7]. Cochin, Madras, Dec 28 Hume ColL 

(R Day), 

p**, g^. Ad. sk. [w. Madras. Rev. H. H. Baber [P.]. 

4-4-46]. 

r". 2 ad* sk. [w. Mangalore, April 25 {F. Hume ColL 

4-6]. Dap), 

«^. Ad. sk. [w. 4'4]. Bangalore, April 3 (It, O, Tweeddale CoU. 

W, JR.), 

t^, c^ ad. sk. [w. Ahmed nuggur, June 8 (8, Tweeddale Coll. 

415]. B, Fairhank), 

t^, 2 ad. sk. [w. Ahmednuggur, April {H, Hume Coll. 

41]. J, Bruce). 

t^, to\ Ad. sk. [w. Mysore (B, O, W. R,), Tweeddale ColL 

40]. 

ar®. S imm. sk. [w. Vingorla, S. Konkan, Hume ColL 

4-4]. Feb. 20 {O. Vidal). 

y*. 2 imm. sk. [w. Vingorla. Tweeddale ColL 

4-3]. 

«*, o". Ad. sk. [w. Cooig. Tweeddale Coll. 

4-6-4-651 



b^, (5 ad.sk. [w.40]. N.E. Ceylon, Aug. 4. Colonel Legge [P.]. 

V, 4'4J. Elephant Point, Burma, Hume ColL 
Dec. 10 {J, Armsironff), 

cr.Ad.8k.[w.4-25]. Thayetmyo. Tweeddale ColL 

«',/•. 6 ad. [w. Pegu, March, Aug., Sept. Gates ColL 

4-4] ; s^, Juv. sk. (F, W, O,), 

A®. <5 ad. [w. 405- Tonghoo, Nov., Jan., April Tweeddale Coll. 

4 251; >, k\ 2 i&'O. W.B,), 

ad. SK. 

/•. (5 ad. sk. [w. Rangoon, Dec. 13 {B, O. Tweeddale ColL 

4-3]. W. B.). 

m'. cf imm. sk. fw. Bhamo, Upper Burmah, Dr. J. Anderson fCl. 

4-35]. Feb. 

w'.Ad.8k.rw.4-2o]. Mungla, May 22. Dr. J. Anderson [C.]. 

o^-r^. (S 2 ad. [w. Thatone, Nov., Dec. ( W. Hume Coll. 

4-0-4-55] ; «», t^, Davison), 

2 ad. sk. [w. 4*5 

-4 a5]. 

«•. 2 i^^' sk. [w. Theinzeik, Dec. 21 ( W, Hume Coll. 

4*0]. Davison). 

r». 2 ad. sk. [w. Moulmein, Feb. 24 ( W. Hume Coll. 

455]. Davison). 

%(^, a:'. S ad. sk. Assoon, April (W. Davi- Hume ColL 

[w. 4'25-4-3]. son). 

y', 2^. c^ ad. [w. 455 Tavoy, March, April, Jan. Hume Coll. 

-4*7] ; a, /3. 2 ad. ( W. Dacison). 

[w. 4-4-4-7]; y. 

Juv. ek. 

b. (S ad. sk. [w. Yeaboo, March 9 ( W, Hume Coll. 

4'(>]. Daviso7i). 

ff C- 6 imm.; y)' 2 Mergrui, Jan., Nov» ( JF. Hume Coll. 

imm.sk. [w. 4'35 Daviso7i), 

-40]. 



l\2. JHIUUTIS. 



273 



*• «■ 9 juv. Ilk. [w. 

«, X. Juv. »k. fw. 
4 « 4i«: 

|»- r^ iUT. sk. [W. 

44o'. 
'« {• o. 2 imm. sk. 

w. 4 I 4ri> 
»,^ .^ ad. I w. 4*45 

•k. 
r. Juv. *k.'m',4'*J-V, 
%'. A J. i.k.';w.4«^. 
^ 1^ •il.:i(.^. Ju«'. 

i»k. w. 4 4 4ir. 
-. A.l.nk. w.4-4\ 

a. Juv. •k/w.4-4«V. 
jif. JuT.»k/w.4'4«V. 
y. i. Jur/ek. [w. 
4.1 4 4'>;. 

# « ' ;Mi. «*tjUV. 

•k. w. 4-3 4il\ 

X . y juT. fik. 'w. 
4-.V> . 

M f . ''»a. W.4-3J; 

o . v'. 9 ad- ^k. 
p. ^ md. tk. ^w. 

4»S. 
w Juv.»k/w.4r. 
r. I . ' Jftd- ni. 

w. 4 4 4W-. 
f '^ aa. tk. w. 

4 J. 
I . Aii.-k. «r. 4'4*» . 
^ Ja% «k. w.4:r. 

• . « ' ' ? ail. (ik. 

w I -.% 4 4 . 
^ ; fcl. »k. w. 

4 4 
y Imm. rk. . w. 

4 4 
« \i *k w 44. 

• . ( \.l. ak. w. 
4 4 4.'.. 

« Jm. tk. 'w. 
4 4.'. 

# .« Juv. pk. w. 

4*.' 4'. 
« J 'It Ilk w.4'«T.. 
A , m >kulU. 



l*kkchAO, Jao., Feb. ( If. Hume Coll. 

iMrimm), 
8. AiHlanwim, Jan., Feb. llumu Coll. 

( H'. iMvuun). 
AberdwD, S. Andamaitf, Ilumo Coll. 

lK*c. 25 ( If. Darimn). 
Tonka, Jan. («/l DarUng), Ilumo Coll. 

Salang, Feb. {J, Darlimg), Ilumo Coll. 



Malacca (Oiif /or). 
Malacca ( R. G. H\ R,). 
Sin^p^ire I Aland, Nov. 

( H . /MrMim). 
Java {llor^JiM). 

I^buan, I)cc. 
Sarawak. 
Sibu, Sarawak. 

Han Ma ten, Luioa, Feb. 

(,-1. //. ErrrHt). 
N. Ikibol, Feb. (A, li. 

Errrttt). 
S. \a^\U\ Oc%. {A. 11. 

JCtrrrit). 
l*aiiav, Jan. {E. MoteUy). 

Nnw Britain. 
St^iul, Con*a, Mar. 

Ilakiidadi, Japan, April 

( RlakiMun), 
YiikohmiiA ( //. Pryffr), 
Iju-kiu Islaiidd, l>ec. (//. 

/Vsrr). 
S)ian;rhai. .\pril, Maj (It 

Hhaughai, Mjirch 17. 



India Miuteum. 
Twt*oddale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

India Munpum. (Tjpe 



of CMaradriuM pusilfu$,) 




Twoeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale ColL 

Tweeddale ColL 

Steere Expedition. 

KeT. O. Drown [C.l 
C. W. Campbell, £«i. 

[P.]. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Seebdhm Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 



I lankow ( R. HicimMoe), Soebi>hm Coll. 



(*hujMin (J. R. RftrfM). 
Am.-v, Ffb., .May {R. S,). 

.\mov, Nov. (R. A*.). 

(*anton. 

F'irmfma, Ik«. {R. S.). 
S. (tt-nuanv. 



(SouUroIl. 
S4^*biihm Coll. 

Hume ColL 

Tweeddale Coll. 

S«>«*biihm (\>11. 
Dr. (Suuther [C.]. 



4. JBglalitii peroiu. 

f 'h«raflriu« alfsandrinuii (m^ Aimi.), Matiry ^ I^iOteyn, Sat, iii$t, 
/4A«flii, p. 67 (1865). 

V'fL. HIT. T 



274 CHARADRlIDJfi. 

Charadrius peroni, Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 417 (1866) ; Schl. Mus. Pays- 
Bos, Cursores, p. 38 (1866 : Java ; Semao ; Borneo) ; Grayy Hand-L 
B, iii. p. 16, no. 10005 (1871) ; Seebohm, Geogr, Di$tr. Charadr, 
p. 166 (1888). 

Charadrius philippinus, Pelz. Bets. Novara, Vbg, p. 116 (1865). 

^gialitis peroni, Sicinh. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 139; Wald. Trans. Zuol. 
JSoc. viii. p. 90, pi. X. fig. 2 (1872) ; Salvad. Ucc. Bom. p. 315 
(1874) ; Ttceedd P. Z. S. 1878, p. 344 (S. Leyte), p. 711 (N. Bohol) ; 
Meyer y IhUy 1879, p. 141 (Limbotto, July); Vorderm. Nat. Tijdschr. 
Aederl. Ind. xliv. p. 204 (1884: Java) ; GuUletn. P. Z. S. 1885, 
p. 417 ; Everett^ J<mrn. Straits Branch As. Soc. 1889, p. 205 ; 
Vorderm. Nat. 'lijdschr. Aederl. Ind. xlix. p. 415 (1889: Sumatra) ; 
Whitehead, Ibis, ]8^X), p. 68 (Palawan, resident); Steere, lAst 
Birds Sf Mamm. H.iptd. Philijjp. p. 25 ( 1890 : Mindanao ; Siquijor ; 
Nejiros) } Sharpe, Ibis, 1890, p. 142 (Pulo Tega, N. Borneo) ; id. 
Ibis, 1894, p. 243 (Sibutu). 

Adult male. General colour above light ashy brown, darker on the 
rump and central upper tail-coverts, the sides of the mmp and lateral 
upper tail-coverts pure white; wing-coverts like the back, with a 
band of dark sepia-brown along the marginal coverts ; greater 
coverts broadly tipj)ed with white ; bastard-wing and primary- 
coverts dark brown, with white tips ; quills light brown, blackish on 
the outer web and at the tips, the shafts conspicuously white, the 
inner primaries white towards the base of the outer web ; secondaries 
dark brown, white at the ends of the outer web, increasing in extent 
towards the innermost, the long inner secondaries like the back ; the 
four centre tail-feathers dark brown, the next pair smoky brown, the 
next pair white with a little smoky brown at the ends, the remainder 
pure white ; crown of head rufous, with a nuchal collar of pure 
white, this collar followed by a broad black band on the hind-neck 
overspreading the mantle; forehead white, reaching to above the 
eye and separated from the rufous of the crown by a tolerably broad 
band of black ; a distinct loral streak of black ; sides of face and 
ear-coverts with a black band along the upper margin of the latter ; 
cheeks and under surface of body pure white, with a large black 
patch on each side of the fore-neck ; uuder wing-covcrts and axil- 
laries white ; quills below ashy grey : " bill black, orange at base ; 
feet grey, the claws black ; iris warm chocolate-brown ; orbital ring 
pure orange " (A. H. Everett). Total length about 6 inches, culmen 
0*65, wing 3*75, tail 1-55, tarsus 1-05, middle toe and claw 0-8. 

Adult female. Similar to the male, but without the black band 
across the forehead ; the black on the mantle and hind-neck repre- 
sented by dark brown mixed with rufous, while the black patch at 
the side of the fore-neck is replaced by dark broun mixed with 
rufous, witli a tinge of the latter colour spreading across the fore- 
neck : ''bill Mack, the base yellowish; feet purplish grey; iris 
dark brown *' {A. H . Kv< ntf). Total length o'f) inches, culmen 0-<)/), 
winix -4, tail V5, tarsus l-05. 

In some specimens, a[>parently very old males, the black band is 
continued ri'iht acl•o^^s the tore-neck. 

YduiKi binis resemble the adults, but have no facial black markin;;s 
or aiiv lilack or rufous on (he mantle or sides of the chest, the whoh* 



.'i2. .KUIALITIS. 



27r* 



of thv u|>|K*r Hurfove bt*iiig uniform achy brown, with broud tumdy- 
buff ni:&n;iii8. 

//if''. Iiido-Miilayuii Ari.'hii>clugo, fnim Java to the PhilippiDos, 
Huriie*>, aii'i Cclcbt's. 



«f. -^ ml. '•k. 
A, *\ »/. \*\, ikk. 
'./. y. Ad. rl juv. 

•k. 
A. I. \.L .k. 
X. ,' vl »k 
/. M. ■• ^» mJ. •k. 
m. .V'l. >>k. 
o. X nd. ^k. 

/». ;• ad. -k. 



V 

r 



\d. *k. 
Ad nk. 



Java. 

liiibuan. 

l.abuiiii. 

Ti'pi Inland. April. 
Mfn^alan I.^land, April 1. 
iSnmwHk. 

]iaiijariiia*«4iii^(j; Mating). 
N. li-.hul. Oit. (--I. //. 

Etrreff). 
lMa<*tT, Mindiina'S Jiilv 



Sevbdim Coll. 
A.II.Even-tt,E«q.[C.] 
8harpe< oil. 

A.II.Krtnftt,K»q.U\J. 
A. 1 1. Kvt'n»tt, FIsq. \\ •. 

Wallace (oil. 
Wallace ( \ill. 
Twe«*ddale Coll. 

TwoiMldalo Ctill. 



iA. II. Kiytrftt). 
S. I^-vl*-. 4Kt. {A. //. /;.). TwffddalH Coll. 
M(*nadv>.C VltU*it(.4./e. »'.). Wallace (\ill. 



•). AgUkiltll 

I ii- K'-iiti^h l*li»\fr. 
( 'liarikilriii- alt* \iiiid rill 111*, Liiut. St/tkt. Sat. i. p. lf*>^ (I7<i()); Um. 

'^v*f. Xfif. i. p. «»<» (ir*^!; 7'«//. '/s'HMjr. l{iiim>-Afiat. ii. p. I4ii 

tl"'ll: l>ftw*-«-n HiiMii and .Vr^iiii ivivi-rn ; Dauria; Veu-t*-!«ai) ; 

SHH'irt. Sr. t\^jl, |.l. ;{7. ti-. 4 (KV; 7i'); Jlartrrt, IbU, lK»l\ 

|i. 'lilt i K. IVilsi^taL 
( handrin* chiiIi:iI)ii«. hith. Lui. Orn., Sunjt/. p. Ixvi ( 1H>] ) ; Tvmm. 

Mti^. tffh'H. p. ;t';i (l**i"i»; ri/-i//. A. Jhcf. tf Ih*t. S»t. \xvii. 

p Ut < I'^l^* ; It mm. .\lun. tt'Om. L*inl ttl. p. r>44 (1^:^*) ; liirtu; 
Urn. J'n'i. pi 1*77 i l--")i ; irirwr, J /Am. ('tMrrurn, pi. ^s (|hi»7); 
Mtriftr. i'tit. liai^. Catn. |i. •'*;» ( !<•:/); A'fMwi. I'<Y/. Ihuitfhi. vii. 
|.l. 17«M 1**:U I : ^'/M.!/. /;. /;«!•. i\. pi. 'JiJ^ t lKi7» ; Matyiii. Mtin. 
littt Ii. II. p. -Vl il.'»HM ; y^nlin. in Ihniui. Voy. liu**. Merit!, iii. 
|. 1':;.; il-H)»; S,l»f».h„tj.h. Faun, lielij. p. llM jl-^il')'; •VA/. 
//^f. ^ >i/. p l\x\ii j1'*44); Jlrin'ta. J>/;/m lint. Ii. li. p. 1'7>7, 
I'l l\i\. !»;:. .» (I^J'ii; finiif, drn. li. iii. p. 7114 <l**47»; llfrnjut. 
Ii If-: I J. |i. \\^\ \\<^\\i .Ma^'itll. Itrit. li. iv. p. li*'* (lOh; 
Kj^rrii IktH.n. Fu'jlt , pi. :U». Ii^'. !• ( 1>VJ| ; St hi. l''»tf. MttUrl. 
|.. l*l"» il--*»li; lip. 1'. li. \iiii. p. -117 I l**."i«i) ; Jauh.'et liarth.- 
iMfmmm. lUh. ih-n p. \\^ il-^iJM; /* » ys ///m, l*Mil), p. ,T<ll 
• ••rti and l.|>iniii|; S,ht. lPi,r AV'/i//. Ifw/r/ji, pi. Jl, ti^'«. 7, 8 
ti*-'i'. fii'tif, I,ft lint. li. 1 1. 141 il'**i-I»; limhl*, lirin. Sthtr,, 
I •*/ I'. ."iJI 1 1 ■*'»;{: raKi-ii'rt: .Si /i/. .I/#m. Pai/i-Haa, CiirH-in*', 
|. :;l ■ |-^»'ii ; Ihj/i. rf (n •/,<•, Orn. Lur. it. p. l.'W 1 18*J7i; L*nhr^ 
la^i .^ I. Ahjrr., Of. w |> •J7*M l'*«i7) ; iMt/anl^ li. S. A/r p. I'liH 
l-^:-. y/r«.// O/ii. A.O-.l/r. ii. pi. I.' p. Hi.l.*» <l-"7.l: K»-d 
^ .» . ••ail i.i A«l.n; P.iliink'.Vroliip. » ; laiimi, (fit. lirhj. p. lo2 
' \'*''», . limi'lr, Orn. f',iu . p|i. 4.1, 41'* (l'*-'*4 : raftpiaiii . liuttik. 
.\'.tf I^iftl. Mus \ii. p. IM? M"^"^'*: ^^ ■ KiUtiiik .V'/«»Awi, //m/. 
/.»./ //. Hi. p. l'#, pt. L'ti. li^'., 7 '.♦ il-^".'*!; ttl. 1ir*m/r. Iht^r. 
t hitfulr. p ftl^ jI"****!. liiitttK. \iifr% ht/tl. Mhj: \l. p. l.'MI 

iI--:m. stifttn ///!«, I-'.H, |i. .*U;i» (l«i>Mrr ^»iij:t-**. %%iiilfr); 

Hirti Af»himli tut/. I'rr liitntrn, \\\. p. \m\\ ll**'.*:.': I li-tlUil| I ; 
■Vr/^^m. Ml.. lH«rJ. |,. :::; 1 11. li;:.ilalidl; <\itnp*.rti, t. I. p. 24<( 
f "r*«i; .Vr/^Jbm, //«i«. ISU, |>. 'V* (l.iu Km Id.. I'Vb. K •^^■t 
^ ' p l«V» I ilailialii 

T 1' 



276 CHAEADRUD^. 

Charadrius albifrons, Wolf ^ Meuer, Vbg, Deutschl. Heft 15, cum 
tab. (1806) ; Wa^l. Syst, Av., Charadrius, p. 33, sp. 32 (1827). 

Charadrius littoralis, Bechst, Naturg. Deutschl, It. p. 430 (1809) ; 
Fimch ^ Hartl Vog, Ostafr. p. 652 (1870) ; Finsch, Verhandl. 
z.'b. Ges. Wien, xxix. p. 246 (1879: Saseyk-AIa-Kul). 

^^alitis cantianus, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 558; Bp. Comp, List B. 
Eur, 8f N. Amer. p. 45 (1838) ; Crespm, Om, Oard, p. 364 (1840) ; 
Keys. 4- Bias, Wirh, Eur. p. 208 (1840) ; Miihle, Beitr. Om. 
Griechenl. p. 96 (1844); Brehm, Vogelf. p. 283 (1866); HengL 
8yst, Uebers, p. 56 (1856); Linderm. Vog, Griechenl, p. 134 (1860) ; 
Swinh. Ibis, 1800, p. 63 ( Amoy) ; Tristr. t. c. p. 78 (Sahara) ; 
Stcinh. t. c, p. 429 (Lam-yit Isl.) ; id. Ibis, 18ol, p. 61 (Hong 
Kong), 1862, p. 256 (Foochow) ; Blaki^t, t. c, p. 330 (Hakodadi) ; 
Swinh, P, Z. S. 186:^, p. 310 ; id. Ibis, 1863, p. 405 ; Jerd. B. Ind. 
iii. p. 640 (1864) ; Dresser, Ibis, 1865, p. 315 ; Godm, Ibis, 1866, 
pp. 100, 107 (Azores) ; Ltlford, t, c, p. 184 (Tagus) ; Taylor, Ibis, 
1867, p. 68 (Cairo) ; Blyth, t, c, p. 164 ; Tristr, Ibis, 1868, p. 823 
(Palestine) ; Borygr. Vogelf. Norddeutschi. p. 110 (1869) ; Doderl. 
Avif. Sicil. p. 177 (1869) ; Saunders, Ibis, 1869, p. 182 (Spain) ; 



Godman, Azores, p. 32 (1870); Harting, Ibis, 1870, p. 208; 
Elwes 8f Buckley, t. c. p. 386 (Bulgarian Coast) ; Swinh. P. Z. 8. 
1870, p. 138, 1871, p. 404 ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 17, no. 10020 



(1871) ; Snlrad. Faun. Ital. Ucc. p. 206 (1871) ; Gumey^ Ibis, 
1871, p. 298 (Laghouat); Saunders, t. c. p. 386 (Aranjuez) ; 
SheUey, B. Egypt, p. 240 (1872) ; Severtz. Turhest. Jevotn. p. 60 
(1873) ; Brooke, Ibis, 1873, p. 337 (Sardinia) ; Lilford, Ibis,l875y 
p. 26 ; Sioinh. t. c. p. 452 (Hakodadi) ; Irby, Om, Straits Gibr* 
p. 162 (1875) ; Dresser, B. Eur. vii. p. 483, pi. 623 (1876) ; id. 
Ibis, 1876, p. 328 ; Blanf. East. Persia, ii. p. 279 (1876) ; Tacz, 
Bull. Soc. ZiH>l. France, i. p. 248 (1876) ; DaM ^ Oust Ois. 
Chine, p. 430 (1877) ; Tweedd. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 624 (Palawan); 
Blakist. ^ Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 218 (Japan) ; Bogd. B. Cauc. 
p. 152 (1879); Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 947 (1880); Biddulph^ 
Ibis, 1881, p. 94 (Gilgit, Sept.); Stoinh. Ibis, 1882, p. 120 
(Kandahar, winter) ; Seehohm, t. c. p. 222 (Kirghiz Steppes, 
summer) ; Severtz. Ibis, 1883, p. 73 (Terghana, Pamir) ; Oates, 
Handb. B. Brit. Bunn. ii. p. 369 (1883) ; B. O. U. List Brit. B. 
p. 158 (1883) ; Saunders, ed. YarreWs Brit. B. iii. p. 267 (1883) ; 
Tnstr. Faun. ^ Flor. Palest p. 130 (1884) ; Murray, Vertebr. 
Faun. Sind, p. 227 (1884); Salvad. Ann. Mus. Gen. (2) i. p. 218 
(1884 : Shoa) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1884, p. 322 (S. Palawan) ; Saunders, 
t. c. p. 389 (Pyrenees) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard^s B. S. Afr. p. 659 
(1884) : Whitehead, Ibis, 1885, p. 41 (Corsica) ; Swinh. ^ Barnes, 
L c. p. 182 (Mhow distr.) ; Salvad. Elenco Ucc. Ital. p. 213 (188ti) ; 
Gigl. Avif. Ital. p. 372 (1886) ; Tait, Ibis, 1887, p. 385 (Portugul) ; 
Guiilem. Ibis, 1888, p. 113 (Cyprus) ; Sharpe, t c. p. 203 (Pala- 
wan) ; Chapm. t. c. p. 449 (Spain) ; Buckley Sc itarvie-Brotcn, 
Vertebr. Faun. Outer Hebr. p. 125 (1888) ; Koenig, J.f O. 1888, 
p. 84 (Tunis) ; Salvad. S;- Gujl. Mem. Ii. Accad. Torino, xxxix. 
p. 103 (1888) ; Hume, Str. F. xi. p. 314 (1888 : Manipur) ; Gigl. 
Avif. Ital. l.v/ lie^^oc. p. .571 (1889), 2nd Resoc. p. 644 (1890), Zrd 
Rcsoc. p. ry27 ( I81>n ; Snutider.^ Man. Brit B. p. 527 (1880) ; St 
Joint, I/)is, 18>^9, p. 176 (Kandahar, winter) ; Lilford, t. c. p. 338 
(('v])ru8); Ent//r i'lark, f. c. p. 5oO (East. Pyrenees, breeding); 
Whitehead, I/]is. I8!K), p. 58 (Palawan) : Sharpe, t. c. pp. 142, 284 
( Labuan/ ; ScrhrJi tn , t. c p. 408 (Ireland, not breeding) ; Oates, ed. 
Humes Nfst .V Ef/f/s Iml B. iii. p. 887 (1890) ; Steere, List Birds 
S- Mamjti. Exped. Philipp. p. '2h (1890 : Paraj/ua : Bohol ; Panay) ; 



:i2. .KtiULtTIfl. 277 

Sf^Jkmt li- Jo/MiH. Km ft. |i. (ttKM I'^iV)) ; Frimldnky^ Ar. Jlunr/, 
p. U*--' |I«*!»I): MaHarnv^ Au*m(. Cuf/ar. 1%/. p.* 1«W (IMJMJ; 
•SAatft^, /Am, ISiM, |k 11>{|I'uo): iW. .Vi. /^-j. 2w/ ITirA-. .Vim., 
.•fp^j. |>. I:C (ls:*l : Kiiivlialik. May): /V Z;^ TmrAr, Ihi*, 1^L\ 
II. 12X5 (K(XK*h(>w ; SviHt4iw, wiDt4*r); liame*^ Ibis, I^V), pp. 170, 
l**l lAilt'ii): Meafle-M'alth, t. r. p. 2208 (Canary lA.): Chttpm. 
/Am. |hJU. p. ;«7 ( W. JiitUiid) ; Liiford, iU. Fiy.'lirit, Ji. pt. xxi. 

IliaticuU cantinoii. dray. List (imU. Brit. Mum. p. 60 (1H44: 
N*«|itiul) : Hupp. StfiU. Ufbrn. p. 1 H (lS4o : £>rvpt hikI IW Sea) ; 
///yfA, CVi/. /A Mm. Am. ^*»r. p. I'lW ( 1K|9). 

.fUnalitiff albiiruUris lirehm, Vti*/. Ihut*chl. p. 552 (ls:il ). 
Th- K.'fiti-h IMov.r, YarreU, lint. R. ii. p. 4a"> (1K4.S). 
Ilinticula ♦•lejmiiji, lAcht. y'omrnrl. Ar. limU. p. 94 ( IK.'VI). 
.K«riaiiti!< cantiirii!«, Salrin, Ihi*^ iHoU, p. «VM(KiiAt^rn AiImi): /rAy, 

/Ai«, I's's'l, p. Irt" (SaiitandfT). 
^ .fCtrUliti* iuv««a in^ CU**. ). Swinh. Ibis, 1H0.S, p. 40i>'> (Ft»rm«iiMi). 
.Kin»l<*piiilti'* caiiCuiiUft, tiuuUl, Jlamib. Ii. Austr. li. p. 2**U (If^to) ; 

(fumty in Amlertm. Ii. Ikim. Lit. p. :^72 (1^72: namara-laiid. 

Wal%iVh IWv>; ti»mUI, li. (it. lint. iv. pi. 40 {\'-7:\)i Huine, 

ye^tM A- /;/y/ /w/. /y. p. r)7i ( l^7a>; iV/. .sirr. F. l p. •.*:«> < 1^78: 

Sin.li; J///ini, /. r. p. :tfM (Sainhhiir) : /?ii//^r, .S/r. F. ir. p. 12 
il^7«»: N. <ffiu«*rmt: Kiitrh : Kathiaw'iu'i : Srttlfy, t. c. p. \f^ 
(M Turkeftaiil: liuU, t. r. p. 2.'itMSiiiub«lpur; (iriiuia): liu/lrr^ 
Sir. F. V. p. SVI { 1H77 : Kanuhii ; (M/Jkr^iall. Contr. Faurt. Om. 
Eur. (k>i,i. fjuk*. ziii. p. 42 ( ISSN)). 

IMuiialiii caiitiaiiiui, Dnt$ir, I'tM/fltr. B'trlcum, p. LV) (1^<C0). 

.l-^nalitii* nivt^ifninn {nrc (W.), Ulanf. tieol. Jjf Xu»ii. AbynM. p. 42t* 
(1^70: MaMMtwiih). 

rharniriu* iiiannnatuii (n«r V.), FinteA, Trant. X*iut. Sttc. vii. p. 828 
<l'<70). 

(*banMlriua mnturuii, FritMch, Vog. Eur. tab. ;i3. %. 2 (1870); 
•VivAuAfii, /Alii, 1*^2, p. tW) (An*hanirel, summer). 

.i-I^alitif. lirnllmtii*. Swink. Ibis, 1h70. |i. IVW (Hainan) : id. P. /. S. 
1*»7JI. !». l:te». Is71, p. 40I; Ikiritl if (hut. Om. Chinr, p. 481 
(K7|. 

.fVi»l»U^ ttl»'«nMtlrinu^, lilyih ^V Wald. li. liurm. p. l-VI (ls7.''0; 
.STr/N. /V-iT. r.V. Aa/. Mu*. T. p. .VxlK-^J); Itrirhm. Sy0t. JVrs. 
r.-/ I)ruf3thl. p. /;i (IKMJI); Brusina, Mtttr. etr Hhrn. Cnmt.), 
p. Nii( W.ilh. 

.|-4:ialiTi* raiitiana, Hume, .Vr. /'. iii. p. 8*J3 (1n '>: .M»Tiruit; liutlrr, 
t. c. p. 4 in (Ml AUhH; .VinViA. /Am. 1h7;», p. 4'>2 (Ilnk.Nladi) ; 
Armstrifng, .Vr. /'. i\. p. •t40 ( lh7(>: Kau^iNm ili-tr. ) : Ituntt, t. c, 
p. 4«»4 (l-ttn*a«li »••*); tiutUr, op. n't. \. p. L»tW«1^77: Uluiil of 
Antola) ; Huffte \ I^iriM*m, Str. F. vi. p. iVJ (1»»7*<: Tfna*x«rini): 
Ball, Str. F. vii. p. 227 {\<f<: Kwpurl : Butler, (\tt. B. Siml etr. 
p. 4;W (1^71*1 ; llume, Str. F. viii. p. 112 (IH7W) : Viii^l, Str. F. 
II. p. Hi ( I^M<» : S. Kt»nkan) ; llum^, /. r. p. 1 IH (Sinu'apim* ; I'ulo 
Niinir<») ; BriH, Str. F. x. p. «'i."i ( Imm| : Liirkn«>w ) : .V, J4»bm, lbi$^ 
l»*^#, p. 17tJ (Kan«Uhiir, wint*T); Whitehead, /Am. 1s*«). p. M 
(I'aUwan. Sfbt.) ; Shurftr, Ibis, K*K pp. 142. L'^ > Uibunn, Jnn.) ; 
BartwB, /Am, 1^»2. p. 170 (.\.|.-n, S-pi. M .\prill. 

.fVialitia pUiHiU (i^rr.), tente Sfti^rtz. tbi*, l-»<8. p. 78. nit«». 

.'f'linalitia rantiana pfnmi, lilakist. Amrmlt^t Liti li. Japan , p. 10 
I |HH4 : Ymo & Japan fr^'nerally). 

(Tbarwiriua eantianaa mi nor, /tn^jJhn, (irogr. Ikstr. Charadr. p. 169 
(IMH). 



278 ClIARADRIIDJK. 

Charadrius cantianuB dealbatus; Seebohm, t. c. p. 170; id. B. Japan, 
Emp. p. 310 (1890) ; Hartl Abhandl not. Ver. Bremen, xii. p. 331 
(1892 : Hainan) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1893, p. 63 (Liu Kiu Islands). 

Adult maU in hreeding-plumage. General colour above pale 
earthy brown, with faint remains of paler margins to the feathers ; 
wing-coverts like the back, the marginal ones blackish brown, the 
greater series darker brown, with a narrow white edging to the tip ; 
bastard-wing and primary-coverts dark sepia-brown, the latter 
fringed with white at the tip; quills sepia-brown, with white shafts 
to the primaries, which are pale brown on the inner web, the inner 
primaries for the most part white towards the base of the outer 
web ; the secondaries dusky brown with white tips, the inner ones 
abo white along the margins of both webs, the innermost long 
secondaries brown like the back ; lower back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts dark sepia-brown, the lateral ones white, forming a patch 
on each side ; the four centre tail-feathers dark sepia-brown, paler 
towards the base, and having white shafts to the centre ones, the 
three outer feathers white, the next ones smoky brown with white 
shafts ; crown of head ashy brown, washed with light tawny rufous, 
especially distinct towards the nape ; hind-neck and sides of neck 
white, forming a collar; forehead and a distinct eyebrow white, 
with a broad black band separating the white of the forehead from 
the brown of the crown ; eyelid and loral streak black ; feathers 
below the eye and sides of face white, with a black patch on the 
hinder ear-coverts ; cheeks and under surface of body pure whit«, 
with a patch of black on each side of the chest ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries white ; quills below light oshy like the lower 
primary -coverts : *' bill black, with the base of the lower mandible 
of a dusky flesh-colour ; tarsi dusky, toes darker, claws black ; iris 
brown " ( W, MacgilHvray). Total length 6*5 inches, culmen 0*7, 
wing 4*15, tail 1-7, middle toe and claw 0*7. 

Adult female. Similar to the male, but with less rufous on the 
head, this being represented by a tinge over the eye and round the 
nape, the black band on the fore part of the crown absent, the 
black patch on each side of the chest represented by a brown patch 
with a rufous tinge. Total length 6*5 inches, culmen 0*7, wing 4*3, 
tail 1-y, tarsus 1*1. 

The Kentish Plovers which attain their breeding-plumage in the 
plains of India are certainly much brighter in colour than any 
which are seen in Europe. The black forehead and patch at the 
side of the chest are also strongly developed. Occasionally a rufous 
tinge overshades the back. 

TTie adult bird in winter plumarje difiers from the summer 
plumage in the entire absence of bright rufous on the head, and the 
black markings on the face and sides of the breast are also not 
developed. The head is like the back, the forehead and eyebrow 
are white, the lores dusky, and there is always a more or less 
distinct white collar united to the two sides of the neck. 

Young hirda in first winter plumage only differ from the adults in 
having the whole upper surface distinctly marked with pale edges 
to the feathers. 



•i2. .KOIALITI^. 



27l» 



Mr. Srt»>>ohin ha-** srjwiraltMi •• 'Vh** Tropical Kontish PIovtT " as 
f^htmiflriuM cnttiaittis ntiHutu:t, Tlu» wiii^ is piv«»n as from 1^7 to 
4"J, an*l the?*o mcaHuromtMitH iin» contirmod hv th<? sericsi in the 

w 

Bnti^h MuMMini. At the Hiimc tira»*. -.i^ Mr. Stvbohm admits, tlw»n» 
i* no diff«»r«*nce hot wwn thoso two liinls, except the smalliT 8i/.o. and 
he aliM) allow A that they inter;jrado with tlie typical form. For 
thi4 re.ifon I do not think that the small raiv of the Kentish 
riorer ran l>e maintained. I have a«ld»Ml the meaHurfment of the 
winiT in the Mus^Mim Herii^ to Hh«>w how completely the hir;;** and 
•mall formn int4»rjrra<le. I do not !*c*» any advantHi;t» in ufihtdding; 
.fwi«»/i/i.< *lralf»atujt of Swiiihm*. which is ftu{>{M»(Hl to ditfcr hy its 
paler h';r«». While admittini; that mo^t of the Cliine-M' liirds differ 
in thu wav. there are many hinls. also from <'hina. which hav«« 
dark 1«'^ like the ordinary typical form, while it is equally certain 
that hir»N from other loealili«*s liave also pjile leir*. In one 
in*t.inc(' 1 have hei*n a hird that had one dark lc<: and one pale one, 
•M that apparently the hkin of the let? dri*** in various colours. 

//•i'*. Kuro|ie p»nerally, hut not ranirin;: very far north, eastwanls 
thn»ii);h (Viitral Asia to China and Japan, wintering in Africa, the 
Indian IVninsula, and extendin:; an fur Miuth as Au^^tralia. 



1. '» \d . • . '/, •• 
I'ull "t. 

y TuU -! 

y. A * ad ; I. J Hti : 

k. i. Pull, -k 
Ml. « .<f 9 nd *t 

-.p 'nti. w 4 l-*» 

I -V* . 7 ; »d 

« I .'» ; r M 

I :v'« I I 

I. a • ad -k. w 

4 IV t.". 
f, ,r rf ; a.1 .t. 
ft ' «d .t 

, . »'l .k 

f .'J ' . ad 'k w. 

4 .; 4 :; . 
A .1* 'fed -tpiill.*k 

m I I 
i ■' ad •» w 14 

r.m • i %*!. .k w 

4 V> t I 
m V ad ftk w. 4:t'. 



A. ^K'/i'tlitiM ftfr.tiim/rii*'i. 

% 



roltiiit-l Irhv and 
C'rtpt. \Vill.»u;:hhy 
Vt»rn«'r 1*. . 

H. K. KnwM»n. Ixj. 
P. . 

(inuld (* 11. 



Duntfen**'*.'* lU'Arh. M.mv. 

June {J. ft.). 
Lydd ll»*iu*h. Kent « A'. IlHrimfr Coll. 

Han/if t\. 
Komn»'y Miip.h, K.rit.M:iy l>r. K. U. S|iaqx» 

t«» s."-pt. r. . 



Salrin-^ HMinian Coll. 



K\i* lIurlKtur. Sii«».'«\, StM-lxthui (*«dl. 

S*»iit. {J. I', linrtin'n 
Kvf llnrhiur. .Mh\ ( /' 

fffifinttin I. 

Shorf>lmiii, Su>^«\ 



Purcha**'*!. 

I>r. K. li. Sharp*- 
IV 

Pntrham UarUtur. Su**««\. Ih". tltnithi-r [^1*. . 

SlUth >W»-i|m|i, MftV. Jllll*' llu!i.»* t'.iil 

Ilnllnnd (J liaker). S.d\in-< i'xlnian < *«tll. 

Mouth "'f thf S'ini', Fmiici* S«H'ln»!iin t'nll. 

(//. Harpitt). 
Val'-tirin, Siiain, March Tw»*«*ddaJ«* C'.dl, 

(//. StttmJert), 
Malajra. Ma> 1 (// Tu.-nl.Ulr Coll 



280 



CHABADRHDJE. 



o*-r^, c^ $ ad. sk. [w. 

4-26-4-36]. 
«', t\ cJ ad. sk. [w. 

4-3]. 
u\ V, S2 ad. sk. 

[w. 4-15-4-26]. 
w'. Ad. sk. fw. 4*41. 



»'. Ad. sk. fw. 4*4]. 
'. Ad. sk. fw. 4-4J. 
'. Ad. sk. [w. 4-4J. 



x!. Ad. sk. [w. 4*51. 
a". Ad. sk. [w. 4-36]. 
b". cJad.8k.[w.4-4]. 

c". Ad. sk. [w. 4-461. 
d". $ ad. sk. [w. 4-2J. 

e". Ad. sk. [w. 4*4]. 

/". $ ad. sk. [w. 

4-36]. 
y".?ad.sk.[w.4-25]. 

h"-r'. d ? ad. sk. 

[w. 4-2-4-4]. 
m . 2 ad' sk. [w. 

4'36]. 
n", o", p'\ Imm. sk. 

[w. 4-3-4-45]. 
g", (J ad. sk. [w. 4*1]. 

r". cJad. 8k.[w.4-4]. 

«". cJad. 8k.[w.4-3]. 

<"-tr". d $ ad. sk. 
[w. 4-26-4-6]. 

x". c5'ad.sk.[w.4-3]. 

y", cJad.8k.[w.4-3]. 

z'', a*. cJ ad. sk. [w. 

4-3]. 
6^ d ad. sk. [w. 4*3]. 

cr\ cJ ad. sk. [w. 4-3]. 

d\ Ad. sk. [w. 4-25]. 

''^/^• c^ ^^' ^k- c^- 

41-415]. 

V^, Pf P. i^ ad. sk. 
[w. 3-9-4r)]. 

l\ 2ad.8k.rw. 4-36 
P. 2nd. 8k. [w. 4-25 



Near Gibraltar, April. 

FajBlf Azores, June {F, 

D, G,). 
St Michaels', Azores, 

April (-F. D. Q.). 
Marocco (Olcese), 
Marocco. 

Algeria (JET. B. Tris- 
tram). 
Tunis. 
Sardinia. 
Missolonghi, Greece^ May 

80 (H. S,), 
Cape Verd, Senegambia. 
St. Vincent, Cape Verd 

Islands, July 24 (J, 

MacgiUivray), 
Damara-land (C J. An- 

derssoti), 
Egypt (jr. Rodgers). 

Thebes, Egypt {G. E. 

Shelley), 
Cyprus, April (H. H. 

GuUlemard). 
River Volga, June. 

Fao, Persian Gulf, Aug. 



Colonel Iiby [P.]. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman CoIL 

Tweeddale ColL 
Seebohm Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

L. Fraser [C.]. 
Capt. SheUev [P.]- 
Seebohm CoU. 

L. Laglaioe [C.]. 
Voy. H.M.S. *RatUe- 
snake.' 

Seebohm C/oll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Lord Lilford [P.]. 

Seebohm ColL 

W. D. Cumming, 

Esq.rP.]. 
Hume Coll. 



Dr. O. Finsch [C.]. 
Hume Coll. 



Persian Gulf (E. A. 

Butler), 
Ala Kul, Turkestan, 

May 9. 
Yarkand, April 26 {J. 

Scully). 
Mekran Coast, Feb., May, Hume Coll. 

Aug. {A,O.H,^E,A, 

Butler). 
Gwadar, Baluchistan, Dec. 



Muschid River, Baluchis- 
tan. 
Candahar, Feb. 

River Chenab, Sind, Dec. 8 

(A. O. H.). 
River Jhelum, Nov. 23 

{A. O. H.). 
Bhawulpur (G. F. L. 

Marshall). 
Karachi, Feb., March 

(O. A, H. Si- E. A. 

Butler). 
Sambhur, Sept., March 

{R. M. Adam). 
Meerut, Feb. 12. 
Gilgit, Aug. 13. 



W. T. Blanfoid, Esq. 

[P.]. 
W.T.BlnnfordjEsq. 

rc.]. 

Colonel Swinhoe [P.]. 
Hume ColL 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Col. Biddulph [C], 
CoL Biddulph [C.]. 



:i2. .r^iULiTtii. 281 

■t', n\ cf ad. [w. Qunrniiti DUtr., Jan., Ilume Coll. 

4 -JS 4 IR; ; o\v\ April ( If. -V. CW/). 

9*. 9 M. nk. ! w. 

SJ»4.r. 

r'. #•. c* 9 aa. sk. rmbaU, Nov. Twmidale (^11. 

'"i "'. r'. cT ail.' ''w. Ktawah. Nov., Dec. II unit* Coll. 

4;i-4-.'i'; tr*. V. (-4. O. //.). 

9 a.1. >. 4 ;r ; y'. 

r', «•. .\cl. dk. w. 

4"- 4*3' 

6*, r*. f/ ml 9k. [w. IWmHih^. Manh 1 {A.O. //.). Hume Coll. 

4 -J 4 a . 

«#* y*. Ad. nk. ''w. ( hidh, Jan. to Marrh. Ilunio (\»11. 

4 .'tt 4:.-i'. 

A'. iV / ftd-'w. 4:1 FuttphiTurh. March IS {A. Ilunie (oil. 

4-6' : 4'. 9 All. ftk. Andfrmm). 

i*,m\ /ad. !»k. 'w. Kuttchirurh, March (.-1. Si-oKihrn Coll. 

4 .'i 4-4 - .4w/tf'rii"»l. 

H* IT*. /9 ml. w. .\llHhHlMiil. Poc. to March Hume Coll. 

4 "J 4:* et juv.uk. {A. O. Ji. a- C. Cork- 

fiurn). 

x*,jf*, zV Ad. ak. 'w. Nepal. Hodir#«»n Coll. 

4*.'V'» . 

m\ 2 ad. i>k. w. 4 ."» . IWhar. Hi^I^.n Cull. 

A». Ad. »k. w. 4-4'. ■ SnupT. iK-c. Hnme C4.ll. 

r\ti\e'. Ad. «k. w. Itaipur. Jan., (Vt. Hume Coll. 

4 'J. 

/'. Ad. *k. w. 4 IV. l>«*ccAn {/iHiynui), (Sould (^^ll. 

y*. A'. .\d. i*V. \t*An\ {Me<*Miand). India MiM.-um. 

•\ ' ad fk. 'w. 44;. Akyab, N..v. 1 (/;. H'. O.). Oat«*rt Coll. 

k\i\m'. /ad. w. Klephaiit l*uint, Dct*. (y. Hume Coll. 

4 J 4-.i : 9i\ 9ad. Anrutromy). 

•k. w. 4-3 . 

o' /ad. w. 4l*o ; TontrhiNi, Nov., IW. Tweeddale Coll. 

b\ /. ■? ad. dk. (/^ o*. ir. h), 

r rV .' a*1. »k. 'w. That ine. TeiiHVM'rim. Nov., Hume (*i>ll. 

t l'» -I 'V* . I*"'**. ( U\ 7>firiV*«). 

•r*. r». y'. p ail. Ilk. Th.inz-ik. N..v. < If". Hum.* Coll. 

»■ 4 .'J . fhirisnn ). 

r t ad »k. ''w. 4*.' . I'lininit ( H*. DariM^m). Hume <*nll. 

a' ''•d nk. ,'m'. 4 L''. Wippituii, I>iv. (•/. Jhtr- Huuiif Coll. 

itm;). 

h' ^ ml «. 4l»'i ; Amh..r.t. IKn'., Jan. < If. Hume Coll. 

r\ »r. ^V 9 ail. nk. JfariM.n). 
» 4 1 4.'i. 

/•, /. ' ad. i»k. 'w. Menrui. Nm., Jan. ( M'. Humi* Coll. 

4 1 4-'.' /Mrtwm). 

A* ;^ a<l Ilk. w. 40. SinirajHirv Nland, iK-c. I.'i Humi*(\ill. 

( H . /htristm). 

ff* ^ ail ak. ; w. 461. Pulo Niiii^^a, Nov. itl ( H*. Ilume CuU. 

k'.r, mr Ad »k. [w. Ubuan, Nov. to Jan. A. II. Everett & 

4'y»4:ir». J. WbittfhMul, 

Kaqt. [C.J. 

■V Ad iC. w 4 3]. fiarmwak. A. H. EtmU, Emi. 

[C.]. 



282 



CHARADRIID.TS. 



o«. Ad. sk. [w. 4-3]. 
;>«. Ad. 8k. [w. 4-3J. 
f. 2 ad. 8k. [w. 4-3]. 



r«. c? ad. [w. 43- 
4-4] : 8% t\ $ ad. sk. 

w*. Ad. 8lf. [w. 4 3]. 

v", ic®, y. Ad. sk. [w. 
4-35-4-4]. 

y«. 2 ad. 8k. [w. 4*36]. 

z\ Ad. 8k. [w. 4-15]. 
a^ Ad. sk. [4-3]. 

b\ Ad. sk. [w. 4161. 
c^ (5* ad. sk. [w.4*05j. 

<r. S ad. sk. [w. 4*16]. 

c'. cJad.8k.[w.3*95], 

/^ Ad. sk. [w. 41 5]. 
^■'j A^. d* 5 ad. sk. [w. 

40-4-25]. 
r. c^ ad. [w. 4-05] : 

F, P. 2 ftd. sk. 

[w. 3-7-3-9]. 

Tn7. 2 ad. sk. [w. 4*4]. 

n^f <P, jp. Ad. sk. 

[w. 5-0-5*5]. 
(f. Ad. sk. [w. 4*1]. 

r". Ad. sk. [w. 4*4]. 

«"', f^ u'. Ad. sk. [w. 

4'5-4-25]. 
t''-2\ cT $ ad. sk. 

[w. 4-2-4-55]. 
rt'-(f. Ad. sk. [w. 

4-25-4-551. 

<*V»y- Ad. sk. [w. 

4-2-4-35]. 
h\ Ad. sk. [w. 4-3]. 
i". Ad. sk. [w. 4-35]. 

A-". Ad. sk. [w. 4'4'j. 



Sarawak (H. H. Everett). 

Sandakan. 

Puei'to Pincef>a, Palawan, 

Nov. {A. H. EcereU). 
N. Bohol, Oct. (A. H. 

Eeerett) . 
Fokien, China. 
Amoy, Nov. {R, Swmhoe), 

South-west Formosa {R, 

Swmhoe). 
Ichang, Dec. 
Corea. 

B. j^k/ialitis minuta. 

West Africa. 
Socotra, Feb. 20. 

Zoulla, Abyssinia, June 3 

( W. Jegse). 
Massowah, Abyssinia. 

N.E. Africa. 

River Kishon, Palestine. 

Ceylon, June, July. 



C. ./Ei/ialitis dealhata. 

South Yezo, Japan (Capt. 

Blakiaton). 
Yokohama {H. Fryer). 

Talienwan, China, July. 
Osukeo, China, Nov. {R. 

Stoinhoe). 
Amoy (R. SwinJwe). 

Amoy, Oct. to May {R. 

Swinhoe). 
Amoy, Jan. (R. Swmhoe). 

Canton. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

(^uld Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

A. Pratt, Esq. [C.]. 
C. W. Campbell, 

Esq. [P.]. 

L. Fraser [CI. 
Prof. I. B. ^Balfour 

[C.l 
Tweeddale Coll. 

W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

[C.l. 
Mr. Parreyss [d- 
Canon Tristram [C]. 

Colonel Legge [P.]. 



Tweeddale Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Hume CoU. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 



Fokien. Gould Coll. 

Formosa, March (R. Tweeddale Coll. 

Swinhoe). 

S.W. Formosa (7?. S.). Twooddale Coll. 



0. iEgialitis marginata. 

Charadrius marginntus, Viciil. X. Diet. d^Hist. Nat. xxvii. p. 138 
(1818); Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 644 (1847); Layard, B. S. Afr. 
p. 298 (18G7) ; Finsch S^- Hart I. Vof/. Ostafr. p. 654 (1870) ; Grat/, 
Hand-l. B. iii. p. 16, no. 10014 (1871); Seebohm, Bns, 1887, 
p. 338 (Natal); id. Geogr. Bistr. Charadr. p. 161 (1888). 

Charadrius leucopolius, Waql. Syst. Av., Charadrius, p. 65, sp. 28 
(1827) ; GriU, Zool. Avteckn. pp. 11, 52 (1850: Knysnn). 



:\2. jKouLiTis. 28a 

C'hanidrius ni\irninii, (Vr. Hhtne Anim. p. oOl (18:^<h iivM^t. nulla): 
/•M. TraiUitOrn. p. :>U (KU); drat/, dm. It. iii. p.544 ( lH47) ; 
iWker. Her, et Matf. d^- '/am4. K>I, p.'^'O; ^StrirkL A* .St/, dmtr. 
Orn. IH.VJ, p. ]riS> (hAiimrit I-aini) ; S<hl. Mu*. Pau*'Iia*A'\\T!<in*^^ 

p. ;tt(i,HiW)). 

IliatuMitii niar^inntA, Gray, Li*t (rrMr Urif. Mh«. p. «iS> (1^44: S. 
Afrii'aK 

lliAtiruU l»MiiN»|>iilift, lAcht. \omfHti. A v. .V/m. lim^i. p. 1>4 (IKW). 

l^«'UiM|*iiliuii iii\fifnm!t. Up. (\ It. xliii. p. 417 (IsTii*). 

.K.*iiilitiii niiir^inata, iiumry^ IhiA^ 1h4M), u. 21^^ (NmUI); id. in 
Anirr*: //. I him. IaL p. i*7l' U^-: WaUiH-h Hay; < oai«t 
-<mib t.» thf ('a|i.O; ShrUey, Ihin, \f^7'\ p. N'j (nurliaii) ; Y Sharpt 
^ H'tu^r, Hull. StM\ ZtMtl. Fninrr, i. p. •W (1S7<J: I^nndatia) ; 
:- /{f^iye, Om. Awpdfi, p. i'M (IhhI); .Sfi/ri/i. fVi/. StricfcL (.\}U. 

L.Vi^ tK**iM: Itutli-r, Friii^H, \ Reii, '/a»'J ls>l'. p. :U1 (Dur- 
o llarlxMir). 
.fl;rialit>]> ni\«*ifn>:i«, Cah. in V'ln dfr Drckrn^ lifis. iii. p. 4*1 < iHtftM. 
.t'ltfinliiii albiili}i4*4*tii«, Huiytr. I*rtM\ C.S. yut. Mua, v. p. tiTjM 

^l'^•<l^; id. Auk, i. p. KJ (lss4). 
r .f^rialiti* tii-<-ho\\i. (ah. J. f. (K 1H'*4, p. 4^J7 (AnjroU) ; lifirArn. 

J / O. I^<», tub. \i. tik'^. I'Vi, L»A. 
.H^nnli!!' nnvliMF-i \htp<u\, Scl. ///m, 1**1M), p. 1*J(), 
I^unH»*»h«"« nimvinHtu.-*, Ihinr if lirirhen. Som^nc4. Mun. Hein. 

p. -.^.C ^l^l•lh. 

Adult imtlr, (fiMioral colour :il>ovf liplil ashy prey. wa>ht*(i with 
|h}le ni^t-<-oI<itir, very ili^tinrt on the scapular^ ; rump and (*('ritral 
upfi^r tail-io%-iTt<« a Iittli> darker hrown, <»idi*s of rump and lateral 
ui»|i>*r tail-covi-rt-i pun* whilo ; winjr-roviTlH like tho back, th<» 
marpnal ont*ii du>k\ brown, forming a band abm^ tbt* wl^v oi tho 
vtiilj; ; ^rtMl<r iH>\rrtj* broailly tipixil with whit**, forming a winj:- 
bar ; biv^tanl-win;; ami primary-rnv«'rt«» dark svpia bn>wn, tb«* latt4'r 
bn>adl> tipiMti with whito : (|uilN li^ht axhy brown, blackish on 
thf iritrr wt)»H aiiil at tht* tii*H, the inner 4»ncH lor the nio'^t ]>art 
wbir«- abiu;; tb«* outer w<'b ; M'ConilaHcH dark brown, with uhite 
•biitA. tbf inn*-r **uvn (or tin* ni«>'»t part MJiit^*, with a dark patch 
lirar tb«* c-ii'l on the inntT web, tboiM* adjoining th«* Ion;; M*condari<vi 
pun- »bit«-. lh«' bmK inner s»i'ondani'nlikr tbf back : the four ctMitre 
tail-lt'iith<-r«t dark broHn, tht* next on«'n brown, exttTiially white, the 
(iii*f r ••rif-4 pun* whil«'; crown ot' brail ru^t-rnlour, a bntad frontal 
i-and td «bitc i*xt«*ndinfc to alMive th«* rye, M'lmratiNl fnmi tht* rust- 
nrd'Mir of thr rroun by a broad black tuind ; a very distinct black 
l«>r\l «tr(*ak from the bujM* of th** bill to the eye ; ftiden of face and 
r»r-r..irrrt» whit**, with a bla<k line alun)( the up|M*r i-ilp* of tho 
latti-r . throat and undt*r hurfi'-e of IhhIv white, with a delicate 
Mu«b of Mindy buflf fri»m th** fore-n«*ck downwanln ; undt*r winfc- 
rt»T« rt« and axillari(*H i%bite: quill** )>elow anhy f;rey : '* bill blick ; 
frri irn*}i*h fl«iih • colour : irij* dark bn>wn ** {fJ. K. Shrlfry). Total 
lefirth *'»-^ inrh**«i, culuien 0*7, win^ 4'.'{, tail 2, tamuH oiC), middle 
!«*• ar.d rUw M'7.'i. 

Adtth fViJi/i//. Similar to tho male, but wantinf; the black bar 
amA« ibr crown ; the forehead whito, cxtendiuf; Iwickwarda in a 
httmd ejebrow ; the black loral utreak indicated by a duiky line, 
and thf* Mark on thi* upper maricin of th«* ear-4*()Vrrtii alto replaeed 



284 CHARADRIID^. 

by dusky. Total length 6*5 inches, culmen 0'75,wing 4*4, tail 2*1, 
tarsus 1. 

Negding. Uniform light isabelline-grey, white below. 

It must be noted that Gapt. Savile Keid has marked a bird from 
Durban as a *^ female " which agrees exactly in colour with the 
male. If this view be correct, t)ie bird described above as the adult 
female is probably the winter plumage of the species. 

jE. mechowi of Cabanis I believe to be the bird in full breeding- 
plumage, which would account for the brighter coloration of the 
neck and breast. I find considerable variation in the breadth of 
the black band on the crown, and the birds which I take to be in 
winter plumage are more uniformly grey above, and lack the sandy- 
rufous colour of the upper parts, this colour accompanying the 
rufescent colour of the breast, and being apparently a sign of 
breeding-plumage. The birds from Cape Town are all in the greyer 
dress, as also is the bird from Walvisch Bay ; all the others have 
the colour of ^. mechowi. 

The black loral line, which is a speci6c character in some of the 
Sand-Plovers, seems to bo a sign of summer plumage only in others. 
The present species apparently loses it entirely in the wint<er, and 
the specimen from Walvisch Bay is in nearly full summer plumage, 
but still retains the white lores. 

In the absence of an examination of the type specimen, I agree 
with Mr. Seebohm that Mr. Kidgway's ^. aUndipectut is this 
species. 

Hab. South Africa, from the Cape Colony to Natal, north to 
Damara-land and possibly Angola. 

a, b. Ad. et pull. South Africa. Sir A. Smith [C.]. 

sk. 

c. Ad. sk. South Africa. Dr. Krauss [C.]. 

dy e, S ad. sk. Cape Town (E. L, Layard), Seebohm Coll. 

/. Ad. sk. Cape Town \E. L. Layard). Tweeddale Coll. 

g. Ad. sk. George, Knysna (T, C. Tweeddale Coll. 

Atmore). 

hf t. Ad. sk. East London, June (C Major Trevelyan 

Neivbg). [P.]. 

k,L (^2 ad. sk. Durban, Natal, Aug. 25 Shelley Coll. 

(Capt. Savile Held). 

m, n. cJ ; o. 9 ad. Walvisch Bay, Damara-land, Tweeddale and See- 

sk. Oct. (C.J. A.). bohm Colls. 



7. JEgialitis pallida. 

Hiaticula sp., Grai/y List Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 69 (1844: River 
Ni^rer) *. 

Charadrius pallidus, Strickl. Contr. Orn. 1852, p. 158 (Damara- 
land) ; Salmn, Cat. Strickl. Coll. p. 598 (1882) *. 

* There is a sj-nonym, *' H. heywoodi, Thompson," of which the Museum is 
supposed to have the type specimen, which is quoted by Hartlaub and others, 
and even by Gray himself m the * Hand-list.* The reference given by thef*e 
authors is incorrect, and I have been unable to find the place where the name is 
published. 



.ICffuilitit niAririn*^ ('•<'<^ '')* ^^""f^- ^>'^* ^'^^A/r, p. 210 (1857: 

iuAd Cowt ; ItiTer Nijfer) ; (««. /V.K-. /lliYat/. -^wm/. 1850, p. 173 

(Camnui lUver) ; Hartl J./. O. IHOl, p. AJO; SMarj*, IbU, 1870, 

p. 487 (Fwitw); ShrJity ^ liuckieti. Ibis, 187l\ p. 21W (Accra); 

Sharps, Ihi», lH7:i, p. 4H7 (Kivtr VolU); Ou9taL Sour. Arek. 

Mm*, (*J) ii. HuU, p. 14r)(l87U: (ttbooD). 
('handriui* WdvIIuh. llarti. Faun, Atadag, p. 72 (1801) ; Sd, P, Z, 3. 

1H03. p. UM (MadAga-car ) ; Ho<h^ £. Xewton, Ibis, 18(53, p. 169 ; 

K y^tctun^ t.r, p. 4«V); (intwiid. Rev. ft Mag. de Zool. 1WJ7. 

p. 41W; S(kL :!r 1\»U. Faune Moiiag., Ois. p. V2M (18«W); ^WcA 4r 

Hartt. IVy. Oji/rt/r. p. (UV5, noto (lh7()) ; frrfly, Hamd-l. B. iii. 

p. 10, DO. 10018 (1^71); //ar//. Toy. Madag. p. 288 (1877); 

Rrii'ken. Vt^g. Ik-uimh-iM-Afr. p. iW (1894 : Lincfi). 
(huradnufi nivfifroa<» ynec Cut.), ShL P. Z. S, 184)0, p. 425 (Mada- 

(/iiwar) ; (irandid. Pec. et Mag. de /am>1. Im57, p. 4IS>. 
('hnriKiniu marpi.atuii, var. teiifllu^, M dhe-Eii wards i^ Gramlidier, 

Hi,t. Sai. Madag., Ois. p. rm (H79). 
rhamilriiL** iiiaivitmtiit {ner T.), Fi»cher^ J.f. O. l?vsr), p. 115 (Lindi). 
.tlinalitiit mechiiwi (ikt Vah\ llartert, J.f. O. 1^80, p. 010 (Henue 

Ki%erJ. 
.I-I^ialitw iiiai>rinAtu» t«*iiellu», Heebokm, Gtogr. Distr. Ckaradr, 

y. 1»WJ, pi. Tii. (1H^^). 
.t-linaliti* t«o*Uu«, iskeiUg, Ibis, 1n^, p. .'KXi (Manda IM.); Sibrte^ 

IhiM, 1-1**J, p. 115 (Matiiitfa^car). 
l^u-<-)>t>liU!» u*Ui'llu9, Heine ^ Reicken. Son^end. Mas. Hein. p. 337 

Adult tttah iM /trftdifyj-jdumaffe. Similar to jE. marfjitiata, but 
»m^l«*r and huviii); nil the M't'oiidariea of the tuime odour, namely 
dark broun t-d^^eti uitb whito extomally, mort* broadly towards 
thr tip. none uf tht* M'(M)ndarieH U^ing pure white : *' bill black ; 
ftfTt Irad-ctdour ; iria bn»wii ^ (A". Srwton), Total length inchea, 
culmfii <»-ih>, ming 4, tail l'*J, taraus 1, middle t(K> and claw 0*05. 

.!'/•#'/ IM winter jtlfima'fe { ty|K* of C, jntVidus, Strifkl. & Scl.). I'ight 
j;rr\ aUi\<\ without any rufous ; lia^e of f<»rc*hvud, e\ebrow, m\vH of 
ta« <-. and und«*r i*urta«*c i>f InmIv pure white ; lore8 aloo white, the blnck 
I ral iit>«* '>)**mU«te. Total length (S inches, wing «i'S*r>, tarvuM 1*15. 

y/'i^>. Ma^iiigaNCjir and KaMt Africa, from the /aml»osi north to 
I-in-h ; WrM Afrira, fr«*m the (told Coaat to the Niger and (iaboon 
Afiil pfi'bably to the ('ong<i and Angola. 

I nm unable to di*t«*rniine what the Charadrnts mari/inatus of 
H«ui:iT> jVitg. N.U.-Afr ii. pt. 1, p. lo:U, tab. xxxit. tig. 0) can 
>m, tf'iu the lU-il Sa, l>ublak Arthiindago, and Jeddah. As .£*. 
ttm^f- t ring'"* :ttt far a.i Lindi, it in extremely probable that it extends 
tiorihuardft to the lU-<i Sa. 

.! \'\ mk lfci\rr NiK'rr Mrs. Ih'VWiKxl ]'/. (Type 

of **(/. key tcwMti.'^) 
'. \.J .k. Itivrr « V"*»N <'H»>.HMi. II. T. An^Ul, V^i V.]. 

\d •k Ismk*' N\B».i {»Sir J. Kirk). LivingHtoni* K\|MMlition. 

d K'\ •k. T« l«*. /aiijUfii (.VirJ, AVrA). Uviug^toiu* KxiM^ditiuO. 
.. \l .k Mumla Man.l. F. J. Jaik^.n. E114. ;R\ 

* I>r. ihmi\ « hat kimllj •rut iitr tbr ly|ie of thu »|ir« ira fttr •lamiaalioo, 
*tjmt I And iKai it tiiii*f Kr ihti aint^r pluinaKc o( AC. temt.'/a, of«r which nam* 
• tt'l kA JC f^'!td*t fakr* prrordetu'r. 



286 CHABADRIID^. 

8. ^giaUtiB vennsta. 

Charadrius venustus, Fischer Sf Ueichen, J,f. 0. 1884, p. 178 (Masai 
Land) ; Fischer, Zeitschr, ges. Om, i. p. 392 (1884 : Masai 
Land) ; id. J.f, O. 1885, p. 115 (Nguruman); Beichen, t c, pi. vi. 
tigs. 4 Of 4 b, 

iEgialitis venusta, Cab. J.f. 0. 1884, p. 437 ; SouzOf Jam. ScL IM. 
(2)i. no. 2,p. 117 (1889). 

AdtUt male. Above brownish grey, the forehead white, bordered 
behind with a black and a reddish-coloured band, the latter con- 
tinued down the side of the neck and united to a band on the crop, 
of the same colour ; loral streak black ; chin, sides of the head, and 
entire under surface of body white ; primary-coverts and primaries 
black, with white shafts, and a white base on the inner web and 
small spots at tip ; middle tail-feathers dark brown, the next with 
the outer web more or less white, the outermost pure white : 
bill black ; feet greenish grey. Total length 5*3 inches, culmen 0*6, 
wing 3*3, tail 1-4, tarsus 0*9. (Fischer 6f Ileichenow.) 

Adult female. Differs from the male in wanting the black band 
behind the forehead, with a paler reddish-coloured loral streak and 
paler crop-band. {F. cj* R.) 

Hah. East Africa (Masai Land). 

9. JEgiaUtis mficapilla. 

Charadrius ruficapillus, Temm. PL Col. v. pi. 147. fig. 2 (1823) ; 
Wagl. Syst. Av., Charadrius, p. 67, sp. 33 (1827) : Gray, Gen. B. 
iii. p. 544 (1847); id. P. Z S. 1858, p. 197 ; id. Cat. Mamm. 8r B. 
:Sew Gvin. p. 62 (1859) ; Bosenb. J.f 0. 18(U, p. 135 (S. Coast of 
New Guinea) ; Finsch^Neu-Guin. p. 181 (1865) ; Schl. Mas. Pays- 
Bas, Cui sores, p. 42 (1865) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 17, no. 10021 
(1871); Seebohm.Geoyr. Disfr. Charadr. p. 164 (1888); BuUer, 
U. Xeic Zeal. 2nd ed. ii. p. 5 (1888). 

Charadrius marginatus (Geoff r. nee V.), Less. Traitid'Om. p. 544 
(1831); id. Compl. Buff, Ois. iii. p. 393 (1838). 

-Kgialitis canus, Gould, P.Z. S. 18.37, p. 154. 

Iliaticula ruficnpilla, Gray, List GialL Brit. Mus. p. 71 (1844: Van 
Diemen's Laud); Gould, B. Austr. vi. pi. 17 (1846); Macgill. 
Narr. Jot/. Battlesu. ii. p. 358 (1852: N.E. Austr.; Torres 
Straits) ; Kirk, Traus. X. Zeal. Inst. xii. p. 246 (1880). 

-E^nalitis ruficapillus, Beicheiib. Viiy. Aeuholl. p. 39, no. 330 (1850) ; 
id. Grail. Aovit. tab. 174. tij»s. 2424 25 (1851) ; Uartitig, P. Z.S. 
1H74, p. 459, |)1. Ix. fig. 8 (egg) ; Bamsay, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 337 
(Queensland ; \ew South Wales, breedinjr) ; id. Proc. Linn. Sac. 
y.S. W. i. ]). 3.^4 (1^^77: Nornmn River, Gulf of Carpentaria), ii. 
p. 197 (1?<7?S); Salvad. Ann. Mus. (un. xviii. p. 326 (18^2); id. 
Oru. Papuaaia </r. iii ]).;>():? (1^M\- S.E. New Guinea); North, 
Proc. Linn. Sov. X. ,V. \l\ {2) i. ]). Il()4 (1887), iii. p, 1778 (1889: 
Cunilerland, X. S. \V.) ; id. Xests v.V Fyys AuMr.B. p. 306 (J 889); 
Banisffj/, Tab. List Austr. IL p. 19 (188.*^: nearly the whole t»f 
Au>tr!ilia) ; Sdlrad. Ayy. Om. ra])uasia, iii p. 200* (1882) ; Lvyyr, 
Iriic. Austr. Assoc. \^9'2, p. 40. 

l.emopi'lius luticapilhis, L'j). ('. P. \liii. ]). 417 (185(5). 

.KLriali>j»iiilii> lulicapilhk-, (iouUh llamlb. B. Audr. ii. p. 2;]5 (l8(>5) ; 



:J2. jKAHkum, 287 

Ramm^, Ihi*^ iNUi, p. 8-14 ( I'ort I>eni«m) ; MtUkew, PrffC, Limn, 
.Vrir. y. S. ir. X. p. ;Cm (ls^«$: (Maremont Ul.); Heine :S( ReicKem. 
S'rmencL Mm$. Iiein. p. .*W7 (IWK)). 

Adnh Male, (icnoral colour ahovt* brown, a little darker oo the 
rump and cc'iitral uppor tail-iuviTtn ; sidoM of rump and lateral uppiT 
tail-coTvrtx pun* white ; wiii<;-covert8 like the hack, the lesser wing- 
c^vertA Mepia-brown, extendiu^ round the bend of the wing to the 
baMard-wiug and priinar\'-<.'<>vcrt^, the Utter fringed with white at 
th** ('nds : the great<*r coverts tip{M*<l with white, fomiing a wing- 
Imnd ; quill h anhy brown, black inh along the outer webs and at the 
tii«, thr (thaAH white, the inner primaries white towards the base 
f>l the outer well, the S4>condarioH internally white, the inner ones 
with a good deal of white on the inner web and at the tip, the long 
inner se<ondari«*n brown like the back ; the four ct^ntre tail-leathers 
bniwn. the next pair white, with more or less brown on the inner 
wi-)i. the remainder white; crown (»f head and entire hind-neck 
< inn:iiuoii.rufou% spreading slightly on to the mantle ; frontal band 
whit<-, exttnding al>ove the e\e, and se|>arated fnim the rufous head 
\*\ a narrow band of blaek, also continued to al>ove the eve ; a loral 
»triak of blaek from the kise of the bill to the eye ; sides of face, 
t-ar-ioTiTt*, eheeks, and entire under surface white; a narrow lino 
<»f black M'p.irating the whit^' of the sidi*s of the face from the rufous 
of the head and ntxk, and cotitinu(*d down the sides of the neck, 
wheri* their in a black ]».-itch ; under wing-ct)verts and axilluni*s 
whit*-: <|UilU Ulow li^lit a>hy : *' bill dark rinldish brown; naked 
part ••{ b-pT* alwivc the tar^i dark grtH»nif»h gn*y ; tarsi light grey ; 
Uk-» b! It kwh broun; iris very dark brown" (./. (ruuhi). Total 
It-n;:tb <'i itich<'f», culnu-n n i;, wing 4*1, tail r«>S, tarsus I'l, middle 
I'pf an>l cl.iw «»-7."». 

AiuU ftnuih. Similar to the male, but not so brightly coloured, 
and tb« n 1 tit the bea<l and ncvk not so pronounced. Total length 
•J iii«bf*, eiilm«n «»•«», win'^: 41, tail l-r>, tarsus 1. 

Th»- •{•••eimcii recorded U-b»w from Amoy still Ix'am Swinho«»'s 
!i*<«l. bii! w iH iift4*rniinetl by him an ll'mticula rantiana. It M*ems 
t.i 3i- t.> Ih-Ioii;; undoubt4'<lly to thi-« i*iMN'ies, having the rufous colour 
«'f tt.e |.r;id eit«-niling over the hind-ne<.'k, and it showh no tract* of 
th* «bi*.*' ct'llir %%bii'h in ch:trarteri.itic of «f/. raiitiana ; it has the 
I'Tj. •tpik i-innuiuiin like the bead, and the patch at the side of the 
iit^k t« .il«» « innamon. Thu 1 l»elieve to Im* a character of young 
riir>i«, i« It i« M-«Mi in all the immature ones in the (*olhH.*tion. The 
'•t.i\ ••'.h*r ditb rt ne«* betHi*« ii the young and old birds is the mottled 
apj»ar«n<e, xh*- te.itberii having rufous margins. 

y/'f''. Australia and T.f»maina, extending to the islands of Torres 
Mrs:t« and the -muth coa**t o! Nrw (iuinea. Accidental in New 
/'-^litid. Trobably ringing north to China. 

it. h \d "k. w. Ta-mania, S«*pt. J. H. JuIuni, I*l«q. 

11% 41. IM. 

r \.\ •k w TiiMimnia Uonnld (>uno, Ksq. 

*,♦ P ' 



288 CSARADRUDJK. 

df e. Ad. sk. [w. Australia. Puichased. 

3-9-41]. 

f, g. Ad. sk. [w. New South Wales. Hume CoU. 

4-0-41]. 

h, t. Ad. sk. [w. New South Wales. Australian Muaeum 

4-06-4-2]. [P.l 

kf L Ad. sk. [w. New South Wales. Goula ColL 
41-4-2]. 

Port Lincoln. Hume ColL 

Cape York. Tweeddale ColL 

Cape York. Salvin-Godman Coll. 



m. Ad. sk. [w. 4 •21 

n, Ad.sk.fw.S'OJ. 

o, p, q. Ad. et juv. 

sk. [w. 3-95-41]. 



r. $ ad. sk. [w. Keppel Isl., Dec. {J. Mao- Vov. H.M.S. 'Rat- 

4*1]. gUliway), tlesnake.* 

«, t, ^ $ ad. sk. Rottnest Island, West Gould ColL 

Australia. 

Amoj, Jan. {JR, Swinhoe), Salvin-Godman ColL 



' [w. 3-96-4 i.] ' 
M. Ad.sk.[w.4-1]. 



10. JEgialitig collaris. 

Mbatuitui collar negro, Azara, Apunt, iii. p. 201 (1803). 
Charadrius collaris, VieiU, JV'. But, d'Hist. Nat, xxvii. p. 136 (1817) ; 

Gray, Gen. B, iii. p. 647 (1847) ; Hartl Ind. Azara, p. 24 (1847) ; 

Schl. Mtis. Paya-Bas, Cursores, p. 37 (1866) ; Gray, Hand-l B. 

iii. p. 16, no. 10017 (1871) ; Seebohm, Geogr, Distr. Charadr. 

p. 173 (1888). 
Charadrius azarsB, Temm, PI. Col. v. pi. 184 (1823) ; Licht. Verx. 

Doubl. p. 71 (1823) ; Less. TraitS d'Om. p. 644 (1831) ; NewtM, 

Beitr. Naturg. Bras. iv. p. 772 (1832) ; Cab. in Schomb. Beis. 

Guian. iii. p. 761 (1848); Burm. Th. Bras. iii. p. 360 (1866) ; id. 

Reise La Plata-St. ii. p. 601 (1861 : everywhere) ; Peiz. Om. 

Bras. p. 297 (1871 : Peihy, March ; Marambaya, March ; Villa de 

Castro, Dec. ; Cuyaba, Jan. j Cai^ara, May ; Barra de Rio Negro, 

April; Cajutuba). 
Charadrius larvatus, Less. Man. d'Om. ii. p. 318 (1828). 
Hiaticula azarse, Gould in Dancings Voy. ' Beagle ^ Birds, p. 127 

(1841); Gray, List Grail. Brit. Mus. la. 70 (1844); Sci. P.Z.S. 

I860, p. 298 (Esmeraldas) ; id. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 331 (Chili). 
Hiaticula collaris, Scl. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 290 (Babahoyo). 
iEgialitis collaris, Salvin, Ibis, 1800, p. 197 (Guatemala) ; Sd.^Salv. 

P. Z. iS. 1806, p. 119 ; iid. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 691 (Mexiana ; Rio 

Tocantins), 1869, p. 262 (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) ; iid. Nomend. 



Mu9. iv. p. 46 (1876: Tehuantepec) ; Bumf. Ibis, 1878, p. 67 
(Buenos Avrert, Oct. to Feb.), 1880, p. 424 (Tucumau) ; White, 
P. Z. S. \H^'2, p. 628 (Punta Lara) ; Zvlednn. Cat. Aves Costa Pica, 
p. *K) (1882); Harrows, ^mA-, i. p. 813 (18H4: Lower Uruffuay) ; 
Tacz. .V lierl. P. Z. ^. 1886, p. Ill) (Ecimdor) ; Sahin, Ibis, 1886, 
p. 178 (Bartica Grove); Tacz. Om. Perou, iii. p. 844 (1886: 
Upper and Lower Ucayali : Santa Cruz); Bidgw. Mnji. N. Amer. 



32. JMiAUTU. 281^ 

Ricm) : HaHert, Phm, lga% p. 335 (Roiuuk) ; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, 

p. 20H (UruguAT, l>t*c.). 
.f^riAlitbi ntvoM (W CVim.), .Wnn, /6i>, 186<^ p. 190 (ChupMn). 
.f-Itfialiii!* gracilis Cab. J,/. O, \t^72, p. 16S; /2«»icV«. J./. O. 1«86, 

Taf . tL tigy. 3 a, 3 6. 

^r/n// m«f//. (fOiu*ral colour above Oflhy brown, raried with rufoii» 
manniis to all the fcathiT;* : scapulars like the back; rump and 
orntral upper tiil-coverttt dark nepia-browo, with rufouM margins to 
the f«*atheri ; sides of rump aiid lateral upper tail-corerts pure 
whit** ; wirig-<'ovort« like the back, the inner marginal coverts dark 
brnwn. fiirmi ng a band on the top of the wing : greater coverts 
tip;M*<i with white, forming a narrow wing-bar ; bastard-wing and 
primary -diverts d irk brown, with white tijw ; quills ashy brown, 
tiUrki^ih along the out«r webn and at the tips, secondaries with 
white tijM and with a good deal of white on the inner webs, the 
Ion? inner secondarie" brown with rufous margins like the back ; 
the MX c*'ntre tail -feat hers dark brown with white tijis, the next 
(»(i<*4 a^hy brown, dark bn>wn on the inner web and white at the 
ttp^. th«* outer feathers white ; crown of head and hind-neck, as well 
as the «*i'l«»i« of the latter, dark cinnamon-rufous, separated by abroad 
blaik bind from the white forehead, which extends over and round 
the «*ye ; a diiitinct black loral streak : sides of face white ; upper 
1*11 of ear-ooverts rufous like the head ; throat and entire under 
•nrfirt* iif b>iy pure white, with a black collar across the for^neck, 
widt-niri? out on the siden of the latter; under wing-coverts and 
azillnrir* pure white ; quill-lining ashy grey : ** bill blackish ; feet 
whiti*h n-d : iris greyi.nh brown** {S'ntwifd): "bill black: feet 
l!e*h «.»l«»ur ; iris brown" (A. Frttur), Total length iy\\ inches, 
culmni n-f*i5, wing 4-25, tail 2*15, tarsus 1, middle toe and claw 

A'lnlt ffimiU. Similar to the male, but not quite so much rufons 
on th'- up[ifr surface. Total length inches, culmen 0*7, wing 4*1, 
tAil 1 •!♦:•, ittPHii* 1. 

//«f'«. SMjth .\merica, ranging northwards into Mexico. Island 
of Iff'-iia^i I in the Ix'ifser Antille?*. 

m I fi »k. [w. rUys Vin-ntf. Wra (^nis, Salvin-Oodmanl^oll. 

il 7 , 1>«T. (.1/. TrujtUo). 

4 i ad. *k. w. Ia Anti^rim. Vita (*ruz, SHlvin-<t<idnuinColl. 

.IV S..|4. (.1/. TrujUlit). 

r. Ad tk w.3i«. (*hi.tpam. < niAt«'iimla(0. .V). Salvin-<2>Klroan Coll. 
df "^ j ad. sk. .Miimotimbii. Nirani^'ua, May Sal\in-(iodmanCtill. 

( W. li. huktirdMim). 
k .faa.sk. C}r«*nsda. July {!). W. Salvin-(Sodman Coll. 

•S'mi/A). 
1. Adak w.3Vi. Ii.>gi»tjL Se^-Uihiu (VII. 

A. Ad.Kk W.37; IntiM*, fxuador (C. Buck- 8alvin-4S,Himan Coll. 

iey). 
/ .%d sk w 3-7A;. IVru. St^bobm VaAI 

m «< ad. ak. [w. IjAguna d<* Valencia, Vene- Heebohm (^oll. 
»Vi . tuela, Sept. 2U ^A. 

Oatrw^). 
V«L. IXIV. V 



290 



CHASABBIIDiB. 



n. Ad. st. 

o. $ ad. sk. [w. 
8-66]. 

p9 9' <^ ? *^' ^^* 
[w. 3-8-3-9]. 

r, «. Ad. sk. [w. 

8-661. 
i, u. Ad. 8k. [w. 

8-851. 
V. Ad. sk. [w. 

3-86]. 
w. Ad. sk. [w. 

875.] 
j:, y. cJ $ ad. sk. 

[w. 8-95-4-261. 
z. Ad. sk. [w. 4*1]. 

a\ cJ ad. sk. [w. 

41]. 
b'. $ ad. sk. [w. 

4-1]. 
e', S ad. sk. [w. 

8-81. 
d'. Aa. sk. fw. 4'n. 
e\ Ad 



,.sk.rw.4'l]. 
.sk.[w.4*lj. 



/'. Ad. sk. [w. 
4-05]. 



British Guiana. 

Bartica Grove, British 

Guiana, May 18 {H. 

WhiUly). 
Island of Mexiana, Dec. (A. 

R, Wallace). 
Rio Tocantinsy Sept. (A. R, 

Wallace). 
Pemambuco (W.A, Forbes), 

Bahia (Dr. Wucherer). 

[Bahia.] 

Corumba^ Matto Giosso, 
Brazil, Jan. (D. W. Smiih), 

Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul 
(Jcyner). 

Rio Grande, Brazil. 

Marambaya, Brazil, March 

(J. Natterer), 
San Paulo, Brazil {Joyner). 

Brazil. 

Punta Lara, Buenos Ayres, 

Oct. 19. 
Mendoza {Burmeister). 



11. iEgialitis nivosa. 



Sir R. Schomboigk 

re.]. 

SaiTin-Godman GolL 

Salvin-Godman GolL 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salyin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Salvin-Cbdman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Seebohm CoU. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman ColL 
H. Dumfordy Esq. 

[C] 
Salvin-Godman CoU. 



Hiaticula azarse, DartDtn, Voy. * Beayle, Birds, p. 127 (1841). 
-/Epialitifl nivosus, Cass, in BaircTs B. N. Amer. p. 696 (1868: 

Presidio, California, May). 
Cbaradrius cantianus (nee Lath,), Heerm. Pacific R. Rep. p. 64 

(1869). 
-^gialitis tenuirostris (nee Hume), Later. Ann. Lye, N. Y. vii. p. 465 

(1862: Cuba). 
-<Egialeu8 tenuirostris (nee Hume), Gundl. Repert, Fisico-Nat, Cuba^ 

i. p. 369 (1866) ; id. J. f. O. 1876, p. 336 (Cuba) ; id. Om. Cuba, 

p. 183 (1876). 
-^gialitis nivosa. Cooes, Ibis, 1866, p. 274 (San Pedro, Califomia) ; 

Set. 4- Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 176 (Tambo VaUey, Peru) ; Harting, 

Ibis, 1869, p. 306; Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. p. 209 (1870: 

Yucatan) ; Cones, Ibis, 1872, p. 63 ; iMior. Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H. 

ii. p. 307 (1874 : Mazatlan) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 559 (Chorillos) ; 

Beldiny, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. i. p. 395 (1878 : Central California) ; 

Cooper, op. cit. ii. p. 251 (1879 : San Pedro, California) ; Ridgw. 

op. cit. iii. p. 199 (1880) ; Sharpc, P. Z. S. 1881, p. lb-, Zeledcm, 

Cat. Aves Costa Rica, p. 30 (1882) ; Sahin, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 428 

(Chili) ; Zeledoti, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. viii. p. 113 (1886) ; 

Tacz. Om. Pirou, iii. p. 340 (1880: Chorillos) ; Bverm. Auk, iii. 

p. 02 (1886 : Ventura (Jo., California) ; Goss, t. c. p. 409 (Kansas) ; 

id. AvJc, iv. p. 8 (1887 : Kansas), p. 344 (Uentral Kansas, 

breeding) ; A. O. U. Check-l. N. Amer. B. p. 163 (1886) ; Cory, 

Auk, lY. p. 229 (1887); BerlJ. f. O. 1887, p. 134 (Paraguay); 



32. JBOIALITIB. 291 

Ridff^, Man. S. Amer. li. p. 178 (1887); Senn^U, Auk, t. p. 110 

(IHSK: Corpiu Chri»H, Texw) ; Cory, B. West Ind, n. 2*i9 (1880) ; 

Tomms, Frvc, U.S. Xat. Mum. xiii. p. 136 (1800: Pacific Coast, 

X. Cmlif.) : Berkeley JameM. Sew LiMt Chlian /?. p. 11 (1882); 

Ofry, Cat. WV*/ Ind. B. p. 05 ( let02) ; Fi$ker, N. Amer. Fawta, 

no. '7. p. 2.'»(1SJW). 
<^anidriu« cantianus (pt.), (^ray, Hand4. B. iii. p. 17, no. 10020 

(1871). 
Cbaindriiii teniiirofltrift, Gray^ t. r. p. 16, no. 10011. 
.-Kgialitti* CAntiaDU<« (nee LatA,), Coue^, Key X. Amer. B. p. 245 

(isriM ; iieton. Auk, ii. p. :W5 (IKSTi : Tomnto). 
^'l'Vi*1itt!« ouittanji, var. niTOAa, Rt'dt/w. Amer. Xat. viii. p. 100 

(1^74); Cimrn, B. JV.-IfV< p. 456 ri874): Ridpw. Rep. 40fA 

iStnitlel, p. 6'»4 (1M77: Wann Spring I-akn, Utah). 
h-K/iMliti^ iiiicrorhyncha, Bidyw. Amer. Xat. viii. p. 100 (1874). 
.i'Vialiti;* cantianu« nivoAUfl, Couet, (^eck^. X. Amer. ^. p. 07 

( lH»iiM ; *r/. Key X Amer. B. 2na M. p. tlWJ (1884). 
.ivnjilitirt al-xamlrina nivotia, Sfrjn. /Vor. U.S. Xat, Mu». v. p. 35 

ilhM;ii; Beldiny, t. c. p. 52?< (l>^i: St. Quentin BavV p. 6») 

i Santa KiiNilia lUiv). p. 545 (IVninsuIa of Lower California); 

//am/. Brewer, it Bidyw. Water-Bird^ X. Amer. i. p. 164 (1884). 

AduU male. Similar to ^-R. ale^randrina^ but easily distinguished 
br its whito lures, which entirely want the blackish or dusky streak 
between the ba^it* of the bill and the eye ; the black forehead and 
iht block patch on the sides of the chest, as well as the black ear- 
•tfft^k. are all well developed, but the rufous colour of the head 
is never m) strongly pronounctni as in .J?. aUjrawirina, and it 
diMp{*ear8 rapidly after the bird has arrived at its breeding- 
q«urt«<r«« m) that the h«'ad is ashy brown like the back, shaded with 
boary whit«*. Total lentrth about 6*5 inches, culmen 0*7, wing 4*15, 
tAil 17. taniu** H-!»r>. middle toe and claw 0*7. 

AduU ffinttU. Similarly coloured to the male. Total length 
about 6 '» inch«ii, culmen 0*6.5, wing 4*.'{, tail 1*8, tarsus 0*0. 

Ad^U* in u'littrr fJumtvjf. Differs from the summer plumage in 
cntirelv wanting the Muck on the fore part of the crown, ear-covertn 
or sidf-^ ot thi* oh<-Mt, these part^t 1»eing brown like the rest of tlic 
«p|rt r »ur(.iii V : forehead and eyebrow conspicuouMly white. There 
u a ahirht indi<*»tion of a white collar round the hind-neck. 

y>mn*f. lU*TM'mble<« the winter plumage of the adult, )>ut has the 
ap|»rr »urfa/-e variM with p:ile e<ige(« to the feathers, producing a 
•Dmr«h.it K-alloped apiN'arancH", the margins to most of the dorsal 
fratbrr«. th«* inner MHondarieM, and tail-feathers being pale sandy. 

JliK. W»-»ii4?m North America, throutrhout C4»ntral America and 
WesCcrn Siuth America to INtu and Chili. ?Cub«. 

*-^ -'ad w 4 15 r«irpui« (*hn'«ti, Texa«, June, Salvin-<f(»dman Coll. 
-I.l . /I V»d. tirt.. N..V. {F. B. Arm- 
•k w 4 1 4*J . atrf,Hy\. 

■i, a. Ad *k. w. (*alif<inua. S«*«bohm Coll. 

4'i4.Vi. 
^ <f ad. •\ w. SaiitJi Cruz, (\liforma. May Salvin-Oodman Coll. 
415. Iff //. rW/m«: Hentk, 

Coil). 
^ <f j«f. ik« Montr lUv, Cal., Hept 30 Balfiii-Oodiiian ColL 

{M. W/Hnukmo). 

v2 



292 CHABASBIIDiE. 

f-x. S ftd- [w. 4*1- Santa Barbara, CaL, July, Salyin-€k)dman Coll. 

4-3]; y-6'.2 ad. Sept., Oct. (ff. W, Hen- 

[w. 4-0-4-2J; c'. shaw). 

Jhill. 8k. 

cP. d ad. [w. 411 ; San Diego, Cal., Dec. (JST. Salvin-Godman ColL 

e', / $ ad. sk. W. Henshaw), 

[w. 4-1]. 

ff', h'. Ad. 8k. [w. San Pedro, Cal., Nov. (£, SalTin-GKximan ColL 

4*15]. Coues : Hensh. Coll.). 

f'. $ ad. ek. [w. San Francisco, Cal., Sept. Salyin-€K)dman ColL 

416]. (H. W. Henshaw). 

k'. 9 ad. ak. [w. San Jacinto, Cal., Aug. 4 Salvin-Godman Coll. 



4-161 " (F.SUvefis). 

r.2 ad. 8k. " 



[w. San J 08^ del Cabo, Lower Salvin-Godman ColL 

4-35]. Cal., Sept. 26 {M. A. Fro- 

zar). 

m'. Ad. 8k. [w. South America (^.j&oucanQ. Salvin-Godman ColL 

4-8J. 

n', o'. cT ad. ak. [w. Tambo Valley, Peru, Oct., Salvin-Godman ColL 

4-1-4-2]. Nov. (H. WMUly). 

p'. c? ad. 8k. [w. Tambo valley, Oct. 25 (H. Seebohm Coll. 

4-0]. Whitely). 

q'. Ad. sk. [w. Valparaiso {O. F. Mathew). Seebohm Coll. 

4-26]. 

r'. Ad. sk. [w. Chili. Mr. Bridges [C.]. 

4-15]. 

$\ Ad. sk. [w. Chili (A. H. Markkam). Salvin-Godman ColL 

4-4]. 

f . Ad. sk. [w. 4*1]. Chili. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

u'f v'. Ad. sk. [w. Central Chili (Landbeck). Berkeley James ColL 

4-15-4-2]. 

tr'. Ad. sk. [w. 4*2]. Valparaiso (C. Darwin). Salvin-Godman ColL 

12. iEgialitis melodus. 

Charadrius hiaticula, var., Wilson, Amer. Dm. v. p. 30, pL 37. fig. 3 
(1812). 

Charadrius melodus, Ord in Wilson's Afner. Om. vii. p. 71 (1824) j 
Audub. B. Afner. pi. ccxx. (c. 1826) ; Bp. Amer. Orn. iv. p. 74, 
pi. 24 (1832) ; Audub, Om. Biogr. iii. p. 154 (1835), v. p. 578 
(1839); id. B. Amer. 8vo, v. p. 223, pi. 321 (1842) ; Gray, Gen. 
B. iu. p. 544 (1847) ; Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 417 (1856) ; Breicer, Proc. 
Bost. iSoc. N. H. vii. p. 308 (1860 : Cuba) ; Schl. Mus. Pay^-Bas, 
Cursores, p. 29 (1865) ; Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 16, no. 10010 
(1871) ; linsch, Abhandl. Bremen, iii. pt. L p. 62 (1872 : Alaska) ; 
Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 121 (1888). 

Charadrius okeni, Wagl. Syst. Av. p. 63, sp. 24 (1827). 

Hping Ringed Plover, Nuttaii, Man. B. ii. p. 18 (1834). 

^giaiitis melodus, Bp. Camp. List B. Eur. 8f JV. Amer. p. 45 
(1838); Gosse, B. Jamaica, p. 3:J0 (1847); Beichenb. Grail 
tab. cccbfiv. figs. 2842-43 (1849) ; Cass, in Bairds B. N. Amer. 
p. 095 (1858); Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii. p. 121 (1859 : 
Bahamas); IScl. P. Z. IS. 1861, p. 80 (Jamaica); Gundl. J. f. O. 
1862, p. 88 (Cuba) ; Albrecht, t. c. p. 205 (Jamaica) ; Allen, Bull. 
Mus. C. Z. ii. p. 355 (1871); Coues, Key N. Amer. B. p. 245 
(1872); Set. 4- Salv. Notnencl. Av. Neotr. p. 143 (1873); Reid, 
Zool. 1877, p. 475 (Bermuda, Sept.) ; Cory, B. Bahamas, p. 148 
(1880) ; Et(^w. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. iv. p. 218 (1881) ; Oner, 



32. jnuLint. 298 

CVdM. .V. Amer. B. p. 97 (1882) ; id. Key K Amer, B, Snd ad. 

p. 603 (IdtM) ; Butcher, Auk, il p. .37 (1885 : Loofr laL) ; A. O. U. 

CketA^. N. Amer. B, p. 102 (188<)); Cbry, ^uJb, iv. p. 230 

(1887); id. B. JVett Ind. p. 2:» (1880). 
UUUciak melixla, Ormf, LuU GralL BrU. Mus. p. 60 (1844). 
.ivffialeus melodim. Alien, Proc, Etuea Inst. it. p. 86 (1864) : Gwtdl. 

Rtpert, FiMieo-yat, CStba, I p. 350 (1866) ; id. J./. 0. 1875, p. 386 

(CuU); id, Om, Cuba, p. 183 (1876); id. Anal. Soe. Etp. But. 

A«£. Tii. p. 3f« (1878: Port4) lUco). 
Clumuinut (.^ialitin) melodus, /Uifyv. Aim. Lye. N. Y. jl p. 383 

(1874). 
«f*4ruilitifl roelodn, var. circumrioeU, Ctme^ dkeek-^. N. Amer, B. 

D. 133 (1873); Ridi/ir, Amer. XiU. riii. p. 109 (1874) ; Oottes, B. 

A.'H'etl, p. 45.> (1874); Baird, Brewer, j- Ridyw. Watet-Birdt 

y. Amer. i. p. 160 (1884); Omet, Key X Amer. B. 2od ed. 

J».602(18K4). 
^i^ruUitit iuel«Klu9 circumcincU, Ridgw. Proe. U.S. Sat. Mus. Hi. 

pp. 199,221 (1H80); Couei, Cheek-l, X Amer. B.j. 07 (1882); 

siyertb. Auk, ii. p. 285 (1885: 8.E. Dakota); Brewster, Amk^ 

iii. p. 4CH (1S86: S. (:'a^>liDa) ; AUen, t. c. p. 482 (l^ii^ Beach, 

lUrmvut lUv); SmitA if Palmer, Auk, v. p. 147 (1888 : Potomac 

lUver); Brtftcn, Auk, vi. p. 70 (1889: Maine); Scott, Auk^ vii. 

j». :5r>9 ( 1H5K) : Dry TortufniH) ; Allen, Auk, x. p. 134 (1893). 
.fvialitis ui**l.Mla circumcincta,.'f. O. U. Ckeek-l. N. Amer.B. p. 163 

(lH-^5); Rilytc. .I/cm. X Amer. B. p. 178 (1887). 
l*bani4lriuA nit*liMlu<« circumcinctuii, Seibokm, Geogr. Distr. CMaradr. 

J>. 122(l'^K•<). 

.i^rialitiit mfltnia, Baird, Bretrer, ^ Ridgteay, Water- Birds N. Amer. 
i. p. 1«'4) (IHH4); Setan, Auk, iii. p. l(S2 (1884{: hsk^ Manitoba; 
Ijike \Vinnip*'>r) ; Ridyw. .\fan. X. Amer. B. p. 178 (1887) ; 
Bi^^p, Auk, vi. p. 147 (IH^«9: Ma^rdalen M.); Seott, t. c. p. 159 
(Puuta \U**SL, (iiilf of Monda); Skick, Auk, vii. p. 328 (1890: 
NVw J..IN-.V); Palmer, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mum. xiii. p. 260 (1800: 
Mairrlalfn l»l.) ; Tkomfm. t. c. |i. 506 (.Manitoba) ; Cory, Auk, viii. 
p. .'(51 ilHiU : Mairua M ): id. Cat. B. West Ind. p. 95 (1892: 
liahima*; Uivat«*r .Vntilleii); Scott, Auk, \x. p. 15 (1892: Ja- 
inai<*a . |i. 212 iKltirida): Mackay, L r. p. :)06 (Maiwachutietta) ; 
iJwiifJkt. Auk, X. p. K (1SU3: IMoct* Edward I«l.); Mackay, t. e. 
p. 370 (Miuk«*^*t I A.). 

Adult. iicnvTiA (vtlour aliova pale fnt^yinh brown, including the 
rump and upjirr tail-rovorlM ; Hidea of rump and hitenl upper tail- 
eovrrtu white* : M^apulani and winfc-covrrta pale grcyinh brown like 
tbr hark, with th«* IfaacT terioH rather darker brown, formini^ a line 
aloDir the iM-nd of the winf? ; tho ^n^ater corerta tip|ied with white, 
fonnmir a baud acnn* the* winic iNUitard-wing and pnmar}''COTerti 
blarki«h, thf lattor friii(c<*d with white; primurieH blackinh at the 
mkdM and alonjc the out(*r widM, the f^reater |>art of the inner web 
whit^. extendi ni; acrofw tht* f»h;iA and forming a contpicuoua white 
»ark (i»r nearly th<* t4*nnin:il third of the (|uill, Wing accompanied 
by a whiti* ihaft ; the innrr primariea with the out4.T web white 
tor D<*ariv thr whole lenfrth, forming a wing-)»atch; nccondariea 
white, with a blnckinh mark n<'nr the end of the outer web, gn^ 
dually diminishing in niie towardi the inner neeondariea, which are 
ynn white ; innermoat long Bccoodariea Tery pale brown, with tihy 
■wrgiaa, only alightly darker than the beck ; tail-foatlm browBt 



294 CHATUDKTIPJi. 

with a white base, and inclining to blackish towards the end of the 
feathers, forming a band, which diminishes in size towards the 
outside ones, where it becomes confined to the inner web and dis- 
appears altogether on the outer feathers, which are pure white; crown 
of head pale greyish brown like the back, separated from the mantle 
by a broad white collar; forehead white, succeeded by a narrow 
band of black, which extends from eye to eye ; a tolerably well- 
marked white eyebrow ; ear-coverts pale greyish ; lores, feathers 
below the eye, cheeks, and under surface of body pure white, with 
a large patdi on the sides of the fore-neck, not quite meeting in the 
centre, though a few of the feathers have black margins ; under 
wing-coverts, axillaries, and quill-lining pure white: *^ bill orange 
at base, tipped with black ; feet orange-yellow " (Baird^ Brewer^ 4r 
Eidgway). Total length 6*5 inches, culmen 0*55, wing 4*5, 
tail 1-9, tarsus 0-85. 

Adult female. Similar to the male, but apparently never patting 
on a complete prsepectoral collar. Total length 6-4 inches, 
wing 4*85. 

Adults in winter plumage. Similar to the summer plumage, but 
wanting the black Une across the fore part of the crown, and having 
the patch on the sides of the fore-neck ashy brown, becoming 
gradually mixed with black and lastly entirely black as the season 
advances. The bill is wholly black. 

Young, Similar to the adults in winter plumage, but with ashy- 
fulvous margins to the feathers of the upper surface ; the brown 
patches at the side of the fore-neck scarcely developed. 

Mr. Eidgway has separated two races of this bird, which he de- 
fines as the true ^. meloda, chiefly from the Atlantic coasts of the 
United States, north to Southern Labrador, and to the West Indies 
in winter, and JS. meloda circumcincta, from the Mississippi Valley 
north to Lake Winnipeg. This last race has the black band con- 
tinuous across the chest ; but I do not see any reason for supposing 
that this is any more than the sign of a very old bird, for every in- 
termediate link is shown in a scries in the Museum. Thus we 
have two fully adult birds from the 49th Parallel Survey, one with 
a complete band, and one without, and the same thing is found in 
birds from Waukegan, Illinois. Winter birds from Texas show 
every possible gradation. 

Bab. North America, wintering to the south. Bermudas ; Baha- 
mas ; Cuba ; Jamaica. 

a. Ad. sk. Hudson's Bay. Sir G. Back [P.]. 

b. Ad. sk. North America. Old Coll. 

c. d. cf ad. sk. Lake of Woods (G. Dawson). N. A. Bound. Comm. 
e. Ad. sk. 49th Parallel (6r. Dawson). N. A. Bound. Comm. 
/» fff ^' d 2 *<!• Waukegan, Illinois, April, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

sk. June {K TV. Nelson : 

Hensh. Coll.). 
i. Ad. sk. St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Salvin-Godman ColL 

May (Osbum). 
k. Ad. sk. New Jersey. J. J. Audubon, Esq. 

/, m. Ad. sk. New Jersey. Salvin-Godman Coll 



32. JMiAUTiB. 295 



m^0,p. Ad. p)l MAMftchunetU ( ff#iMA. CoiL). SdriD-OodinaQ Coll. 

f. Juv. »k. CV)bb*ii Nland, Virjrtnui, Auff. 1 Kalvia-C^odnuui CoU. 

r «'. cf $ ad. Corpurt i'hririti, Texas C)ct., Salvin-Ctodnum Coll. 
hjem. «k. 



Corpurt i^hririti, Texa.4, Oct., Salvin-Ctodnum 
Nov. {F. li. Armttrcng), 



VX £g:iAlitii occidwitalii. 

.i^rialiti* occidenUliis <^'«6. J- f- O. 1H72. p. 158; id. J. /. O. 1886, 
pi. %i. fiir. 1 : Scl. P. /. S.' \H>M\, p. 40;j (TawpiicA) ; Berkeley 
Jitmr», A'rir LiMt Chiiian li. p. 11 [Xm-I), 

C*hAnwlnu!« 4)ccidt*ntAliii, jirir^oAm, (rfMfr, Diatr, CAaradr. p. 174 

llfv*^**). 

Adult maU, Similar to A^, nivoen^ and like that H]wcie8 having 
perfi'cUy white lorcH, but ditforing in ita Hlij^htly largvr size and 
hlark li*gA: ** bill and lop» bl:ick ; iris dark brown** {ItahmerX 
Total length ()*5 incheH, culmen 0*75, wing 4'7, tiiil 2, tarsus 1*05. 
middle toe and cLiw o*8. 

Adult frmali. Similar to the mule, but not (|uite so rufous on the 
bead. Total length about (>*s incheit, culmen 0*75, wing 4*0, 
tail 1*'.*, tunius 1*05. 

Huh, Provinw of Tara|»aca, Chili. 

md * sd. w. Tampaca. Jan., Fi'b. (/2aAm^ri. IVrkeley James Coll. 
4«l 4** ; e'. ^ 
ad.«k. w.4(»- 

/, y. •■ ; »d. *k. Sacnva, April, Mav {A, A. I)(*rk(*li>v Jam«Hi Coll. 

n. 4*J-4«t"»;. iJtne). 

k, t. / i ad. nk. I.AnM|ii<*ti', Tarapaca, Aug. {A. lierkeley Jameji ColL 

A. Lane), 



14. £gialitii fiaklAndi( 

Oisr»*iriii« fiilkUmliru4, lAith. Ind. Om. ii. p. 747 (171N): Falkland 
I. ): f'ieiiJ. .V. Ifirf. ifllii^t. Sat. xx\ii. p. 141 U^I^J; fimy, 
fi^n li ill. i». h\\ (1-<I7); lip. (\ R. xliii. p. 417 <KVi): S^'hl, 
Mh*. I*n\f'htu, Cur^ort*!*, p. \M\ M^***."* : Fiilklami-*) ; finty, 
H^iml'l. IS. iii. p. 111. lio. lOOJW (H71): SetfmJim, dr^Hjr, DUtr. 
t'Kartuir. p. l.Vi (iKSH). 

nijinidriii*tnfa«<*i»tu«, AiVA/. IVrr. I^tuhl. p. 71 (1H:.*3: M iint»* video) : 

tir't^, Urn. li. lii. p. 'A\ (IM7). 
(*iiAri<lriti« t>\r>Mvjihiilu«. (htntot^ Ann, Sti. Sat. vii. p. 4«> n*^2*J: 

Kalkliti.'l U.\ ; /.*-. Man tft^rn. ii. p. 'X\\ (|M>). 
<'b«rA<ln>i* p\rnMf|ihrilu'. /.»-««. I'»y. C"*/uillr^ p. 711* < l^I^U. 
< hanulr.iM aiiiiuliijiTUo. H'a*ji. Sif$f. A v., ('haradriii*, p. «'ri), up. l.*i 

il--'7». 
ir.i!i. iiin bifn^ lata. Fnu^, P. /. A. |K4:J, p. IH (And.-* of Chili). 
II At^r-iin f.iliilaii-lM*A. finiy, Li^t firall. lint. Mum. p. 71 (1^441. 
lliAtK'tjU trifiN'iiitA, Luht. Somrnd. Av. Mu*. licnd. p. l*t (1^54: 

M 'ntniilt-.i). 

Ar\^-,A\.u% f«lk!Miidira, .V,/. P. Z S iKlio. p. :{Ht (Falklnnd I«.) : 
A*^m4t, Mm. I-^iI, p. l.V, iFnlkUnd N.. Im-Miin^ in S-pt.); M, 
ir Salt. lh%M, |»^iW, p. |H^ iSniidr I*«»int, I^t. : <inv«>ry ll*y» 
MsvK 11^ P, Z. S. IHIW. p. 141* (Conchitaii. Hm-no* Ayres) ; 
//m^mh. /'. Z, S. 1872. p. 54il (iCio Ni^ro, I'ata^runia) ; SeL 4* 



1 



32. JMIALCTU. 297 

Ad. ik. Falkland IiUandn. AnUrcticEzpedition. 

tf. Ad. §k. Falkland InlandH. Qould Coll. 

/. Ad. ak. Uranie Day, Falklandii, May. McComick Beaueat 

Imm. ak. South Anierica. The Admiralty [P.]. 

Ad. ik. Port Julian, Patagonia. Sir W. Burnett k 

Capt. Fitin)y [P.l. 

ft. (f ad. ; k. ^ lUo Necrro, !*atagonia, July Salvin-C^odman Coll. 

imm. ak. ( W. H. Hud4ian). 

I»ai. cT ? mL; Chupat, Patagimia, Sept., Dec. H. Dumford, Esq. 

«, o. Imm. ak. [C,]. 

Pf f. Imm. ak. (liili. Bridges Coll. 

r, «, I. Ad. ak. Central Chili. Berkeley James ColL 

m. $ imm. ak. IVrtvince Santiago, Chili (Ley- Salvin-Uodman Coll. 

Md). 

ir>. JBguditii pacuaruL 

(lianulriua variua (ncc Linn,), lleiiL X. Did, iTIIist. Nat, xxvii. 
p. 143(1818). 

Charadriua pecuariu», Temm. PL Col, v. pi. 183 (1^23) ; LiehL Yen, 
IkmM. p. 71 (1^23); Wagl, Sytit, .^9., Charadriuts p. 60, up. 17 
<1H27); Leu, TraiU dTOm, p. A44 (lH31); KittUtz, Kupf. Vmf, 
p. 2ti. Ub. M, tig. 1 (IN'U): amy. Gen, B, iii. p. M4 (1847); 
Strickl P,Z,S, IKV), p. 221 (Kordofan); Orill, Zool, Anttckn, 
pp. 11, ri2 (IH'M): KuTMia; Cape Town) ; Sikl. Mum. IhtyBiu, 
Curikms-, p. M (184^) ;' Grand, lUv, H Mog, ds loot. 18(57, p. 419; 
FinMch, Trans, /oid. Sue. vii. p. 297 (1870: ZouUa, June); id, ijr 
Harti. r*y. 0*fn/r. p. (W2, note (1870) ; Gray, Iland-i. B, iii. 
p. 1«. no. 10015 (1H71): Heuql. (hm. N.O.-Afr. ii. Abth. 1, 
p. 10:», Taf. xxxiv. fig. 7 (1H73); HarU. Yog. Mating, p. 291 
(1H77); Reichen. J. f. O. 1877. p. 11 ; Fitcher, J, f. O. 1879. 
p. 2ii4 (.Mambrui) ; i^. 4* BtieJUn. t, c, p. 337 : MUne-Edwardt ^ 
Gnmdidier, Hist. Nat. Madag., Ois. p. All (18K2) ; Fisthtr, J,/, O. 
IkkV p. llo (Mauibrui); Ser6t*hm, G^ogr. Distr, (%iradr. p. 158 
(lH«H) ; hrithm. J.f. O. 1890, p. 107 (Cameroon!*) ; Emin.J.f. O. 
KO. p. rtf^x BAckm. t.c. p. 141 ; id. J.f. O. 18J^2.p. 7 (Bukoba); 
id. I'imf. I)^utsth-(M.Afr. p. lU (1894: Cgitgti : Kan^ma ; .MaMU 
Su*iipe«; Tnngauyika; Kagvhi ; Bukoba): Skel^eg, Ilns, l8iM, 
p. ^4 f 1^1* Shirwa). 

Charadriutf pantor, Cur. Mus. /Viru; Lru, Man, d'Om, ii. p. 319 
(IfC*-*!; id, Cumpi Buff. ix. p. 3m (1KJ7). 

Iliatiiula jircuaria, Buttv. SgU. Uefters. p. 118 (1845: t^nrpt) ; 
lAckt. Sun%encl. Ar. ,ituM. BrnJ. p. 91 (IKTvl : Nubia). 

.l*Vialiti« ptH-uariut kitlitUi, Brichmb. GniU. Taf. cv. tig. \(^\ ( 1851). 

CharadriuA k«ali**llinuff, MuUrr, Naum. 1^51, pt. iv. p. 21* (S«>nnaar). 

Aa^tUu* p't'Uariun, Stritkt. Amn. isr Mag. y. Ii. (2) ix. p. «i48 
i\<»'J: k.ininlan): Ileugt. StfMt, Ueher: p. 5*1 (lH5tJ: l'V>;pl); 
//arf/. r>ra. H'.-A/r. p. 215 ( 1m57 : .\Nhaiit4<«* ; (.'apt* ly»i»ez) ; Cajf. 
/V».r. PkiUid. Acad. IM.V.». p. 173 (Camuia Kivf-r) ; Hnnf, J.f. O. 
1 •*)!». u. IJM; HaHl.J.f. O. 18<;1. p. 2<W ; Taylor, this, 1807, 
p. «W (Nili*. n«»ar ( iirgi*h ) ; Ixttfani^ t. r. p. 250 ; Gutitrg in Amieru. 
B I)am Iji. p. 274 (1^72: Otjirnbinque. Ihimara-land. not 
br^ingt; Hk^ly, B. Egypt, p. 2:AI ( H72) ; id. ^ Bwktry, Ibis, 
l»*72. p. 2iU (Ca|-» Coai.t CaMlf) ; Hariing, P. /. .V. 1^74. p. 457, 
pL It. tig. 4 («*gg> ; Marpe vV Bouritr, Bull, Sur. 'And. France, i. 
p. ma f lK7t^: (Jhiloangfs Lftndana) ; thutalH, Stmv. Arck. Mus, 
(*J) ii. Bull. p. 145 (1H79: (inboon); Borage, (>m, Angola, p. 432 
(1081 : Ifeoifuek) ; Uart€rt,J./, O. 1880, p. 010 (Kaim; Sdurto ; 



298 OHARADBIIDA. 

Anaesawara) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 805 (Manda IsL; ^pi); itL 

RZ, S, 1888, D. 49 (Kibiro). 
Hiaticula pectoraus, Licht, Nomencl, Av, Mub. BeroL p. 94 (1864 1 

Kaffiraria). 
Hiaticula frontalis, Licht Nomencl, Av. p. 94 (S. Africa), 
^gialitis longipes (nee Temm,), Heugl, Syst. Uehers, p. 56 (1866: 

Blue and White Niles ; Nubia). 
Leucopolius pecuarius, Bp, C. R. xliii. p. 417 (1866) ; Antin, Cat. 

descr, Ucc, p. 96 (1864: Egypt) ; Heine 8f Beichen, Nomend.MuM, 

Hein, p. 33/ (1890 : Egypt). 
Leucopolius kitlittzi, Bp, C. B. xliii. p. 417 (1856). 
Charadrius kitlittzi, Layard, B, 8, Afr, p. 297 (1867 : Cape 

Colony) ; Gray^ Hand-L B, iii. p. 16, no. 10016 (1871 : Egypt & 

Nubia). 
./Egialitis kitlittzi, Netoton, Jhis, 1867, p. 251 (Cape Town) ; Ayre$f 

Ibis, 1809, p. 300 (Transvaal). 
iEgialitis vanus, Hartingf Ibisy 1873, p. 262, pi. viii. ; Ayres^ Ibit, 

1878, p. 299 (Transvaal, breeding in August), 1880, p. 267 (Trana- 

vaal) ; Salvin, Cat, Strickl, CoU, p. 698 (1882 : Kordofan) ; Salvad. 

Ann, Mm. Genav, (2) i. p. 218 (1884 : Lake Cialalaka, Shoa) ; 

Sharpe, ed, Layar^B B, S, Afr, p. 661 (1884). 

Adult male. General coloar above brown, with paler margins to 
most of the feathers of the upper surface ; the lower back, romp, 
and central upper tail-coverts blackish brown, the sides of the romp 
and lateral upper tail-coverts white ; wing-coverts like the back, with 
pale margins to the feathers, but with no more than a white fringe 
to the greater coverts, so that there is no conspicuous wing-bar ; 
marginal coverts blackish, forming a band along the edge of the 
wing ; primary-coverts and quills blackish, with white shafts to the 
first primary and with little or none on the inner primaries, the 
secondaries blackish brown, narrowly fringed with white at the 
ends, the innermost secondaries like the back ; the four central tail- 
feathers blackish brown, the next pair smoky brown with white 
tips, the lateral feathers white with a shade of smoky brown on 
the outer web ; crown of head brown ; forehead white, extending 
backwards in a broad eyebrow and forming a collar round the nape, 
this succeeded by a blackish shade on the upper mantle, which is 
united to a broad black band traversing the ear-coverts and joining 
the lower eyelid and black loral streak, the white forehead 
separated from the crown of the head by a tolerably broad 
band of black, which is again followed by an indistinct line 
of white; sides of face, throat, and underparts white, with the 
exception of the chest and sides of breast, which are tinged with 
rusty ; on each side of the chest a brown patch ; under wing- 
covcrts and axillaries white like the breast ; quills below white, 
internally ashy : " tibia and toes bluish black, the tarsus greyish : 
iris vei*}^ dark brown " (C, J, Andersson), Total length 6*5 inches, 
culmen 0*75, wing 3'95, tail 1*7, tarsus 1*2, middle toe and claw 
0-85. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 
6 inches, culmen 0*7, wing 3*9, tail 1*6, tarsus 1*15. 

The third primary never seems to have a white shaft, though 



32. JB8ULITI0. 899 

pometimet an infinit«simal lino of whit« ocoun on tho Utter, and 
thit is mostly the case with K^utt- African indiridaals. Some of 
those from the Cape Colony are not only rather larger in itixe, hot 
haTc two or three primarieti uniformly brown-dhafted. 

youmi hirtU differ from the adults in wanting the black band on 
the forehead, so that the crown iit entirely like the Iwck ; the fore- 
head, eyebrow, and sides of fact* are tinged with rusty, and there is 
no black on the upper mantle. 

Iltih, Africa generally, extending into the Delta of Egypt. 

a.Ad.iik.'w.3-9\ Kirvpt, March H. J. H. (turnev, Esq. 

i. Ad.'»k. 'w. Tsni, Smdan. Capt. Willoughby 
3^'> , ' \Vrn»r i P. I 

c^d, c^ 9 ad.sk. Kibin>, ICquatorial Africa, Emin Pasha J*.]. 

[w. m. June. 

*f/' <S z ad.sk. Lakt* Jipi, Au^., Sept. F. J. Jackson, Esq. 

Tw. ai* ;m«i [P.;. 

jr, A. / i^ ad. sk. Manda Island. F. J.' Jackson, Esq. 

rw. :i\^ aittl [P.]. 

i, X '• Ad. sic. Tele, Zambesi (.Vir J. Kirk), Livin^tone Ezped. 

fw. ;i-9 40]. 

M.' cf sd. »k. w. Transvaal ( T. AyreM). 8har|>e Coll. 

m. 9 sd. 9k, w. Potch«*f!*truoui, Aug. 1(5 {T. Cluniey C»>11. 

4 1.. Ayres), 

«. 9 sd. sk. w. Kin^winiHm«town, April tV) Major Trerelyan 

4.'i. ^ {(Wrtrhjf). P.l. 

^, 5 ad. i»k. >. Port Kli/ab.th, May is {J. C. Seebohm ColL 

4 1^. Rickard\. 

f, r. Ad. Ilk. w. Cape Culonv (A*. L, Leniard), Salving rodnian Coll. 

4 :i 4 .V> . ^ 

s. Ad.»k. W.4 1]. ( a|»r Colony. Seeb«>hm Coll. 

I. Ad. !»k. w. South .Vfrita. Sir \. Smith. 

■. r * 3 sd. w. (>tiimbinqii«s I>amara-land, Se4*b<>hm Coll. 

4 -' . r Vjuv. S'«»v.. Marrh {C. J, AmUrt- 

•k. urn). 

r. rf ad. ; y, t <Hjinihinquf. Jan., No\. {C.J. (tum»*y Coll. 

Jut. nk. .'I.). 

d. .\ d . »k . w. . V D^M »U ( •/. y. Mttn teint ) . iM*vhc\\ m ( \>ll. 
3iC, . 

4. .\d' Ik. w. UhhittmilhtchaiUu). TwtHuldalt* Coll. 

4<». 

e. Ad •k. w. Fanti-e ( //. r T/i/iA^r). Swb«»hm Coll. 

^ .\d ; #•*. f. Cap«« Wrd, S«»i)eirambia. L. I.«a{rlaiif [C.]. 

Juv sk w. 

1«(. JEeuditis lancta helena. 



Charadrius peeuarius {nee Trmm.), I^ifanl, Vnt^ 18*C, p. Sol ; 

AVtrfofi, r r. pp. L»ol. L'/c', uot.- ; //ait#T, /oo/. l^fW, p. 147.*> ; 

.VW/iM, IUm, |h7(), p. lot. 
^t^palitm saoct« hel**nip. Uarting, Ihia^ lH73, p. :M)6, pi. is. ; 

lU. Usiena, p. i^, pi. to p. fy^ (l47o). 



300 CHARA]>BII]).fi. 

Charadriiifl sanctee helenw, &eftoAm, Geogr. Dtstr, Charadr. p. 160 

(1888). 

AdulU Similar to ^. pecuaria, but much larger. Total lengtli 
7-6 inches, cnlmen 0*9, wing 4-4, tail 2, tarsus 1*55. 
Hah. Island of St. Helena. 

a, b. Ad. 8k. St. Helena, Old Collection. 

c. Ad. 8k. St. Helena. J. H. Le Keuj^ Eaq. [P.]. 

d. Imm. 8k. St. Helena. Dr. Gillespie [P.J. 

e. Ad. 8k. St Helena. Seebobm Coll. 

(Type of spedes.) 

fjff. 62 ad. sk. St. Helena. Seebohm ColL 



17. iBgialitis melanops. 

Charadjius melanope, VteilL N, Diet. d'Hia. Nat. xxviL p. 189 
(1818) ; Grmj, Gen. B, ui. p. 544 (1847). 

Cbaradrius nigrifrons, Temm. PL Col. v. pi. 47. fig. 1 (1828) ; Lm. 
TraiU dfOm. p. 544 (1831) ; Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 417 (1866) ; 8M. 
MuB, Pm/a-Bas, Cursores, p. 31 (1865) ; Gray, Hand-L B. iii. 
p. 16, no. 10008 (1871). 

jEgialitis nigrifrons. Bote, J«m, 1826, p. 978 ; Goulds Syn, B. Auttr. 
pi. 32. fig. 1 (1837) ; Gould, Handb. B. Amtr. ii. p. 282 (1866) ; 
Bamsay, Ibis, 1866, p. 334 (Port Denison); Blyth, Ibis, 1887, 
p. 165; Harting, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 459, pi. Ix. H- 9; Bamtay, 
P. Z. S. 1877, p. 337 (Queenflland, breeding) ; id. Proc. Linn. Soo. 
N. S. W. ii. p. 197 (1878) ; Hume, 8tr. F. vii. p. 438 (1878), viii. 
p. 112 (1879) ; North, Proc. Unn. Soc. N. S. W. (2) i. p. 1164 
(1887) ; Bamsay, op. cit. (2) ii. p. 171 (1888 : Derby, N.W. 
Austr.) ; id. Tab. List Austr. B. p. 19 (1888 : Australia generally, 
except N. Austr. and Cape York) ; Seehchm, Gtogr. Digtr. 
Charadr. p. ]38 (1888) ; North, Nests <$• Eggs Austr. B. p. 304 
(1889); id. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. (2) 'iii. p. 1778 (1889: 
Cumberland, N.S.W.) ; Cot <$■ Hamilton, op. cit. (2) iv. p. 419 
(1890: Mudgee District); North, t. c. p. 1025 (Raebume, N.W. 
Australia) ; Legge, Proc. Austr. Assoc. 1892, p. 39. 

Charadrius riLssatus, Jerd. Madr. Joum. xii. p. 218 (1840: Madras). 

Hiaticula nigrifrons, Gray, List GraU. Brit. Mus. p. 71 (1844); 
Gould, B. Austr. vi. pL 20 ^1845) ; Sturt, Evp. Centr. Austr. il 
App. p. 49 (1849) ; Blyth, Cat. B. Mfis. As. Soc. p. 264 (1849) ; 
Beichenb. Vog. NeuhoU. p. 42 (1850) ; Licht. Nomencl. Av. Mus. 
Berol. p. 94 (1854). 

Adult male. General colour above dark sandy brown, with darker 
brown bases to the feathers ; rump slightly washed with rufous ; 
sides of lower back and sides of rump white ; lesser wing-coverta 
dark brown ; median and greater series ashy brown, with blackish 
shaft-stripes, and mottled with the white inner webs to the 
feathers : the greater coverts paler ashy brown, with white tips ; 
scapulars deep maroon-chestnut, forming a conspicuous patch down 
each side of the back ; bastard-wing, primary- coverts, and primaries 
black, the secondaries white on the inner web, dark brown on the 
outer one, the brown decreasing in extent towards the inner 
feathers till it becomes obsolete and disappears on the inner 



a2. JWIAUTIB. 301 

•eeondanet, to thmt two at least of these are pare white ; the inner- 
moat long secondariea brown, externally lighter brown, washed with 
mibaa ; upper tail-coTcrta rufous, with blackish centres to most ot 
ihem ; centre tail-feathers blackish, the next ones ashy brown at 
tbe base and tipped with white, before which there^is a sub-terminal 
black band, decreasing in extent towards the outer feathers, the 
outermost being entirely white, with a little spot of black near the 
eod of the inner web only ; crown of head brown ; forehead and lores 
black, as well as the feathers alioTe and below the eye, extending 
in a band along the ear-coverts, and joining a black jmtch on the 
hind- neck ; this black band separated from the brown crown by a 
bruad BUjierciliary line of white, which starts from behind thi- 
lorca. eui-ircles the sides of the crown, and meets on the nape: 
cheeks, throat, and underparts white, with a broad black collar on 
the lure-neik, desc<>nding to a point on the breast, and uniting 
laterally with the black collar round the hind-neck ; under wing- 
oorerts and axillahes white, those round the bend of the win^ 
blacki»h like the lower surface of the primaries: *' bill orange at 
tiie base and blaek at the tip ; feet orange tiesh-colour in some, in 
oUien jMile desh-<-(>lour ; eyelid bright red ; iris dark brown *' 
(J. ififulti). Total length (( inches, culmcn ()'G5, wing 4*4, tail 2-1. 
Ursus «>-}». 

A'fult ftmalf. Similar to the male in plumage, but with the- 
maroon scapulars somewhat paler. Total length r>*H inches, wing 
4-3. 

Yifuntj. Ueproduces the colours of the adult, but has the whole 
of tbe up|i«r plumage mottled with sandy.buff edges to the leathers, 
with generally a •ul>-marginal line of dusky blackish : scapulars 
blarkuh, with maroon ti]»N to the feathers as well as to the lessei 
wing cuTcrts : head entirt*ly brown, with no black on the forehead ; 
eyebrow s.&ndy butf ; na|ie m'ith a white patch ; under hurfaoe ot 
body whit4-, with no black band on the fore-nt*ck, but some of the 
lalcrml k-athers of thi* latter mottltKl with dusky basics. 

liaf». Australia. Supposi^l to have occurrtnl once in Madras. 

«. Ad. tL Ali^tralia. J. <fould, l':sq. [P.J. 

A. Ad sk. Australia. Sir T. Miteh<'U (^P.j. 

r. All. »k. Auf^tTAlia. 1^\( arriu^too^r. . 

d. A4. »k. Aujitralia. Twceddalt* I'uU. 

e. Ad. #»k. S.utli Am-tnUia. Capl. Start J».J. 
/, f. Ad. »k. * South Au-«tralia. Sir ti. Cirey '^l*.). 

A, I. .\d. ^k. NfW S»utli Wales. Au^t^allall Museum. 

A. Ad. tk. Nrw South Wah«. (lould i\A\. 

L Ad. ak. W«iliivt«»n, N.S.W. lx>rd U'iffh 1».J. 

fli,«,o. Ad. tk. i^uti'UsUuid. Salviii-4 Mid uian Coll. 

^, f. i^ ;' ad. sk. Qii»*«*U!*laiHi. Stn*b<ihui CoU. 

r. Ad. tk. l^utM'iii^Uiid. Twctnldal** (oil. 

tL Ad. vk. N. W. AuMr^lia. J. IC l*J.«oy, l'Aj.[r. 

I. <^ V ad.; H, l>«-rby, N.W. Aa»itralia (T*. //. Capt Kiwyer Uowe. 

r. Jut. •k. Jiowyrr litntrr). [1*.J. 

m. 4 mLwk, Kivvr Avon, W«ati*m Aua- Gould Coll. 

tnUia, June 17. 



pure white ; the innemioet loog secondaries ashy like the back ; 
central upper tul-coverta blackisli brown, the lateral ones vbit« ; 
centre tail-feathcro blackish brown, the others white for the most 
part and tipped with white, before which is a 8Qb-t«miinal band of 
blackish brown, which becomes gradually smaller towards the 
ont«r feathers, which are entirely white ; crown of head and nape, 
aa well as the sides of the face, sides of neck and throat, black, 
enoloBing a broad white collar round the hind-neck, which ia 
followed by a black mantle-patch, which joins the black throat 
laterally ; a whitish spot below the eye ; remainder of under surface 
of body pure white, with a black patch on the sides of the cheat ; 
axillartes and under wing-coverts white, like the quill-lining : 
"bill rich orange at the base, passing into yellow and black at the 
tip; legs fleeh-colour; eyelid rich reddish orange or scarlet; iria 
yellowish or orange-brown " (J. Gould). Total length 8-3 incbea, 
cnlmen 0'7, wing 5*4, tail 2'fi, tareus 1-03. 

Adtdt femaU. Similar to the male in colour. Total length 
8 inches, wing 5*5. Ur. Goold saj-s that the female differe from 
the male in having the crown mottled with black and white, the 
face and throat while, and in having only a narrow line of black 
at the base of Uie neck behind. 



33. PLinriAraLLVi. 303 

T^mmn hinU^ according to Mr. Gould, may be known hj haTing 
the fe»then of the back and appcr surface narrowly fringed with 
brownith black. 

Hah. Australia and TaMmania. 

«. .\d.; b. Juv. Auntralia. Purchased. 

nt. 

r. Ad.sk. AuAtriilia. (Jould Coll. 

d. Ad. *k. Au5tnilis. 11. BrowD.I'>q. [P.l 

ff,/. Ad. nk. (jue**nf(land. Sal^-in-Clodman Coll. 

•. 9 ad. sk. nUdulU, Now South Wales, Hume Coll. 

Julv. 

A, •*. Ad. sk. South' Auiitralia. Sir O. (Jn»v [P.]. 

i. <f ad.: /. Ad. blinders l»Und, lUss* Straits, Vov.lI..M.:^.*Ilerald.' 

O. Jan. 17 (K .If. Rayner). 



:i:j. PLUYIAHELLUS. „^_ 

nurianfllus. Jac^. et Jhicher. V*nf. IVtle Swi, Xooi, iii. 
p. ll*4 ( InVJ) P. si)ciabili«. 

Rarngt, Confined to Patagonia. 

1. PluTianellaf iociabilit. 

PluTianvllui ihiciAljilirt, Jtuyf, et l^her. Voy. IMIe Sud^ Zool, iii. 

p. ]L»/>. |»1. :tf> (l^Vt: Siraitu <if .Mii|rvllaD) ; fSray, liatM, B, iii. 

p. L»i', II.I. lm)71 i 1*^71). 
PluvianrUu-. ^k i«li!t, finiy, (irn. //. iii. p. Mi) (lH44t). 
StfvpiiilArt MiciMbiliH, (rirhrl. The*. (>rn. iii. p. Ml (1^*77). 
Chanidriuji i^iciabili*, Sre/nfAm, (ieuyr. lH»tr. ("haradr. p. 107, pi. ii. 

(1**8^: T<»«*s Harbour, Psta^ouia) ; Chut. Miu, Set, Cap Ilom, 

(k*, p. 1>^H {\<H). 

Adult, (ieneral colour above light grey or dore-oolour; wing- 
eoTCTlii like thi* liack, the greater s4»ries tipped with white, forming 
a «ing-bar: bai»taril-wing and primar}* -coverts blackiKh brown, 
the inm-r onc^uf the latter series tip]R'd with white : f|uills blackish 
brown on the outer welts and at the end of the inner web, paler 
grr)' un the inni'r wi-b, the feathers white-shaf^od for more than 
tbnr terminal half, and the inner primaries white for som4* di**tance 
along the umXvt wrb ; Kceonthirit'S white at the bast*, brown near 
Ulr end of the outer web; thin brown colour gradually diminiMhing 
la eitrnt towards the inner M'ccmfiurieM, which arc (|uito white, 
the innrmiiist li»ni; MTondarien grey like the back ; median upper 
tAil-eovrrt* blacki.-h, the laU^ral ones whiti^; centre tail-feathem 
bUrkiiih, with some white on the outer web, the next pair whit4* on 
the outer weh, blackiMh on the inner one, the remainder white, 
dvatrd With bmwa on the outer web; crown of head like the 
back, the fun-head inclining tfi whitish : lores dusky ; sides of face 
aad thrual gr«'\iiih whit4\ iMToming darker grey on the ear-coverts 
■ad side* of neck, which resemble the back ; across the fore- neck 
•ad ebost a broad band of light brown, washed with aahy; 



Strepsilas novte zealandite, Schi. Mus. Paya-Ba*, Oursorea, p. ^ 
(1865 : New ZealandJ. 

Advlt male. Qeoeral colour above dark brown, with slight 
margina of paler brown; leseer wing-coverts like the back, Qie 
median and greater coverts rather greyer, with dusky streaks, the 
great«r coverts tipped with white, forming a wing-bar ; haetard- 
wing and primary-coverts blackish, the latter tipped with white; 
quil^ light brown on the inner web, blackish on the outer web 
and at the end of the inner web ; the abaft of the primaries white 
before the ends, extending a little on each side of the shaft, and 
occupying the base of the outer web, forming a wing-patch ; 
secondaries blackish brown, e^ed with white at the ends, and with 
white bases, the white increasing in extent and the brown on the 
outer web decreasing, until on the inner secondaries tbe latter colour 
disappears, and these quills are entirely white ; the long inoermtMt 



} 



34. THIX0R!II8. 305 

Afcondarit^A dark hrowii, with narr<>w whitinh margiiifl to nome 
of tho f«*athors ; rump and rent ml upfier tail-coverta black, the 
laU*nil onfH whit^ : c<*ntrv tail- feat h«'rft black, the next oiicm anhy 
bmwD, ti|»{io«i with white, and with a distinct nub- terminal mark of 
bla4*k« almiwt olntidi'te on the ]H>nultimato feather, the ouU*rmoiit 
brinfr pure white ; crown of head brown, Mightly varied with darker 
brown centre:*, and i(iirnninde<l by a Kind of white, not quite so 
itronfrly markinl round the napo ; forehead, lores, entire sides of 
fact*, and throat black, exti-nding over the sides of the nt*ck and 
fonninj; a collar acrosK the mantle ; remainder of under surface of 
body pure white, exce|»tinf( for some brown feathers on the sides of 
the upptT breaM and on tlie outer asi>ect of the thif^hs ; under wing- 
eorerts and axillaries pure white, the lower primary-coverts frroy, 
like the f|uilUlinin^ : '' le^ pale yellow ; iriii lic^ht red with blue- 
bUi*k c<*ntrr** (7*. HawL'ins) : *^ eyelid red; bill orange for more 
than half its li*ngth. then black to the tip ; tarni and to<'s orange : 
daw* )ila(*k ; iri« bUck ** ( \\\ L, DulUr), Totul length 7 inrbes, 
culmen I'^i.'s wint; 4*7, tail 2-5, tarsus 0*9. 

A'IhU femiiU. lUther smaller and duller in colour than the male, 
and with lfH4 tirantre on the bill and feet ( W, L, Bullrr), 

Ytmrnj, UifTent from the adult in having only the ba^al part of 
the bill vellow. unil tlie fon»he,id white like the evebrow and sides of 
face : thro.it iiU(» white instead of black. In a young male obtained 
by Mr. \V. Hiiwkinn in the (*hatham Islands in May, the forehead 
aad thr<».it are murh dappUil >»ith black, appart*ntly sign^ of the 
ftpprtiAching ailult plumage. Tliere ap]N*ar to l»e no additional 
•andy mnrino!* to tht* teat hers of the up|R*r surface, uhu:i1 in the 
immatun* Sand- Plover* ; but eertainlv these white-th netted birds 
cannot r«prf«c*iit the winter plumage of the K|M'(*it*s, as black- 
thntati^l ^{tecimrnH w^re kilK^il on the same day. 

Sir Walter Hullfr U'lifVtii that the tyi»«»-»jMvimen of ThitMrnU 
ra«n. from thi» .\u«-kland iNlands. repreatents the young of 7*. mtiup 
ZfnUimU^p : but thi^ \* c^^rtainly not comrt, for the binl in question 
is quit4* O'iult, and niUbt. in my opinitm. lielon;; to a distinct tiM^cics. 

AVjf/ifi'/. l*rinri{»ally itamh -coloured above, with minute nitots f>r 
frecklrn (if black and grryish white, with an indication of a black 
lioe nmnd the nape; the n*gion of the wing rather UKire rufous ; 
rotJrr under surface pure white. 

Hah. New Z«*aland ; (*hathum If^laiids. 

«, 4. .\d kk. Nt*w Z«*alaiiil. IVrrv YjLr\ Ksq. 

e /. ^ 't %A ft iuim ; Chatham Inland*, May. Dr. \\. O. Forbes [C.]. 
f. PuU ill. 

2. TUnornif roui. 

TbiDnrni* riMil, Hmy. I'^v Krtiiu* ^ Tertur^ Birth, p. l*i. pi. li*. 
(l*^l«lK I'/ </>!!. //. iii. p. '^«l 4lM7); lip, (\ H. xliii. p. 417 
« KV.) ; ^Vfly. Mm. \*^V*, p. 2;to; Fin*rh, J. f O. l-^ro. p. 4;il : 
Urav, Hmnd'L H lii. p. 17, no lUr)-j:{ ( l-*?! ) ; UutVm, IhU, 1874, 
p M 
vnL. IIIV. Z 



iii. p. 17, no. 1(X«4 (l(*71). 
AnarhTDchus nlbifroiu, ReiAaib. GralL tab. civ. Sg. 658 (1848) ; 

Schl. Sandl. Dierk, i. p. 435 (1857). 
Ch&radriua froDtalis, Ellman, Zool 1861, p. 7469 ; Grm/, IbU, 1662, 

p. 234; Sftbokm Grogr. Dittr. Charadr. p. 152 (1886). 
HffimBtopus frontalis, Fintch, J,f. O. 1867, p. 346. 

Adult male. General colour above pale slaty grey ; wing-coverts 
like the back, the greater aeriea slightly fringed with whitiah ; 
bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and primaries blackish, the latter 
greyer on the inner webs, blackish at the tip and on the outer web, 
shafts white for the greater part, and the ianer primariea white 
near the base on the iaoer webe ; secondaries ashy brown, paler 
externally and fringed with white at the ends ; the long inner 
secondaries entirely grey ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-covert« 
slightly darker than the back, the taiUcovcrts with black shaft- 
streaks ; centre tail-feathers dusky blackish with grey edges, the 
outer feathers gradually paler grey and whitish at the tips, the 
outermost feathers white with a little grey before the ends; bead 
like the back ; a broad white forehead extending above the eye and 
separated from the crown by an indistinct line of blackish ; lores 



I 



M. PKLTOUTAII. 907 

dwkx frre}*, an alao the upfier odf^ of tho oar-corerts ; cheeks, thrcNit, 
and under sutfaoc puro white, with a black band acroM tho fore 
n«vk : aiillarira and under wing-oovortii white; tho lower frroater 
corertA ashy likr the quill-lininf? : *' bill )>laok ; le^H and feet hlackinh 
irreen tinfped with icrey : iriii black** ( W, L. BulUr), Total length 
7 inrhe». rulmen 1'1« win^ 4*7*'>, tail 1'!^ tar»uii 0*t).>. 

A^iult fnnrtU, Simibir to the male. Total length 7*i> inches, 
culmi^n ri, wing 4'7*'>, toil I'll, tartfun 0*!(r>. 

Hah, Nfw /ooland. 

m. Ad. ^k. Now Zt'aland. Sir Samuel Scott [P.]. 

6. Ad. (^k. Auckland. Sir (t. (tn\v . P.]. ' 

r. r^ %t\.; ti,^,/. Selwyn Kiver, (Vt., Feb. Colmiiil >lii«fUiii, 
? ad. f^k. WilIin;;ton P. . 

y Ad f^V WvhX (\4uit of Siuth Mand. Twn*<Mfil«* CulL 



Sulifaniilv V. PKLTOHYATIN/K. 
M. PELTOHTAS. 

Ku«ln>niiftf». |»t., tiurt. rrcenf, 
itiiH'ff. ( uiifiniil to Auntrali^i. 



1. PeltohjM 

Kudrmiia!* auMtrali-, fr«ntM, /*. X.S. |K|0, p. 174 (int«Tior nf S. Au»- 
traliii); !#/. //. Ayftr, \i. y\. l."i llKlCl); aray, Li*t fimU. lirit. 
Mum |. I> (IM») : Sturt, Kip. Vmtr. Auntr. il. App. p. 4»( 1>*4S»: 
Plttii.yi <if Aili'lnidf) ; RrirhrHlt. ft'niU. Suftpl. tab. cv. ti;r*. ItNiTi 
•i7<l^'ilj: Lie ft t. Xummd. Ar. Mha. lirrttl. p. id U'*^'>4); •V-A/. 
Mum /'dv*-/;rfii. (*ur>i>n-s p. 47 UmI-'O : duuhi, Ilamih //. Au^tr. 
11. p. 'J'J7 ll'MW'i); ilttrfintj, lhi», l-7(», p. !*<»•.*; liitmjuitf, Pn-c. 
Linn. S*m\ A" .V W'.'x. p. l**? ( 1**77 : N.S.W. : (juti'n-Iand ; Virtitria : 
Iiit*-ni>r ; S. AuMmlia) : l>u^*ji**, Orn. Avstr, pi. !»7 jl^77); 
iinttiMtiv, Ih^^. Linn. Sim-. A". .V W'. ii. p. 1J»7 (1h,h); t'ti. tjt. nf. 
lii p. 41<> (Ir^'i : iKirlin^ \ I^rblan lii\fM, )»n*«iliii^r) ; S'*TtM, 
iVrrf- Linn. Siir. A*. .V W. i'J) i. f 1 U'*7 ( 1h^7); JiantMtf, /u/i. List 
AuMtr. ii p. llMl'^H'*: N.S.W.; lnu-rinr; S. AuMmJiiiK S^'tih, 
yr»tM A- />^« Annfr. /i. p. liKi ( K-SM ; Jiiinr \ Itvitkrn. Sommri. 

Mu» ihtH p :i:p'>(lKiO)- 

('b»rB«lriii^ atMmlifi, 'rVffv, fim. //. iil. App. p Ifo (1^4tl); iV/. 
//■M'/-/ //. iii. p n. ti.» \t^M <1»*71); Stt^mhm, Oty^r. Dittr. 

M<*rin-)lu« au-tmlis ///'. V. Ii xliii. p. 417 ilK'^jit) 

j|«/if/i. (iriirral mlour a)>ore fiandv bulF. Diottlt-i] and streaked 
with djrk bn>wn cmtn-a V* the feat hern ; win^-coverta likif the 
back; ba»tanl-iiiii):, piiniary-rorertN and (juiIIm blai-ki^li brown, 
f*l|[r«| with »nhfly buff at lb<* rnd« ; all ihf priniariin lighter bn»wn 
'ta the tiiiif r mitrfi ni-fpt at the tip*, tbt* tir»t primary with a white 
•ball. tb<* nrxt oncH with the hbalt pab' einii.iinon, thin colour 



Foot of PettoA^oi aiutralv, io show tlie Malta on both upeda of Unua. 

tail-feathera dark brown, paler at the base and edged with sandy 
buff, more broadlj' at the tips, especially of the oat«r ones, which 
have whitiBh ends, with a Bub-tenninal dusky shade before the end 
of the inner web ; crown of head sandy buff, spotted with blackish, 
and separated from the forehead by a broad band of black, reaching 
across from eye to eye ; forehead, lores, and feathers round the eye 
isabelline, with a blaqk patch below the eye extending backwards 
on to the ear-coverta, which are otherwise vinous buff like the throat 
and centre of the fore-neck ; round the hind-neck a black collar 
descending on to the cheat and skirting the fore-neck in the shape 
of a triangle ; remainder of nnder surface sandy buff, the region of 
the pr«-pectoral collar whitish below ; centre of breast maroon- 
chestnut, dividing out on to the flanks ; lower abdomen, thighs, and 
under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts and aiillaries vinona 
buff or pale cinnamon ; lower primary-coverts and quill-lining ashy 
washed with pale cinnamoD : " bill dark olive-brown ; feet yellowish 



37. BiMAirTOPin. 309 

lm>wii " {J. Gould)* TotAl length 8 inches, oilmen 0*75, wing 5*35, 
Uil 2 3, taraufl 1*35. 

YoHHff. Similar to the adult, but more sandy buff on the upper 
surface, the black band on the crown absent, the patch on the sides 
of Uie face and the collar round the hind-neck merely indicated by 
a blackinh shade, and the triangular collar down the fore-neck 
ahsf nt, though the chestnut breast is present. 

MaK Australia. 

m. Ad. i»k. Australia. Old Coll. 

6. Ad. Nt. 8«>uth Australia. C. Wood, Esq. [P.]. 

r. Ad. Mt. South Australia. Purchaswl. 

d^f. Ad. nk. South Australia. Sir G. Grey fP.]. 

/ .\d. nk. South Australia. Capt. Sturt [r.]. 

y, A, •'. .\d. sk. Queensland. SalvinUSiKiman Coil. 

k. 1mm. sk. Queensland. Tweeddale Coll. 



Subfamily VI. HIMANTOroUIN.^. 

Key to the Genera. 

«. T««-« with Karct'ly soy web, and divided t4i 

th- baM*; no hiiid toe; tarsus more than 

twuv thf leu^th of the middle toe and clawr ; [p. JU9. 

bill Dt-arly nirai^bt 37. lliMANTorL's, 

k. Tuts WfbUii ; uo hiud t^e ; tarsus more than 

t«ii r> th<- Uu^'th I'f the middle tui* and claw ; [p. tilM. 

bill w'.iL a alight upward curve 3H. ClaIKIRUYNCUUS, 

r T«i«4 fully wrbbt'd ; a hind toe ; tarsus not 

nii'ri- tii«n twicf thf li*ii/tb of the middle 

I ox a!id I Uw ; bill »trouyly recurved ; base [^p. •Ltt. 

uf gvu} 9 U«ttvii«d ' 30. HacuaviiiosTKA, 



:i7. HUCAHTOPUS. ... 

lype. 

lliiuai)to|iu*, lirisM. Om, v. p. •)■'( (I7(iO) II. hiiuiuitopus. 

3la«r>tar*u«, iMtrp. Mem. dt fjnst. Pari*, iii. p. olc^ 

I l*^il ( II. himautopus. 

lljUiAiitrliu*. Hafin. Anaiynr, p. lMt» < I'^l'i) II. hinianlopus. 

||%|fl«.bfti»'«. .\i/u<*A in ArurA m. ( r ruber t EmyeL zvi. 

p \U> 1 1"1'7 I . II. himantopus. 

Hamjt. .\lm<Mit ootimo| niH tan, but nut extending beyond the 
tcaperate regions uf cither heminphere. 

Kty to the SfteciiS. 

m ('ndrf aurfMrr I if biidy whitf. 

m. IIr«il aiirl iirirk I'Utin'ly whil<v [p. 310. 

m . Mantle and iui.er sei'iiiidarifs bUt'k . . Aimamtoptts cf ad., 

k" Standi* and iniirr si«iiDdariMi brown . . Auiiafi/flyMw9ad.,p.310 



310 CHABADRIIDJE. 

b\ A white or grey collar round the hind neck 
above the mantle. 
c", A black or grej mark on the ear- 
coverts. 
a'". Forehead white, the black of the 
hind-neck extending over the crown 
as far as the line or the fore part of [n. 310L 

the eye himantopuBy 2Dd year, 

b'". Forehead white ; crown grey like the 
hind-neck ; back black ( d* ) or brown 
(2or djuv.). [p. 810. 

a*. £ar-coverts ashy hinumtopuSy homot., 

6\ Ear-coveits blacK, like the hind-neck indbnurtw juv., p. 316. 
c'". Forehead and fore part of crown 
white, the black of the hind-neck not 

reaching far before the occiput .... melanurua ad., p. 816. 
d". No black or grey on the ear-coverts, 
which are entirely white like the 
entire head ; hind-neck black from the 

nape leucocephalus, p. 317. 

c'. Head and neck black ; no complete white 

collar on the latter ; forehead white .... picatusy p. 819. 
e'\ Ear-coverts and sides of neck for the 
most part white, excepting a black line 
under the eye ; culmen 2*45 inch ; tail 

grey with no black tip mexicatmSy p. 320. 

/". Ear-coverts and sides of face black like 
the sides of the neck ; tail tipped with 

black knudsau, p. 323. 

b. Under surface of body black like the upper 

surface mdaSf p. 324. 

1. Himantopns himantopus. 

The Black-winged Stilt. 

L'tchasse, Briss. Om. v. p. 33, pi. iii. fig. 1 (1760); UAubent, PL 

Enl. ix. pi. 878 ; Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. p. 114, pi. viii. (1781). 
Charadriud himantopus, Linn. St/$t. Nat. i. p. 255 (1766) ; Scop. Ann. 

i. p. 103 (1769) ; Gfn. Svst. Nat. i. p. 690 (1788) ; Chapm. Trao. 

S. Afr. ii. App. p. 420 (1868). 
Charadrius himantopus, Bodd. Tabl. PL Etd. p. 53 (1783). 
Long-legged Plover, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 195 (1785). 
Himantopus candidus, Bonn. Enc. MHh. i. p. 24 (1790) ; Less. Traiti 

dOrn. p. 550 (1831) ; Gray, List Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 97 (1844) ; 

id. Cat. Mamm. etc. Nepal pres. Hodys. p. 138 (1846) ; id. Gen. B. 

iii. p. 577 (1847) ; Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 421 (1856); Jaub. et Barth.- 

Lapojfiyn. Bich. Om. p. 483 (1859) ; L'hy, Ibis, 1861, p. 2^^ (Oude 

& Kumaon) ; Sim2>mn, t. c. p. 366 (Dobrudscha) ; Gray, Lid 

Brit. B. p. 163 (186.*3); Jerd. B. Ind. iii. p. 704 (1864); Schl. 

Mi/s. Pai/s-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 105 (1864) ; A?itin. Cat. descr. Ucc. 

p. 109 (1864; Kordoiaii k White Nile); Giyl. Ibis, 1865, p. 61 

(Pisa) ; Layard, B. JS. Afr. p. 328 (1867) ; Grand. Bev. et Sfafi. 

de y.ool. 18(i)7, p. 4 (Madafrascar) ; I)e(/l. et Gerbe, Om. Eur. li. 

]). 246 (18()7); Loc/ie, Kvpl. Sci. Alq^r., Ois. ii. p. 285 (1867); 

Taylor, Ibis, 1867, p. 69 (Egypt) ; Blyth, t. c. p. 169; Tt/richitt 

Drake, t. c. ]). 429 (TaD«:ior) ; 'Tri,^tr. Ibis, 1868, p. 3'20 (Palestine) ; 

Bcavan, t. c. p. 395 (I'mbula); Smith, t. c. p. 454 (Portugal); 

Schl. cS- Poll. Faune Maday., Ois. p. 1(50 (1868); DoderL Avif, 



IM. nmiiiTOPrB. 311 

SirU, p. HW (|»M«»); Saunders, Ihit, 18tKi, p. IM (S. Sjmiii) ; 

ilume, IhU, 1H70. p. 1 ir> ((iiiiya^>D) ; Frihhn^ t, c. p. 'JH^i (Nhmiii- 

(lerftlmd) ; Kim* A* litiMrtf, t. r. p. .*W'Jl* (Kuf«t«*iiilji) ; Frit*rh, I'otf. 

Kur. tab.:«. lijf. "Hl^7ih: '^''m/'A /i.(>rrat /i riY. i\. pi. .^4 (1S7<»); 

Stt/niti. Fault. Ittii., f'rr. p. L'«^* ( 1*^71) : Uumey, Ihin^ 1?^71, ji. l1»S» 

fVliT'-rinl ; SH-inh, P. Z. .S. 1^71. p. 4(V» llVkin); Hartiny, Handh. 

Urif. li. p. l:fc"> (1n7J): .SAr//ry .V liuckUy, Ibi*, \r<l'2, u. 1>S»;J 

lAt'orm); Shelley ^ li. Ayy;'/. p. -*>»> (l>7-*r; Hayet JJoyti, Ibin^ 

K:J, p. 417 iKttthiawftD; /r//v. ^>rH. StraiU dibr. p. ll>l (IS7">) ; 

liartl. P.X.S, 1^7.^ p. tt* ; 'j}fr*titr, IhtA, |.»<7«. p. 3l>!»; AZ/iw/. 

AViji/. /Vrjii<i, ii. p. I'^i (1^7<»: lialtit'lii-^tHii. wiiit«T ; Shinix Ijiko, 

Jim«*i; Fairh. Str. F. iv. p. L*t>;j (1^7*5: Ahim*dnii^'vur) : l)and 

\ ihtmtat, i)ui. ('hiftf, j». Mil* (l>*77): //nrr/. !'«/. Madny. p. :t28 

I l'*77i ; JPrefifr^ li. Lur. \ii. p. €^7. pi*. 7Aj, .VliJ (lM77); l^j*v. 

•n li'urlrff'M (frn. .ViJ«r. ill. p. H» (l''*7^: Iliiaii^'-htt, briH^lin^) ; 

Humr S- l>tivU*m^ Str. F. vi. p. 4»>4 1 l>*7f*: Tt'iiHKM-riiu ) ; Ihivitlmm 

A- Wtmirn, Str. F. \\\. p. K» «ls7s: iWcuii); /W/, f. c. ii. T3) 

(Kajnithal IlilU; Ixjhunlu^'pi) ; Ci iitfn*, t. r. p. •t(U (Furitlpiir); 

llufnt, Str. F. viii. p. ll:( (l.**7iM ; limutf Hull. Vomitt Ayrie. et 

ludustr. iWhiHrhinr^y'M i. p. l.'i«; (1^751); liutlrr, (\it. //. .SiW, 

Kutih *V Kathiaintr, p. tVT) (l.'*7J» : Cv»l(l weal her \Uitaut ) ; w/. Cat. 

It. S. li.,mh. Prr*. p. 7^ 1 1>W)I ; Lryyr, li. ( Vyhm, iii. p. J»ll» ( 1^<^<)) ; 

y,M//#r. .N/r. /: IX. n 4:U» (iNM): S. ILiinbAV): /Vh^tA, /Ai>, lr^», 

p 7V«; lifid, Str. /'. \. p. 73 (I'v^l: Lurktutw); liidduifth, Iftin, 

I"*"*!, p. l»7 (<til;nt); .NrW/y, /. r. p. .V.m; tiiyl. ltuu*iyr. Avif. ItnL 

fa-4\ xii. 1 1^-1 1 ; C. AiriiiA /Am. l^-*!'. p. li^i* (Kandahar) ; Iktrid- 

•»»n,Str. F. \. p. .IJl iW-.i»: \V. KhamU'Wi) ; (Mitr*, llnndh. Ii. 

lirtt liunn. ii. p. ;i7'.» ( l'*^^i): .V#/K/Am, /Ain, InKJ, p. :M (( aiica^un); 

/;. (t. (\ /.iv lirit. Ii. p. ItWJ (iKsjJ) : S^wndrr*, ni, Vtirreiff lirit. 

li. ill p :ii».'» iKNti; Tri-tr. Faun. A- /A/r. /Vi/r*/. p. VM (l^Ml ; 

Skarff, rd. lAiyani A li. S. Afr. p. XuT^ (1ns4) ; Sairad. Ann. Mtuu 

(irH'.v y'2\ i. p. I'JO (1h.*«4: luikf i'inl.ilaka) : Whitehead, IbU, 

|H•^.^. p 4J tr.r-ira) ; Striuh. A* liarnr*, t. c. p. l:i4 (Mhow) ; /f/'iir/, 

/.«. p -''Vi (Mar^nTii) ; Ayrr*, t.r. p. :tl7 (Tmn^vaal) : fiiyi. Arif. 

lUtl p :H) (l-****); Hairad. K'rm^, fW. Itai. y. LMo (l^-Mi'); 

Stu/!*/.J A. S. Urn;/, hi. p. •*7 (1^'»7>; TuiV, //>w, 1**'*7. p. .'^^^ 

|t ifxirt* • t ; I'ltu^.r, Str. F. %. p. 4»'<f < I''>7 : M\ xon*) ; Ilutne, Str. F. 

\\ p. i<L'»i tl -•*■*: MaiiijMin ; Stdrad. Ann. Mum. fimnr. (iM ^i. 

p 'M\ J l"-^! ; f'hnf»m. ///u*. Ik-«<, p. j.s^ < Spain) : Sunndt-r^, Man. 

lint li. p .*.I7 (l'»"*'.h: lirvhrn. Synt. Vrrz. T**/. l^rutttrhi. p. •"lO 

il-"*:* , .V Ji.hn^ Pii0, 1 •*-'.», p. 177 iS. .\t\rhani;*taii : K*-lnt) ; 

/fi.;/ l.f /^i.^. Jrj/. /Nj/. p..>-J , IviJI). -J,,// /^r,,^. p.InV; (lK«»), 

.In/ y»V. * p ;.1J I l-'.M ) ; (hitrn, r,i. lluinrM .Vr^r- A />/< Ind. li. 

Ill ]• .-'kl 1 1 ••'.■»• ; ll'tnr \ lifirhtn. ,\omrnH. Mu^. Ihin. p. .'J^JJ 

<1 -.•»•. -Si/irrr. y/iM. I'^i*!'. p. 11.", ( Maiia4m-M;*r) ; liarftm, t. r. 

p !•*• . lirmiali, t. c. p. L".1*i<iHinlMH) ; /ir La Titwhe, t. r. i». 41*7 

I I •^h-.W ; Swjttnw •: .Mfnd,-ll'tddi», IhiM, \*<K\, p. JtM |l*U«-rl«- 

^•-.tiirai; .VArAVr/, /Am, |«*1M. p. 47.'f ( r.ilnnilii K., NvaMiIanM) ; 

/rAv. Or*i Siraif* tiihr. 'Jinl .-.!. p. 271 j I-'.Cn. 

||imafit>>pii« \iil;:iiri*. li*^ h*t . (h-,i. Tas* hrnh. pt. ii. p. .'tl***, j>l. IM 

) I "^ I'. I . //m;7*. .Sy ^ Z 'rUr^ y. I '.'•; ( I •• 4o : L- 'Wt-r \\,:\ pt ) ; llruy/, 

S^tt CVAt*. p. «bt ^!'^■'»«». >. nJ K*>nl«>fiiii); l\h. I'trh. s.-b. (t>M. 

HtfTH. XXXI. [*.*'**» il^'^l : l^i.l.i. Jan.. I'Vh); llarti. AhhandL 

mat. Vrr. lirtmm^ \n'\ p. LMI (I-^"*.!!. 

I urwthiu hiiu.itit>>pii«. Turt**», lint. Faun. p. <*C' (I'^C). 

Iliniaxit'ipii* nitiiMf*. lifik»t. Satury. lhrut$>ekL iii. p. 4tWJ (1*00); 
lirrhm, I'tmf. IhrHUckl p. I>1 < l*st| I; lirtihrnh. (indl, Ub. t«'vii. 
fi^ a'SK M>{\<dh; Lirht SunwHrl Ar. Mu» liei>d.p.m{K,t); 



312 CHARADBUSiB. 

Kjmrh, Danm. Fugle^ pi. xxxiii. B. fig. 1 (1861) ,' MuUer, J. /. O. 
1879, p. 301 (Cyprus) ; Blastus, •/./. 0. 1884, pp. 216-222 (Bankau 
Lake) ; Matschte, J. f, O. 1887, p. 138 (Boga-Katani, Feb.) ; 
Koeniff, J. /. O. 1886, p. 282 (Tunis) ; Retaer, VopeU. Landesm. 
Sarqjevo, p. 128 (1891). 

Himantopus atropterus, Meyevy Taschenb, ii. p. 316, cum tab. (1810) ; 
Webb ^ Berth. Om. Canar, p. 33 (1841 : accidental). 

Limosa himantopus, Pall. Zooyr. Rosso- Asiat. ii. p. 186 (1811 : Caspian). 

Himantopus melanopterus, Meyer^ Arm. Wetter. GeselUch, iii. p. 177 
(1814) ; Temm. Man. d'Om. ii. p. 628 (1820) ; Werner, Atlas, 
Omreurs, pL 2 (1827); Brehm, Vbg. Deutschl. p. 682 (1831); 
Minitr. Cat. BaU. Cauc. p. 64 (1832 : Salt Lakes near Baku) ; 
Gould, B. Eur. iv. pi. 289 (1837) ; Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. ^ 
N. Amer. p. 64 (1838) ; Macg. Man. Brit. B. ii. p. 87 (1840) ; 
Q-esp. Om. Gard, p. 364 (1840) ; Selys-Longch. Faun. Belg. p. 123 
(1842) ; Schl. Rev. Cnt. p. 96 (1844) ; Hodys. Icon. ined. in Brit. 
Mus.j Grail, pis. 91, 91 a. no. 666 ; id. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 86 
(1844) ; HemU. Egys Brit. B. ii. p. 298, pi. Ixxxii. ^. 2 (1846) ; 
Thomps. B. Irel. ii. p. 221 (1860) ; Macy. Brit. B. iv. p. 812 
(1860) ; StrieJd. ^ Scl. Contr. Om. 1862, p. 169 (Damararland) ; 
Hartl. Om. W.-Afr.^2S6 (1867: Senegal; Casamance; Accra; 
Ashanti ; Gaboon) ; E. C. Taylor, Ibis, 1869, p. 63 (Egypt) ; 
S(Uvm, t c. p. 366 (E. Atlas), p. 360 (Zana) ; A. E. Enox, t. e. 
p. 396 (^Sussex); Tristr. Ibis, 1860, p. 79 (N. Sahara) ; Powyi, 
t. c. p. 344 (Corfu) ; HaHl. J. f. O. 1861, p. 271 (Biasao) ; 
S. S. Allen, Ibis, 1863, p. 167 (Egypt); Leith Adams, Ibts, 
1864, p. 33 (Cairo) ; Wru;ht, t. c. p. 149 (Malta) ; S^liny, 
t. c. p. 287 (Gulf of Arta) ; Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 36 ; Sharps, 
P. Z. S. 1870, p. 147 (Angola) ; JStevens. K Norf. ii p. 240 
(1870) ; Saunders, Ibis, 1871, p. 387 (Majorca) ; R. Gray, B. West 
Scotl p. 303, cum tab. (1871) ; Brooke, Ibis, 1873, p. 388 (Sardinia) ; 
Saxby, B. Shefl. p. 197 (1874) ; FaUtm, Ois. Bely. p. 149 (1876); 
Tacz. BuU. Soc. Zool. France, ii. p. 154 (1877 : Poland) ; Dat^. 
Ibis, 1880, p. 84 (Djend, Asia Minor) ; Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. iil 
p. 79, pi. 24 (1885) ; id. Ibis, 1886, p. 236; Lilford, Ibis, 1889, 
p. 339 (Cyprus) ; Everett, J. Straits Branch As. Soc. 1889, p. 206 
(Bangkau Lake) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B. pt. xiii. (1890) ; 
Sharpe, Sci. Res. 2nd York. Miss., Aves, p. 142 (1891) ; Styan, 
Ibis, 1891, p. 330 (Lower Yangtse), p. 604 (Shanghai^ ; Seebohm, 
Ibis, 1892, p. 24 (Heligoland). 

Himantopus albicollis, yieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. x. p. 41 (1817). 

H}'pai bates himantopus, Nitzsch in Ersch u. Grttb. Encyel. xvi. p. 160 
(1827) ; Naum. Vog. Deutschl. viii. p. 191, Taf. 203 (1836) ; Keys. 
4- Bias. Wirb. Eur. p. 209 (1840) ; Sordm. in Dejnid. Vou. Russ. 
jMirid. iii. p. 248 (1840: Black Sea, nesting) ; Miihle, Beitr. Om. 
Gnechenl. p. 99 (1844) ; Linderm. Vog. Griechetd. p. 137 (1860) ; 
Borggr. Vogelf. Norddeutschl. p. 112 (1809) ; Severtz. Turkest, 
Jevittn. p. 00 (1873: Turkestan, breeding); Bagdanoff, B. Cauc. 
p. 1(>5 (1879); id, Coiisp. A v. Imp. Rons. p. 79 (1884); Radde, 
Om. Cauc. pp. 44, 425 (1884); JIartert, J. /. O. 1886, p. 608 
(Sandbanks of l^nue), 188J), p. 436. 

Iliniantopus ])linii, F/eminf/, Hhsf. Ih'it. Anim. p. 112 (1828); 
Dabou^, Faun. III. VcrtehrH Belg. ii. ]). 274, pi. 221 (1894). 

lliinautupus loniripes, Brehm^ Vog. Deutschl. p. (58^3 (1831). 

llinimitopiis asiaticus, Ia'ss. Rev. Zool. 18.j0, p. 44 (l*ondichery). 

Hlack-wiiicred Stilt, Yanell, Brit. B. ii. p. 5.59 ( 1?^43). 

Himantopus interniedius, BIythyCat. B. Mus. As. ^oc. p. 26o (1^49: 
Aprra; Calcutta); Bp. C.B. xliii. p. 421 (185(5); Grai/, Hand-l. 
B. iii. p. 47, no. 10203 (1871 ) ; Hume, Nests ^- Eggs Ind. B. p. 689 



•'17. iiiMAVTorut. 313 

<I'*7a); H, Str. F. i. p. 1»4H (lH7.*J: Sind) ; Adam, t. r. p. 397 
(Saiubhur); ui. op. rii, ii. p. *XXi) (1H74: SaDit>hur, breedinir) ; 
Hume, Sir, F. iii. p. IKJJ ( lM7r> : Pejfu) ; Istffifr, t. c. p. ,173 (IVylon, 
breedioK); H^t^r, Str, F. iv. p. 1h (]h7($: Mount AbiK)) ; Sculfy, 
t. c. p. IW) (Y*rlt»nd) ; //«//'^r, Str. F. v. p. 1»3:J (1877 : IXhmmi); 
Murray, Vertebr. Faun. Sind, p. 2.V* ( 1H84). 

Iliomotapus iiielanorepbalii<*, lirtkm, Voyelf, p. 324 (18*i5). 

Himuitopiw ni^coUU (mm- J'.), Brehm, t. e. p. 324. 

Ilimaotupus leucoci>pbalui* (itrr Gould), Hrehm^ t. c. p. 325. 

Ilinuuitopua bn*vipe«, Brthm, t. c. p. S2rt. 

lliniJUit'pus minor, Satterer, MSS. ; Hard. J. f, O. ISOO, p. 170 

< MadAt.^aflcmr) ; id. Faun. Madag. p. 78 (IHH): Gray, JIand-i, B. 
iii. p. 4^ no. 1021)7 (1S71). 

lliniantopiui •titumnali«, Ha$$elq. ; FinfcM, Tranj*. Zooi. Sue. vii. 
p. 3m» (1^70: Senaftf); id. * Hartl, Vog. CMafr. p. 768 note 
(KOt; Gray, Hand-L B. iii. p. 47, no. 102S)2 (1H71): Gumry in 
Andrrts, B. Ikim. Ld. p. 31.'> ( lM72) ; Holdw. P. Z, S. 1872, p. 476 
(tVvlno); Hruyl. Om. y.O.-Afr, ii. pi. l,jp. 1177 (1873); Bl^tM 
^ li'aJd. B. Burm. p. 164 (1876 : Arakiu) ; Kan^n IlilU) ; Reickm. 
J. f. O. 1k77, p. 12 (I^ian^O; Fin»rM, %'erhandl. z.'h. Get. H'ieii, 
iiix. p. 2«>3 ( 1h71» : ."SaMi^k-AlA-KuI) ; Boca^, ihm, Anyvia, p. 470 
«|H^h; Miine-EdunnU »V Granditiier, Jit ft. \at. Madaa,, Oi*. 
p. fkV* \ Ihh'J) ; Bidkm, J.f. O. 1885, p. 72 ; Mattckie, J.f. 6. 1887, 
p. 16l»; FriraldsJcy, Ar. Hung. p. 141 (1^)1); Emin, J.f. O. 
iKM.p. 346. 

llimAnt"pu4 tfuropn-un, Santi. tr*te Gray^ Hand-l. B. iii. p. 47 (1671). 

ll%tJA!bat«*ii bimantopu^ $. nikTricollJA, Srcertz. Turke*t . Jewtm. p. OU 

< 1 '*73 : Turkei&tjui, brtHnlin^ ). 

IlimmiitopUM himantopu*. Skartte, Ihi*, 1891, p. 114 (Fiu*) ; Reicken. 
J.f. O. M)2, p. M (.Mtiijns t'fc'AiHlft, I>iH\): id. Vby. Deuttck-Ott- 
Afr. |i. 44) ( I'^M : WembAcr^ Sb'ppes; Ma^aaiSteppe^i; Tan^ranyika). 

Adult malt IN hretdintj-jdunuvjf. General colour above black 
with a irMT*ni<ib fclovt ; cntin* buck and rump pure white; upper 
Lail-rnVf-rtA |»alf oAhy frri-y, the outer feuthera with a certain amount 
«»f «hit4> i>n thf inner Wf)» ; win^s entirely black, (cloo*^^ with preen ; 
hraii afid nti k all round, up|H*r mantle, and entire under surface of 
body pun* Hhite ; under winp-itivertii black; axill.'irit*« white: 
bill bUcki«h : f(*et r«jHe-pink ; irin deep curmine. Total h-nf^th 
l.i ifi«h»**, rulm«'n *2'o, winjf !»•♦», tail Ii, tantuN 4**»6. 

Th«- chunp*H of plumafT** through which thin H|MrirH pa»!M*i« are 
rxtfrfurlv ditllrult to uiidemtdiid. }oiim/ mnitt and frmnha are 
at fimt ulikr, and h.tvi* brown buckH and inner Mvondarit^ft, and 
aia> Im- dii»tiiipuii*he<l b\ the %ihite ti|M to the inner primaries and 

i»fi<Lirif It. 

In tilt' m&t pluroii^e, when the Mark Kick it aitnumed, the hind- 

'\ i« -^•Jix ;;ri'>, anil the rrown of the liead in dur»kv brown. It 
!• f»M«iKlf* thnt the white head and neek iin* only atituniM in the 
third or f'>urth seaiMin ; but there in another btap', \ihieh probably 
fi41'««« thf- .i«h} -nM'kt*d one, when the forelieuil and lower hind- 
fi««>k art* «hiti\ but the rn^wn i<* ^hiiMy black, thin colour extending 
<i*f«n thr bind nt*<-k. Thii* may l»e a ht;i^e of coloration uorn for a 
%rr\ khfirt \m-T\tA in thi* iiprin^, an it apiK*arH to nierp* into the 
•^.fr «hitr«»f the iM-adand iiink. 1 ntmnidy iiUf(|iiTt that tho ipedea 
^a* a ^ff«»wn-baike«l minter plumage, but have U-«n unable to prore 
:^ t i ST Mitiaf action. 



314 CHABADBIID^ 

Adult femaU in breeding-pluniage. Similar to the male, but having 
the mantie, scapulars, and inner secondaries brown instead of black. 
Total length 13 inches, culmen 2*2, wing 9*1, tAil 3, tarsus 4'7. 

Nestling. Covered with down of an isabelline colour above, varied 
with rather broad lines of black, with a streak of black down tho 
lower back and rump ; the first feathers being sandy rufous, barred 
with black ; entire under surface of body creamy white. 

Young in first plumage. Similar to tiie adult female, and brown 
on the mantle, scapulars, and inner secondaries, which have sandy- 
buff margins to the feathers ; the wings are black, but have sandy- 
buff margins ; the quills brown on their inner webs towards the tips, 
which are broadly fringed or tipped with white ; forehead and sides 
of face white ; the crown of the head and nape brown ; the hind- 
neck ashy grey ; under surface of body pure white, with a shade of 
grey on the fore-neck. 

Hab. Southern Europe, straggling occasionally to the Northern 
and Central portions of the continent. Throughout Africa in suitable 
localities ; extending eastward to Central Asia, the Indian Peninsula 
and Ceylon, Cochin China and Western China. 

a. (S ad. sk. Sicily {C. A. Wright). Seebohm Coll. 

b. Ad. ; c. Juv. sk. Spain. Seebohm Coll. 

d. cf ad. ; e, /. $ Zana, Algeria, June ( 0. S.). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

ad. sk. 

g, h. (5* ? ad. sk. Tangier (Favter). Gould ColL 

i. ($ ad. sk. Mo^idor. Hume Coll. 

k. Ad. sk Dobrudscha, June 10 (H. S.). Seebohm Coll. 

/. 2 ad. sk. Sarepta, Lower Volga. Seebohm Coll. 

m, n. (S 2 fid* ^k. Famagasta Lake, Cyprus, Lord Lilford [P.]. 

May {F. A. Ouillemurd). 

o. (^ ad. sk. Delta of the Nile (G. E. Shel- Seebohm Coll. 

p. 2 imm. sk. Senrtf(S, Abyssinia, April Tweeddnle Coll. 

( W. Jesse). 

q. Ad. sk. Central Soudan (Baron J. Seebohm Coll. 

W. von Miiller). 

r. Ad. sk. An^ollala, Shoa, Jan. (Har- India Museum. 

ris). 

8. 2 ad.sk. AccT&j Gold Cosist (J. Smith). Seebohm Coll. 

t, u. (S 2 ^^' sk. Katumbella, Benguela,Nov.6 Monteiro Coll. 

(G. Sala). 

V. 2 juv* sk. Benguela. Monteiro Coll. 

w. cf ad. sk. Rio Coroca, Benguela, Jan. Seebohm Coll. 

(/. Anchieta). 

X. 2 ftd. sk. Potcbefstroom, Transvaal, Gurney Coll. 

July '17 {T. Ay res), 

if. Ad. ak. Tete, Zambesi (&> J. Kirk). Livinjrstone Exped. 

2, a. S2 ^'1 ^' ' Palombe River, Sbirwa Plain, II.II. Johnston, Esq., 

cT juv. sk. Oct. (A. Whyte). C.B. [P.]. 

c'. Ad. sk. Madagascar. G. F. Scott Elliot, 

Esq. [P.]. 

d'. Juv. sk. Fao, Persian Gulf, Julv. W. D. Gumming, 

Esq. [P.]. 

^'j/'- 6 2 ^^- sk. Persia. K. Lol'tus, Esq. [P.^. 



37. HiMAiiTorim. 



315 



$. S Ad. »k. 

A', r. S •<!. tk. 
ib'. cf Mi. ik. 

/. Ad. Pk. 

m\ m\ (^ ad. sk. 

•'. ; ail. Ilk. 

f'. r'. t-f ad.; *',!*. 

? a«i. »k. 
«'. 9 ad. f^k. 
r*. 9 ad. i4. 
ir'. Ad. Ilk. 
x'. f' ail. pk. 
y •'. 'ad.; 5". 9 

f , rf' . I'ull. Pk. 

r '. ^ '. -• ? «d. »k. 
/*. y ad. *k. 
An. Pull. tk. 

n-f. .* ad.: r", 
«' . 9 ad. Ilk. 

^ y . <f-5 /*. 9 

•d. tt ju\.; y\ 
iNdl »k. 
A' r •'ad.; m\ 

9 »1. »k. 
■•• •'. <T 2 ••1. »»k. 
y r-. cf ad. ; #'. J 

ad. »k. 
f V jo». ^k. 

■'- J ju* •!!. 

r». ■-• • •; ad. ; x\ 

Ju%.i.k. 
/ Ad .k 
I* ' jiiv lik. 
fl' / a*l nk. 
i* Juv -k. 

r» ^ juT. ^k. 

^. .' imm. »k. 
rV Juv .k. 

/•.y' Jut. »k 

A' 9 j'i*.«k. 
I' V ad. ik 
A* '^ ju» .k. 

/• > ju» fk. 
m\«*. cf ad. rtjuv. 

ak 
♦'.#'• rf 9 Ad. "k. 



NearTehonm, Maidi (Sir O. 

•SSf. JoAii). 
Meeopotaniia ' (yommr, Jtmet). 
Ala Kul, Turk(*ptan, Mav U 

(/>r. O. Fintch). 
Yarkand. 
Tarini Uivor, May. 

Quf>tU (OrtmiA), 
Kandahar, March, .April. 
Kandahar, April 9 (Sir (). 

St. JoMnh 
(ii^nt, Aug. 10. 
Siod, Jan. (I>r. If, Otmltl). 
Cutch {Stolicshi). 
Sirza IHptnrt, Punjab. 
Sambhur, Jan. to March (R. 

M. Adam). 
Sanibhur, Atiinij*! (R. .1/. A.). 
Jaipur, March 28 (.-f . O. //.). 
.\jniere, l)w. IS (A, O. II.). 
Gunraon l)i»trict, Mav, July 

< tr. X. ckur). 

QuT)iwm l>i!«trii-t,I)i!C. Ui Mat Hume Coll. 

( n\ y. ChUi). 
iVlhi. March to Oct. (C\ T. Humo Coll. 

liiMjfham). 



India Mnaeom. 

India Muneuni. 
(itH)(iT Sfic. Bremen. 

Dr. U. B. Sharpe [P.]. 
St.GiK)iv*yttledale, 

Kpq. rp.]. 

India Muaoum. 
Col.C.Swinhoe[P.]. 
Hume Coll. 

CiiL Biddulph [C.]. 
India Mufifum. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
HuuM* (VII. 
Hume VoM 
Hume Coll. 



Ktawah, Sept.-Nov. (.-f. O. 

II.). 
Oudh. Dec., Feb. 
( >udh. 

Kurknow. Mav iH). 
Kuttfh^rurh bi^trict, Feb. 

{A. AmiermtH). 
N«*pal. 

Ni'pal. 

Hhiir. 

Uaijilin^. 

lUrjtlin^. 

CalrutU. IK^\ Itt. 

Mhiiw, Nttv. 9. 
H'lphun^rhalmil, (\P., iKv. 

{J. A lietkam). 
W. Khand»*i«h, IW.« Jan. 

{J. IhtvitUon). 
I>pr«-an (.VyAvj). 
|li*t*i*nn {Hurt/run). 

Ahin*^lniit:(rur l>i«trict, Nov. 

.'Hh.V li. Fairbtink). 
\Vadal«<.(M. (.V It. F). 
r*«iromandcI Tua^t. 



Hume Coll. 

Hume (*oll. 
Pinwill Coll. 

a.l. Way P.;. 

Si*ebohui Coll. 

Hudfrp*>n Coll. 
StM'bohni Coll. 

HlNlphtU (\ill. 

St'bohm Cull. 
India Mu<4Mini 'P.!. 
llumi'CoU. 
Col. S«-inhi>e V.^. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Ctdl. 

Imlia MiUM'um. 
S«<**)iohni (\ill. 
Twi^ldHlt*(%.ll. 

TwiMiidaU* Coll, 
(Sould(*oll. 



8.K. (Vflon, No\.,Julv (ir. I>r. H. II. Sbarpt 

r. U^sfr). • \y.\ 



316 



CBABADBJIDM. 



g*, 2 ftd. 8k. Batticaloa, Ceylon, Feb. 17 Seebohm ColL 

{H, C. Buchanan). 

r*. 5 juv. ek. Putlam, Ceylon, July 14 Hume Coll. 

{Hart), 

«*. $ ad. sk. Ceylon. Tweeddale Coll. 

t^. Juv. sk. Pegu (R, Q. W. 22.). Tweeddale ColL 

«*, v*. (S ad.; w*. Lower Pegu, Oct. (^. W.O.), Gates ColL 

c^ imm. sk. 

x*j y^. 2 ad. sk. Karen-nee, Jan., March (R. Tweeddale Coll. 

O. W, i2.). 

z^^a*, S ad.; 6'. $ Thatone, Tenasserim, Oct, Hume ColL 

ad. sk. Nov. 

<?». Ad. sk. Cochin China. M. E. Pierre [P.l 

d^. Ad. sk. Pa-chow, Ichang, China. A. Pratt, Esq. [C.]. 

e^, $ ad. sk. Sa-tschen, S\m(d(PrejevaUki). Seebohm CoU. 

/*. <^ skeleton. R. Volga. Purchased. 

^. Bones of trunk. Nepal. Hodgson Coll. 

A*. Sternum. Algeria. Purchased. 

2. HimantoptiB melannms. 

Mbatuitui zancudo, AxarOf Apunt, iii. p. 297 (1805). 

Himantopus melanurus, Vieill N. Diet dPHist Nat z. p. 42 (1817 : 
Paraguay) ; Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 577 (1847). 

Himantopus mexicanus {nee P. L. 8. Mull,)^ Neuwied, BeUr. iVa- 
turg. Bras. iv. p. 741 (1833) ; Hartl. Ind. Azara, p. 26 (1847) ; 
Burm. Th. Bras. iii. p. 367 (1856). 

Himantopus nigricollis (nee Vieill.)^ Gould, in DaruMs Toy. ^Beagky 
Birds, p. iS) (1841 : La Plata, swamps near Buenos Ayres) ; 
Fraser, P. Z. S. 1843, p. 117 (Chili) ; Gay, Faun. ChiU, ZooL 
p. 424 (1847) ; Burm. Beise La Plata-St u. p. 502 (1861) ; 5W. 
P. Z. S. 1867, p. 339 (ChiU) ; id. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 144 
(Buenos Ayres) ; Pelz. Om. Bras. pp. 310, 457 (1871 : Ypanema, 
June ; Irisanga, Dec. ; Cai^ara, March) ; Barrows, Auk, i. p. 814 
(1884 : Azul, Jan. ; Puan, March ; Concepcion, March to Aug., not 
observed breeding) ; Tacz. Om. Pirou, iii. p. 382 (1886 : Tumbez). 

Himantopus nigricollis (pt.), (rrat/. List Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 9iS 
(1844); Schl. Mus. Pays-Bos, Scolopaces, p. 107(1864: Brazil, 
Chili) ; Gray, Handel. B. iii. p. 48, no. 10294 (1871). 

Himantopus mexicanus (pt.), Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 421 (1856). 

Himantopus brasiliensis, Brehm, Voy. Deutschl. p. 684 (1831) ; 
Scl. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 454 (Buenos Ayres) ; iid. Nomend. 
Av. Neotr. p. 144 (1873) ; Bumf. Ibis, 1877, p. 198 (Baradero, 
l^ Buenos Ayres), 1878, p. 67 ; Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 162 (Cape San 

Antonio) ; Seebohm^ Ibis, 1886, p. 225 ; id. Geogr. Distr. Charadr. 
p. 281 (1888) ; Scl. 8f Iluds. Argent. Om. ii. p. 179 (1889) ; Scl. 
Ibis, 1890, p. 425 (Arp:. Hep.) ; Graham Kerr, Ibis, m)2, p. 150 
(Pilcomayo) ; Holland^ i.e. p. 211 (Arg. Uep.) ; Berkeley James, 
New List Chilian B, p. 11 (1892); Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 207 
(Uruguay). 

Adult male. Similar to H. mexicanus (infra, p. 320), but larger, 
always with a white collar on the upper mantle, and distinguished 
by the greater amount of white on the bead, which occupies nearly 
the whole crown, almost as far as the occiput ; a black streak on 
the ear-coverts joins the black on the hinder neck. Total length 14 
inches, culmen 2*45, wing 9*5, tail 3*2, tarsus 4*5. 



37. HIMA1IT0PV8. 317 

Aiiuh femaU. DifTers from the male in baring a brown back. 
Total length 14 inche!*, culmon 2*4, wing 8*9, tail 3, tarsus 4*25. 

KoMm/. Similar to the adult female, and having a brown back, 
with ashy-whitiah margins to the feathers of the back and whitish 
edges to the inner primariejt, which are brown on the inner 
Webs. The crown of the head is ashy grey, the forehead and sides 
of the face white, and the collar on the hind-neck is light ashy 
grev. 

JJah, Brazil and C*hili. 

«. 6. d ad. : e. d. Central Chili {Ixmdbfck). Rerkel«>y James Coll. 

9 ad. ik. 

t. Jut. ftk. Chili. iSal%-in-(todman Coll. 

f, (^ ad. sk. Chili {E. C. Hf^. Salvin-(nxlman Coll. 

0. V •d. »k. Santiago, Chili {LeyboU). SalTin-()<Kiman Coll. 

A. Ad. sk. Valparaiso. Sir W. Humett and 

Admiral Fitzroj 

t Ad. sk. Maldonailo. Sir W. Burnett and 

Admiral Fitzroy 

k <f ad. f4. Buenos Avres, Ma?. H. Dumford, Esq. 

/ (^ ad. sk. Buena«Ayivs( H'.//.//tf//- Salvin-Godman Coll. 

SON). 

«s. 9 imm. sk. Cai^ara, l\m\\{N'attrrer), Salvin-Godman Coll. 

3. Hisuuitopai lencocephalai. 

llimaDt«»iNw leticocfpbalus, Uomld, P. Z. S. 18.')7, p. 20; S. Mull. 
Verk. iAtnd- rm I'ulkmk. p. 1<>3 (lh31>>44: New (3uint*a; Java; 
Sumatra); Oouki, li. Aistr. vi. pi. 24 (lb4l); Gray, List (trail. 
Brit. Mu», p. WK (1k44) ; id. (ien. H. iii. p. 677 (IMi); JieirArnb. 
OmU. Ub xcvii. figs. «W2 4;{ (1H4H) ; Ntmrt, Krp. Centr. Austr. 
ii. A pp. p. 4S» (IMIM ; Li^t. \ommci. Ar. Atu$. lirrvl. p. US 
(Ki4: .\u«tralia): lip. (\ H. iliii. p. 421 (l>s'i4(); M. Joum. 
lAnm. S»K. li. p. 1U» ( IK>) ; (irajf, P. X. S. IkV*. p. H»7 ; id. C\it. 
Mamm. ^ li. Srw Gum. pp. r>i\ (S2 ( lesi(») : H'alface, Ibis, \^\l, 
V .'UVMiini.rK Gray, P. Z. S. lM5l. n. 43^ (.M\»ol); Wallace^ 
P. / .V I'MW;. p. 4^*7 (Timor) ; lO^nb. \at. Tijdsikr. A'«/<t/. Ind. 
%x\ . p. 2.Vi J l*^l.h ; id. J. f. (). ImVI, p. l;J7 ; Srhl. Mh^. Piyit-Iias, 
Si'lt.pac«*i*. p. U*\ i\f^*4)i Gi^UI, Jiandb. Ji. Austr. ii. p 2445 
il»^'»?»); ///y/A. Ibis, \>^\'\ p. .V>; Fin*ch, Sru-Guiwa, p. l^l 
( \*^Vi), JiamMay, lhi», Wkl. p. 'X)4 (Port ]>«>uii««>n) ; id. P. Z. S. 
1^17. p. tlM) ((iraftoii. rUrtnct* B.. bnn^in^) ; Gray, Hand-i. H. 
ill p. 4^*, n.». H>'JS*«'Mlf71) ; W'ald. Tranf. Z*xd. X^. \iii. p. lU 
(1h72: (VM)ra); Jiamtay, /Am, 1*«74. p. *JW (IVrth; B«ittn«*st 
1*1 » ; lUriiny, P. Z. S. Ih74, p. 4.Vi»; Salrad. IW. /A/m. p. 321 
«K4); liaU. Trah*. /«*./ \>c. ii. pp. I'JH, l^ol (lh7/>: Philip- 
|4ct#«l ; ii*»»mb. lUutfcht. Geelnnkb. p. U(1h7«'>): fab. Jf Jirickf^. 
J. f. n. lH7tJ. p. :t27 ( Aiiil*-»ii»a) ; Rammy, P. Z. S. 1^77. p. :«7 
i*-»fir»i; *d. iVftc. Linn. St/c. .V. «V. H'. i. p. JiM ( 1>»77 : Norman II., 
Oulf uf (*arp«iitahaK ii. p. Ui^(I'<7H), iii. p. 11o(1h7)»: IlsH 
S*ufid, Nrw liuin«ra) ; Mryrr, Ibis, 1^71*, p. 141 (Toudauo; lim- 
b'tti>» ; iU^nh. Maiay. An kip. p. 278(1^4 8 7i>: (Vleb«i), p. 324 
4C«ran), p. 407 (T<mate), p. MVi (New (iuinea); StUrad. Ann. 



318 CHARADBnDJB. 

Mu8, Oen. xviii. p. 326 (1882) ; id. Orn. Papuasia etc. iii. p. 309 
(1882) ; Seebohmy Ibis, 1886, pp. 225-234 ; Ramsay, Proc Lum. 
Soc. N, S. W. (2) i. p. 1099 (1887), u. p. 172 (1888: Derby, N.W. 
Australia) ; id. Tttb. List Austr. B. p. 20 (1888 : Austraua gene- 
rally, except Cape York) ; Seebohm, Ueogr. Distr. Ckaradr. p. 283 
(1888) ; Trisitr. Ibis, 1889, p. 668 (Ferguson Isl.) ; North, Nests ^ 
Eggs Austr. B. p. 310 (1889) ; Saload. Agg. Om. F^muasia He, 
iii. p. 201 (1891) ; Legge, Proc. Austr. Assoc. 1892, p. ^. 

Himantopus mekmopterus {nee Temm.), S. Miill. Verh. Land- en 
Volkenk. p. 22 (1839-44: New Guinea) ; Bosenb. Nat. Tijdsckr. 
Nederl. Ind. xxv. p. 266 (1863) ; id. J.f. 0. 1864, p. 137. 

Himantopus novae hollandias, Bp. C. R. zliii. p. 421 (1866). 

Himantopus rufipes {nee Bechst), Martens, J. f. O. 1866, p. 28 
(Luzon). 

Himantopus autumnalis {nee Hasselq.), Waid. Trans. Zod. Soc. ix. 
p. 228 (1876 : Philippines). 

Adult. General colour above glossy black, including the wings ; 
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts white ; tail white, washed 
with smoky brown on the centre feathers and on the outer webs of 
the outer ones ; head all round pure white, as also a very broad 
collar extending round the hind-neck above the mantle ; hind-neck, 
from ihe nape down to this white collar, black ; entire under surface 
of body white ; under wing-coverts black ; axillaries white : " bill 
black ; legs and feet deep pink flesh-colour, becoming red after 
death ; iris pink, margined externally with a deep red ring " {J, 
Gould). Total length 14-5 inches, culmen 2*5, wing 9*4, tail 2-3, 
tarsus 4*5. 

Adult female. Similar to the male and almost as black on the 
back. Total length 14 inches, culmen 2*4, wing 8*4, tail 2-4, 
tarsus 4*16. 

Young. Brown on the upper back and inner secondaries ; the 
hind-neck, from the nape to the mantle, ashy grey, mottled with 
dusky sub-terminal bars to the feathers ; crown of head dull ashy 
grey ; lores and fore part of face white like the under surface of 
the body. 

Hah. Australia, extending to New Guinea and the Moluccas. 

a, b. Ad. et imm. Australia. Seebohm Coll. 

sk. 

c. Ad. sk. Lachlan River, N.S.W. Lord Leigh fP.! 

d, e. Ad. et juv. South Australia. Capt. Sturt [P. J. 
sk. 

/. (^ ad. sk. South Australia (J. Gould). Sir G. Grey [P.]. 

g. Ad. sk. South Australia. Sir D. Cooper. 

h. Ad. sk. Queensland. Seebohm Coll. 

?, k. Ad. sk. Brisbane (J. T. Cockerell). Salvin-Godnian Coll. 

/. Ad. sk. Cape York. Gould Coll. 

m. Ad. sk. Cape York. Seebohm Coll. 

n. S ad. sk. Port Essington. .1. B. Jukes, Esq. 

[0.]. 
OiJhq- 6 9 ^^' N.W. Australia {W. H. Capt. Bo wjer Bower 

et imm. sk. Bowyer Bower). [P.]. 

r. Ad. sk. Saibai, S.P]. New Guinea. Rev. G. McFarlane 

[C.]. 



37. nncAHTorus. 310 

M, t. (f tA.1 u, r. E. Timor. Wnlliice Coll. 

f All. nk. 

tr,r. cT 9 •d.iA. K. Timor (A. R, Wallact), Se«'bohin k Tweed- 

diilt* (\)1U 

y. z. Afl. fk. (\'lehe!*. Twt^diilc Coll. 

«'. -• Mi. *k. N. CLbes (/>r. .Vryer). Swb<»hni Coll. 

A'. / ad. Ilk. A vor Punnius C«*h*be(i ( /f(>- Salvin-itodmanColl. 

urnhfry). 

r, (T. rT $ ftd. Mindftnao. Hu^h Cuming, Km. 

.k. [C.;. 

f'. 9 *<!• *!(• I^fruna do Iltii, Mindnnao, Tweijddale Coll. 

"Sox.VliA.H.Errrfit). 

f. Ad. ikk. Juva. Oould Coll. 

g. Ad. nk. Java (HornJiM). India Muneum. 
A'. Surnum. S. Auj^traliH. Sir G. Grey [P.]. 



Subap. a. HimAntopas picatus. 

Ilimantopua picatua, Ellman, Zooi, 1801, p. 7470. 

IlimantopuA albius Eliman^ Zooi, 18(il, p. 7470. 

Iliiuantopua novn^ lealandiiP {nee (rmtid), Jiekhmh. Grail, tab. cx^ii. 

h^r. MWi (ISi'iO) ; l\itU, Trans, Sew Zeal, Inst. ii. p. 70 (1^70). 
Ilimant<»pui ^piratuK, Potts^ Trans. Sew Zeal. Inst. v. p. M>M(1h72). 
llinianto|iuii letir<)C»*phalu« {net (wonld), Hulltr^ B. Sew Zeal. n. 2U>'i 

(1^7;i) ; SMarjie, Toy. ICreA. Jj- Terr., Birds, p. 30 (187/5) ; Finsck, 

ihU, I'v-J, pp. ajn*. 3«» (N. Z.) ; /yii//rr, A. JVVfT Zeal. 2nd «!. ii. 

p IM, pi. xivii. tijr. 2 ( 1KX8) ; McLean, Ibis, 18lt>. p. iW (N. Z.). 
Hifnanl.»pu* a]bic..Hiis BuUer, Tr. A*. /. Intt, vii. p. 224 (1874) ; id, 

B. A>ir Z^tl. 2Dd I'd. iii. p. 27 (18?<8). 
llimanti'pujt ItMicixvphalufl picatus, Seebohm^ Oeogr, Distr, Charadr. 

p. 2M (lH«y*). 

^^cIm/i m/i//. Similar to //. leuroeephalus^ but duitingtii»h(Hl by the 
ftdmixttin* of black markinp« on the crown and on the hind-neck, 
the tail -feat h<*ni UMnf? ab«o iMlf(e<l more or leaa broadly with black 
ii«ar th»» tijH : ** bill black, ^omctiracM hom-<*olounMi at the tip; 
Ire* snd Uti deep pink tlct^h-colour, and Aometimen bi>auti(ul palo 
Ukc-rnl : «l:ims black; irif« and tyclid brick -rtnl ** ( U'. L, Bullrr), 
Total l«-ii;rth 14*r> inches*, culnien 2-tJ, winjr l*-5, tail 31, tarsus 4. 

ifi all the ^|)^'cimcnH examined by me from New Zealand, not one 
1* tni#* //. UufverfJkalvs, All of them nerm to me to have a tuinl 
*4 //. nt^Lu in their |»lum:ip», and the yonnp birdii have every 
ap("arincr of iMnne hybridtt between the two formn. 

//ft''. New Zealand. 



IVrcv FUrl. K*|. (". 
Sir .^aniu«*l .S'ott V. . 



« .\il •k. N<*w Z«*aland. 

4 \d ^k. N**w /falaiid. 

e ; ad. tk. Nt'W Zt-nland. S»«'bt»hin ( '.-11. 

d Jul •k SrUyn, N. Z., March. S*«*biihm ('ill. 

# ^ ad *k. Itaknia, N. Z., N(»v. S«**bohm <'oll. 

f I ■' V »d. «l Otair»», N. Z., Nov., iXc, llumo ('<»11. 
imta. »k. Julv. 



820 CHARADRIIDiE. 

4. Himantopns mexicanus. 

L'^chasse du Mexique, Brias. Om, v. p. 86 (1760 : Mexico, winter). 

Charadrius mexicanus, P. L. S. Mull. Si/8t Nat., Anhang, p. 117 
(1776) ; Ord, ed. WiU(m!8\Amer. Om. vii. p. 62 (1824) ; Cass. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Set. Philad. 1864, p. 246. 

Charadrius himantopus (pt.)» Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 690 (1788). 

Himantopus mexicanus, Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 741 (1790 : ex Briss.) ; 
Bp. Cotnp. List B. Evr. iif N. Amer. p. 64 (1838) ; Orcm, Gen. B. iii. 
p. 677 (1847) ; Bp. C. JR. xliii. p. 421 (1866) j SalU, P. Z. S. 1^57, 
p. 237 (S. Domingo) ; Bryant^ Proc. Bost Soc. N. H. xi p. 97 
(1867 : S. Doming-o) ; Bxdgw. Bep. AOth Parallel, d. 606 (1877 : 
Carson, Nevada ; Salt Lake) ; id. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. iii. pp. 10, 
201 (1880) ; Omes, Check-l. N. Amer. B. p. 99 (1882) ; Belding, 
Proc, U.S. Nat. Mus. v. p. 634 (1882: Lower California), vL 
p. 862 (1883) ; Coues, Key N. Amer. B. 2nd ed, p. 611 (1884); 
Baird, Brewer, ^ Ridgw. Water-B. N. Amer. i. p. 346 (1884) ; 
Cory, B. S. Domingo, p. 146 (1886) ; Zeledon, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. viu. p. 113 (1886 : Costa Rica) ; Drew, Auk, ii. p. 18 (1885 : 
Colorado) ; A. O. U. Checkrl N. Amer. J?, p. 146 (1886) ; Ferrari- 
Perez, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. ix. p. 178 (1886 : Puebla) ; Goss, Auk, 
iii. p. 114 (1886: S.W. Kansas) ; Cooper, Auk, \v. p. 87 (1887: 
Ventura Co., Cal.) ; Towns. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. x. pp^63, 198, 
286 (1887 : N. Calif.) ; Beckh. t. c. p. 637 (Bexar Co., S.W. Texas), 
p. 661 (San Antonio) ; Ridgw. Man. N Amer. B. p. 47 (1887) ; 
Seebohm, Oeogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 279 (1888) ; Scott, Auk, vi. 
p. 166 (1889 : Sanibel Isl., Gulf Coast of Florida) ; Ridgw. Proc, 
U.S. Nat. Mus. xii. pp. 116, 120, 123, 128 (1889 : James Isl.) ; 
Cory, B. West Ind. p. 231 (1889) ; Mortimer, Auk, vii. p. 888 
(1890 : St. John's River, Florida) ; Towns. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
xiii. p. 134 (1890: aarion Isl.) ; Cory, Auk, viii. d. 46 (1891: 
Anguilla Isl.) ; Northrop, t. c. p. 78 (Andros Isl.) ; Riker $r 
Chapfnan, t. c. p. 163 (Santarem) ; Cory, t. c. p. 361 (Insgua) ; id. 
Cat. B. West Ind. p. 92 (1892 : Bahamas ; Greater and Lesser 
Antilles) ; Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, no. 6, p. 91 (1891 : Idaho) ; 
Scott, Auk, ix. p. 12 (1892 : Jamaica) ; Cory, t. c.y. 48 (Maraguana 
Isl.) ; Scott, t. c. pp. 212, 216 (Caloosahatchie Ke^on, Florida) ; 
Dutcher, Auk, x. p. 272 (1893 : Long Isl.) ; Richm. Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. xvi. p. 526 (1893 : Rio Frio, Costa Rica) ; Jouy, t. c. p. 791 
(Lake Patzcuaro, C. Mexico); Fisher, N. Amer^ Faun. no. 7, 
p. 22 (1893). 

Recurvirostra himantopus (nee Linn.), Wilson, Amer. Om. vii. p, 48, 
pi. 68. fig, 2 (1813). 

Himantopus nigricollis, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. x. p. 42 (1817: 
N. America) ; Auduh. B. Amer. pi. cccxxviii. (c. 1826) ; VieiU. 
Gal. Ois. ii. p. 85, pi. 229 (1834); Auduh. Om. Biogr. iv. 
p. 247 (1838) ; Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. ^ N. Amer. p. 64 (1838) ; 
Auduh. B. Amer. 8vo, vi. p. 31, pi. 354 (1843); Gray, List 
Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 08 (1844: pt); Gosse, B. Jamaica, p. 386 
(1847); Lembeue, Av. Cuba, p. 102 (18r>0) ; Reichenb. Grail. 
tab. xcvii. fig. 041 (1851); Scl. P. Z. S. 1857, p. 206 ( Jalapa) ; 
Baird, B. N. Amer. p. 704 (1858) ; Henry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philad. 1859, p. 108 (New Mexico) ; A. ^ E. Newton, Ibis, 1859, 
p. 258 (St. Croix) : Scl. Sf Salv. t. c. p. 228 (La Antigua) ; Bryant, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. IT. vii. p. 121 (1850: Bahamas) ; Brewer, t.c. 
p. 308 (1860: Cuba) ; Taylor, Ibis, 1802, p. 129 (Florida) ; March, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1864, p. 67 (Jamaica) ; Scl. P. Z. S. 



H7. niMAXTuFrs. 321 

l-^M, p. 178 (ni-mr the Citv of Mexico); SrA/. Mtis. PtnfB-Bag, 
Sol.ipiktw, p. 107 {\m\ : pt.) ; CtmeM, Ibis, iHW, p. 1«W (Arizona) ; 
«WriN, /. r. p. 1)):? ((tuaU»miila) ; Dresser, t.c. p. *U9; id. Ihi*^ 
InUI. p. ;i5 |S. Texa»); Otues, t.c. p. .Sl« ; i>or Ois, Trinid, 
p. 4iV4 (IHtW); htwr.Ann, Luc. N. Y. viii. p. 12 (18<;6; Panama), 
p. l*!*:) (N>w York); .SW. A- Salr. P. Z. S. 1807. p. .Wl (Mexiaiia) ; 
.Si#W<-r. iF/c. K. Vet.'Akad. Fork. 1H«R», p. (K)2 (Porto Hico) ; 
.%/. ^ Sair. P. Z. S. 1870. p. ;«2a (Indt^fatiKablt* IM.) ; ^//r^w. huii. 
Mus. v. Z. ii. p. ;Vi<Wl871 ) ; r/mv. i/flw/-/. //. iii. p. 48. no. lO-JJU 
(1^71); n\/att. Ibis, lH7J, p. :i8:MCi<*naga) : Alien, BulL Mus, 
i\ Z. iii. |i.' J71 (1872 : Orvat Salt Lakt») ; Cuues, Key X. Atner. 
n. p. 247 ( 1^72) ; Sd, ^if i^tlc. P. /. .V. 1873. p. 4o;j ; iid, XomencL 
Ar. Xe**tr. p. 144 (lH7a) ; Hartiny, Ibis, 1h74. p. 2.V4 ; (\Mes, //. 
y.- West, p. 4«2 (1H74» ; I^tirr. Mem. litut. Sm-. \, II. ii. p. ;»W 
(1**74: Rio d«» Conhimna. Mazatlan); Ilensh. Rep. Z^iol. 100/A 
Meriii. p. 4"»C)(lK7r): (Vlorado; Ttah) : Vnues, Ibis, Ih;.',. p. 4JIH; 
Sitlrin, Trnnn. Zotd. S»ic. ix. p. 502 (187o: ImU'fati^Ahlt* Ul.) ; 
Ijttrr. Bull. C.S. Aaf. Mus. iv. p. 40 (1870 : T»*huantv|>ec, Aii>r.) ; 
Ileitis /amJ. Ih77. ^. 475 (IWiuudai*) ; Sennett, Hull. r.S. (ienj. 
Surv. \x. p. 54 (l8|8: lirownmllo, bnHMlin^) ; iMtcr. Proc. V.S, 
Silt. Mus. i p. 1U7 (1878; St. Vincent), p. 2:i8 (Antijrua). p. 242 
(Itarbiida); Maynard, B. East. S. Amer. p. ;?IW (1h79); Cory, 
Ii. liaMamas, p. 153 (iHK)) ; A. Ifr FJ. XewtoH, Ilandb. Jamaiia, 
p. 115 I iKHl) ; Boucard, P. Z. S. 18h3, p. 44$2 (Yucatan) ; Sah-iu, 
Ihis, iHM?. y, 17^ (Hritinh (iuiana) ; Cory. Auk, iv. p. 231 ( lf^7) ; 
Stilt in. Ibis, lKsl». p. 37J« ((\.zumel) ; I^eiltirn, t. c. p. 4l»2 (liar- 
bad<M») : Cory, B. Bahamas, 2nd e*l. p. 153 ( 1K*0). 

IlimantoptiA I*Ui*uniH, 1'ieill. y. Diet. d*IIist. Sat. x. p. 42 (1817: 
M*'iirni. 

J(Lrk-r.tvk-«l Stilt, yutf. Man. (>m. ii. p. H (iK'W). 

Il\p«ibnti'(» iii^rriiMilli-., Cah. in Sthumh. Ilris. (iuiau. iii. p. 75H (1848). 

Miuf»tiiiMi!< uifrrio.ni-. (iunilL J. f. (). K^l p. 422 (CiiU). 1H74, 
p :;l.t I iN.rti. Ki«M>>. 1^::,. ,». ^ih, (VuUi : id.()ni.Ciib.\K \77{ 1n70) ; 
I//. Anal. S"4\ F'ji. Iliitt. S'af. \ii. p. 377 (1^78: Porlo Uico). 

A'fuft tiUtU in /•^<'#»/l#l*/-y*^l;<n^/c•, (ifflfHll Colour Hl)*)Ve ^losK}* 
black with a **\\;i\ii oil\-j:nM»n tinjje; wiii^s entinly bluck hlijrhtly 
^rft^d with jrrtt-n : fntire hark, txcfptinj; the nuntit', pure 
«hitr, in< hiding aUo tht- rnni)i uml up|K*r tail-rovcrt^ ; t.'iil-f«'ather8 
|j%lr •mi'kV'gn V, with white* hhuttfl uiid a ^nat d<'al of white on the 
ii*ni f w«h», iiirn a«*in;; in exti nt towanU the out4'niii>ht, which Lj 
•IfiiiM «'ntirrlv white, with u little ^m<»k^ i;rev on the outer web ; 
f/tf* l.« ail white, i\t4ntlin^ ov«r the fore part <»f the erowii. uu far as 
ill a linr with the «*vei*; lori*. ehi't'k*. and under surface of Ixxlv 
jKirr «hit«*, tht* latter with u blij^bt pinki**)i titijre ; eur-<.*«>vert« 
^Mark.ritf-ndink' ii« u line uttdcriieath the e\e; Ud-'W the latter and 
l^hifid the hind*T part of thet-M* a white H{M)t ; under win:;-c<ivertt 
hl^i. : axill.iriifi white: ** hill de*-p hhick ; I«*^h and fett tine nwi*- 
pink €#f drlieatr pale hike-r«'<l (in life): iri» nmy ruiniine** {liainl, 
iir^i^r, iV Bultjttay). Ti»ial length 1 i*5 inthi*?*. cultnen 2*4.'), wing 
**-;i. lal LHU"i, tar«u» 4. 

Ad*»U ftmaU. Similar to tlie male, hut with the hark, Hiupiilara. 
and \u\\\t »rr«jnduti*M hri>« im r. Total length Vl'y inrln'H, eulmeii 
;*.'.. wiriiT *•♦. tail 2 »*».'>, tar-.u«» 4-2. 

>''...«•«; /.ir'/# ha%f' hrtiwn ha* k- like the idfl leni.ih-^, hut haw 



322 



CHARADRIIDJE. 



Darrow whitish fringes to the feathers of the back, and the inner 
primaries are browner at the end of the inner web, which is fringed 
with white. The back of the neck is also greyish brown, and the 
eye-spots and forehead are tinged with ashy. The first winter 
plumage of the young birds is like that of the old female, and the 
birds moult into the full black plumage in the following spring. 
In young birds there is a tendency to a broad grey collar round the 
hind-neck, and some old birds in black plumage have more or less 
of an indication of a white collar round the neck. So rarely does 
this plumage occur in collections that I believe it to be peculiar to 
young birds that have donned their nnptial dress for the first time. 
Ha^. Temperate North America; Central America and South 
America to Peru, Guiana, and Amazonia. Galapagos, West India 
Islands. 



a. 2 &^* sk. 

b. $ ad. sk. 

c. 2 ^' sk. 

df e,/. cJ ad. sk. 
fff hf t. S ftd. sk. 

k, I. (^ ad. ; m, 
tij o, 2 ad. sk. 

p, q. cJ ad. ; r, %, 
2 ad. sk. 

U 2 j^^' ^k. 

w, r. ^2 ad. sk. 

tr. S ad. sk. 

.i'. 6 juv. sk, 

//. (5 ad. sk. 

z. 2 ad. ek. 

a! . Ad. sk. 

h'. <S ad. sk. 

c'y iV. Ad. sk. 

*''. Ad. sk. 
/', //'. Ad. sk. 
h' . .Ad. sk. 
i' . I mm. sk. 

k' . r< ad. sk. 



San Bernardino, California 

(jP. Sfephms). 
St. Lewis Lakes, California, 

June {H, W. H.). 
Salt Lake, Utah, June 19 

(J, W. Jacox), 
Aransas Bay, Texas, June 

(jP. B, Armstrong), 
Corpus Christi, Texas, May 

(.r*. B, Annstronff). 
Brownsville, May (F, B, 

T!&xbb\f, B. A.). 

Presidio, Mexico, Dec. 20 

(A. Fbrrer). 
Tres Marias Is., Feb. 20 

(A, Forrer), 
Zapotlan, Jalisco (W, B, 

Bichardson). 
Tamesi, Tampico, March 

{ W, B. K.). 
Santana near Guadalajara, 

Jali8co,Dec.8( W, Lloyd), 
Santa Ana, Jalapa, Oct. 

(F, Perez). 
Progreso, N. Yucatan, {E, 

C. G, Devi's). 
Progreso, Oct. (G, F. 

Gaiimer). 
Cozumel Isl., June (G. F. 

Gauiner), 
Kuatan Isl. (G. F. G.). 
Jolbox Isl., Dec. (G. F. G.), 
Guatemala (Constancia). 
San Jos^, Jan., Guatemala 

(O. S.). 
Momolombo, Nicaragua, 

May 20 ( W. B, Itidmrd- 

son). 



Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman CoU. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-Godiuan Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Sulvin-Godman Coll, 



f '. Ad. ik. 



37. niMANToprs. 32J3 

r. A(L »k. Jamaica. Ocmm? Coll. 

M . Ad. Ai. San iNiminiro. M. Sall6 [C.]. 

m. 9 ad. tk. Anguilla, W. I., Apr. 6 (C. SalviD-(.2odiiian Coll. 

& H'mcA) : Cory CoU. 
o, c^ ad. aIc Antigua, Feb. (CW. Feil- W. India Committee 

d4»M). Uoyal 8<)C. 

•'. 9 ad. tk. St Vincent, May » (A/rf. Salvin-Godman ColL 

/>. H'. Smith), 
Magdalvna Vallev, Colom- Salvin-Godman Coll. 

bia(r. H'. n^yatt), 
r\ §'. Ad. tk. British (tuiana. Sir R. Schomburgk. 

i'. Ad. tk. IflL of Mexiana, I^wer Salvin-Godman (JolL 

A maxon»( AM,H 'allace ) . 
m\ r'. Inun. ak. Indefatigable I«l., (tala- Salvin-Godman Coll. 

iiatroA, Sept. (Dr, A. 
flaM). 
«'. Strraum. Jamaica. Goese Coll. 

5. Hinuntopoi knndieni. 

llimantopUA nifnicolli« {nee Vitiii.)^ Peiz, VerhantU, 1.-6. Get. Ifum, 
ixiii. p. ir^y (1873: Honolulu, Feb.). 

Ilimftntiipu^ candiduA {mec liotm.)^ Dole, HaicauaM Aim. 1879, p. 52 ; 
Fm0cM, Ihu, l^HO, p. 79 (Honolulu). 

HimantopuK knudseni, St^'jn. Proc. U.S, Xat. Mm. x. p. 81, p|. vi. 
tig. 2 (1kk7: Kauai M.), xi. p. 9(( (1888: Nuhau), xii. p. :)81 
(l8Hi>); iMfokm, Gn>tjr. DUtr. Charadr. p. 280 (I8b8); Scott 
H'iUtm 4r Kvaiu, Avet Hawaiieruet, pt. iv. (l89i*i). 

Adult, Similar to //. n»fxicanut, but larger and with a longer 
bill, (itncral colour above sooty black with a greenixh gloss ; the 
wifigt d<-e|ier black, glossed with green : entire back, rump, and 
ti|»}Mr tail-coverta white, the latter edged with black ; tail-feathera 
••by grey, with white shaftii and a good deal of white on the 
innrr wrlm ; all the feathers tipped with black ; head and neck 
bUck. including the feathers in front of the eye, sidea of face, car- 
ctiTffTta. and »ide« of neck : below the eye, and behind the upper 
part of the latter, a white H|K>t ; base of forehead, lores, cheeks, and 
under surface of body pure white : under wing-coverta black ; axil- 
lartr* white. Total length 14*5 inches, culmen 3*1, \iing 9*3, 
tail 3. tartuii 4*7. 

//fj^'. Sandwich Ulands. 

• Ad. •k. Hawaii. Pn>f. Collett 'IM 

i. V mL •k. M« Ickai, .May 10 (Jl. (\ L. Joint (\inini. Itoy. Soc 

iVrA'ifij). ' & lint Assoc.' 

6. Himantopiu meUi. 

IIimsnt«»po» meUn, Hoftd/r. «V Jacn. Ann. Set. A'a/. (2) xvi. p. 320 
n'm : <Hago); Potts, Trans. Sew Zeal. Jnst. ii. p. 70(1870: 
lUkaiB ri««r-bHl, ()rt. U> I)eC., breeding); SeeltoAm^ (ie*tffr. DUtr. 
f'Marttdr. p. 2«/» (1hn8). 

HtmanUipuji n"%fr xaalandia*, O'otdd, P. Z. S. 1841. p. 8 (Port Nirbul- 
Mioi, pC. ; id. It. Austr. vi. pL 2^> (1841) ; Gray, m Ihefenh. Trar. 
y. Zeal. ii. App. p. 196 (1KI3 : Port Nicholnin) ; id. Vtpy. 

t2 



324 CHARADR11P.«. 

Ercb. $• Terr., BinU, p. 13 (1844); id. List, Grail. Brit. Jfii*. 
p. 98 (1844); id. Gen. B. in. p. 677 (1847); ReUhenb. GraU, 
tab. xcvii. fig. 1046 (1860) ; Bp. C. B. iliii. p. 421 (1866) ; Gray^ 
Ibis, 1862, p. 237 ; Schl. Mits. Fays-Bos, Scolopaces, p. 108 (1864); 
HutUm, Ibis, 1870, p. 394 (Auckland) ; Gray, Hand-L B. iii. 
p. 48, no. 10296 (1871); BuUer, B. New Zeal p. 206 (1873); 
Harvie-Broum, Ibis, 1874, p. 96 (Otaio) ; Harting, P. Z, 8. 1874, 
p. 469, pi. Ix. fig. 10 ; Sharpe, Toy. Ereb. 4* Terr,, Birds, p. 30 
(1876); Seebohm, Ibis, 18(56, p. 234; Buller, B. New Zeal. 2nd 
ed. ii. p. 24, pi. xxvii. fig. 1 (1888) ; M'Lean^ Ibis, 1892, p. 262 



(N.Z.) ; Leg^e, Proc. Austr. Assoc. 1892, p. 30. 
llimantopus niger, EUmarif Zool. 1861, p. 7470. 



Adult male. Entirely black above and below, the wings and tail 
glossed with green ; the under surface of the body duller and more 
sooty black than the upper surface : '' bill black ; legs and feet 
pinky red, the claws black ; iris and eyelids crimson " ( W. L, 
BulUr). Total length 12 inches, culmen 2'6, wing 9*8, tail 3*1, 
tarsus 3*55. 

Young, Black, more or less blotched with white, with a good 
deal of white on the base of the tail, and the throat and breast white. 
I believe, however, that the back and rump always remain black in 
the young bird. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

a. Ad. St. New Zealand. Percy Earl, Ee* 

6. Ad. St. New Zealand. Captain Stokes 

c. Ad. sk. New Zealand. Captain Stokes 

d, e. Ad. sk. New Zealand. Sir Samuel Scott [P.]. 
/. Imm. sk. New Zealand. Sir Q. Grey [P.j. 

g. 1mm. sk. New Zealand. New Zealand Co. [P.l 

h. Ad. sk. Port Nicholson, N. Z. New Zealand Co. [P.J. 

i. Ad. sk. Saltwater Creek, N. Z., Seebohm Coll. 

May. 

k. Ad. sk. Selwyn, N. Z., Sept. ( Vtm Seebohm Coll. 

Haast). 

I. Ad. sk. Wellington, N. Z. Seebohm Coll. 

yn,n. S ad. et J Otago, jN^. Z., May, Sept. Hume Coll. 
imm. sk. 



38. CLABORHYNCHUS. 

Type. 

r^eptorhj-nchus, Du Bus, Bull. JR. Acad. Brux. ii. 

p. 419 (18i^5) C. leucocephalos. 

Cladorhynchus, Gray^ Lvit Gen. B. 1840, p. 69 . . C. leucocephalus. 
Xiphuliorhvnchus, Biichenb. Vog. NeuhoU. ii. 

Abtli. i. ]). '2S (1840) C. leucocophalus. 

JiiiHf/e. Confined to Australia. 



1. Cladorhynchus leucocephalus. 

Keciirviro.^tra leucocepliala, J'ieiil. N. Dirt, tnitst. Nat. iii. p. 10.'> 

{181()); id. Gal. Ois. ii. pi. cclxxi. (18^M). 
Kecurvirostra orienlalit:, Cuv. lilyne An. i. p. 400 (1817) Temin. 



3S. cLAiM>RnT2fcnrA. [\'2'i 

Mam. tTfhnt. ii. p. .VCJ (I'^iH)); Oray, (im. U. iii. p. .ViO (1K47k 

li^ukrmb. (ftnll. tab. Ixii. H^r. .V-H) ( lrC,l ). 
Ij«-pt<irliviirhti<« p**cttiniIiN />m /ym*, //m//. /?. Acad, lirltfiiiue^ ii. 

p. 4lU pi. vii. (iKVi) ; id May. de 'Atol. \^Vi, pi. 4o. 
lliiiiAiit«ipufl palmntuA, fnmjd, .Syn. //. AuMir. i»art ii. (I><'t7). 
(*liiili>rh\ii«*hu4 }KM*t4)rali«*. (iray^ List (irn, Ii. p. HI) (lM40); fSouhi^ 

H. Aiutr. \\. pi. 1*«J (IHII); f/ray, /.i>/ ^Vo//. lirit. Mua. p. ?W 

< \M\ : S. .ViwtriUiH) ; i^i. den. Ii. iii. p. W? (1^47) ; .SVnr/. A'l/i. 

iVntr. Aujttr. ii. .Vpp. p. 41> (I**4U: L«»p«»on'j« Lake; StrfiK^cki*:* 

Ct^V) : f;<m/J, Ilawfff. If. AHMtr. ii. p. 1>H ( lH<tt) ; ^V«y, Iland-t. 

Ii. iii. p. 47. no. |<)*J'.»| ( |.*<7I ) ; lOimMif, Pntr. Linn. S»r. \. S. 11'. 

i. pp. \f^, 217 (M77), ii. p. HW (H7S), vii. p. />7 (1^m;{: f>n:«») ; 

Attrtk, op. tit. {'!) i. p. I1«n*> (IS.S7: ejryr?*) ; linmrny, Tah. List 

Atuir. Ii. p, !•<) (IKKH : N. S. \V. ; Victoria and S. Auntmlia ; \V. 

and S.W. .Xu^trnlia) ; Sorth, Setts ^ I'^J'J* Austr. Ii. p. .'til 

\iplii<li«»rhynrhu<« p«»<'toralit. Itrirhrnh. Vtiy. XfuAoii. p. 28 (l**48) ; 

ui. (irnit. tab. xc\ii. lijr. 1047 (1^'>I). 
rUd'irhvm'biiA ori«Mitaliii, Srlyn^htm/ch. Hull, Acad. R. lichjitfue^ 

\%iii.*pt. 1, p. \U\<A ) ; ///». C. Ii. \liii. i>. 421 (IH;>i;). 
Ilimantopu.t |»»vt«»ralij«. Sihl. .Mus. I^iys-Iias, Scolopact»M, p. llW 

« l-^H) : S^rfnthtn, iifftifr. Dist, Vhnradr. p. 2^, pi. 14 (IMH*^). 
(*lad<)rhvm*hiifl I*Mi<MC4*pbiiliu«, Salvia^ Ibis, ls74, p. 2«'i2 not** ; iW. 

Cat. Strickl. i\M. p. Jii>4 (lKSi»). 

Adult. (itMieral ctdour al>ovo whit4*, including the flcapiilars : 
f«nip(«'ral plume* .iiid winf^-covorta black ; primarie;} black, bruwDcr 
oti th«* itintr web. the inner onet« more or It^HH white on the inner 
wt li* : the m'Tondarii'A entirely whit«», e.xcept the innermost, which 
art' lilat k : tail white. {ihade<l with ashy f^rey, princifKilly on the outer 
«rU; head and nerk all n»und pun* uhite as far aa the fore-nivk, 
which in f«f»arat<'d by a line of black from the cheat, which, with the 
brrapkt, i^ dark cheotnut, comin^c to a point on the ci'ntn>of the Litter 
aod jojninic a broaii black band down the centre of the abdomen ; 
•id«^ of Uidy. under tail-covertM, and axillariea pure white ; under 
«i ;ritr-^>iTert^ blarkitth, t hose near the edfpe of the win^ &nd the lower 
j»riruan -riiverti with white Hi»otj( : *' bill black; f«H»t yellow "(./. 
fi'j>nld\. Ti»tal lenj^h VSTt inche!«, culmen 2*^, wing 7'7, tail 3*1, 
iar^'1% 3«Ci. 

Mr. (f«»uld imapned that the cheotnut breaat^band didapi>eare<l 
•iuntiir the w inter and waa a mark of brt*edinf?-plumage. Thi.n s4*<-nM 
^rTj i^awiible, juil;:in^ by the hiM>cimenii in the Museum, which are 
fhaninntr from white to chentnut. An they ap{M'ar to lie |)erf«'ctly 
Old in^lniilualA, the ac4|ui*«ition of the clH*stnut breast cannot l»e a 
M^n iti p4iHiirig from youth to a^. 

i'vuM'f UtnU differ from the a^lulta in lM*inff entin*lv white )m*Iow, 
affi in Mjuie nfievimen!* the win^s are a^hy brown in."»t4>a<l of black. 

ILiK. Auatralu. 

m IniOj. •!. .Xu^tralia. Sir I>. <'o«ip«*r F*.'. 

4 \d ftk An-trnlia. Sir h. r,M,|«.r l».J. 

f Imtn »k .\u*tralirt. SuI\in-< MMiman ( uU. 

d.0./ Ad -k S.iith Au-tnilin. Sir <• <;rr\:lV. 

f Jul •k Siiith \u-(rjli.t S«*ilxi||iii (*(i||. 



32G CHARADRIIDJfi* 

h, I. Ad. 8k. Victoria, S. and W. Coast Salm-Godman ColL 

{J. T. Cockerell), 
k. Ad. 8t New South Wales. Australian Museum 

[P.]. 
/. Juv. 8k. West Australia. Purchased. 



39. RECURVIROSTRA. -,_ 

Type. 
Recurvirostra, Zcnn. Syst. Nqt. i. p. 256 (1766) .... R. avocetta. 
Avocetta, Brisson, Om, vi. p. 638 (1760) R. avocetta. 

Range. Nearly cosmopolitan. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Greater wing-coverts and secondaries white ; 

hack white, with a hroad line of black down 
the scapulars. 
a'. Crown black or blackish brown ; sides of 

face and throat white avocetta, p. 326. 

b'. Crown cinnamon like the hind-neck, sides 

of face, and throat (ad. sestiv.); crown 

pearl V grey like the hind-neck (juv. et 

ptil. hiem.) americana, p. 330. 

c'. Crown chestnut like the hind-neck, sides of 

face, and throat nova hoUandUe, p. 333. 

b. Greater wing-coverts and secondaries blackish 

brown like the mantle, wings, and tail ; head 

white andina, p. 334. 



1. Recurvirostra avocetta. 

The Avocet. 

The Avosetta of the Italians, Albin, Nat. Hist. B. i. p. 96, pi. 101 

(1738). 
L*Avocette, Briss. Om. vi. p. 638, pi. xlvii. fig. 2 (1760) ; D'Aubent 

PL Enl. ix. pi. 363; Buf. Hist. Nat. Ois. viii. p. 466 (1781). 
Recurvirostra avocetta, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 256 (1766) ; Gm. Syst. 

Nat. i. p. 693 (1788) ; Bechst. Om. Taschenb. pt. 2, p. 329, pL 29 

(1803) ; Pallas, Zooyr. Rosso-Asiat. ii. p. 160 (1811 : S. Dauria) ; 

Temm. Man. d'Om. p. 380 (1815); VteiU. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. 

iii. p. 102 (1816) ; Temm. Man. d'Om. 2nd ed. ii. p. 690 (1820) ; 

Rou.v, Om. Prov. pi. 338 (1826) ; Werner, Atlas, GralUs, pi. 3 

(1827) ; Brehm, Vbg. Deutschl. p. 686 (1831) ; Less. Traiti d'Om. 

p. 691 (1831) ; Naum. Vog. Deutschl. viii. p. 213, Taf. 204 (183(^) ; 

Strickl. P. Z. S. lase, p. 101 (Smyrna) ; Gould, B. Eur. iv. pi. 308 

(1837) ; Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. ^' N. Arner. p. 54 (1838) ; MacyilL 

Man. Brit. B. ii. p. 87 (1840) : drespon, Om. Gard, p. 31)8 (1840) ; 

Keif 8. c^* Bias. Wirb. Eur. p. 209 (1840) ; Nordjn. in Demid. Voi/. 

Buss. Mirid. iii. p. 248 (1840); Selys-Longch. Faun. Belg. p. 123 

(1842); Schl. Bev. Crit. p. xcvi (1844); Gray, List Grail. Brit. 

Mus. p. 97 (1844); Mi'ihle, Beitr. Om. Griechenl. p. 98 (1844); 

Hofhjs, Icon. ined. in Brit. Mus., Grail, pis. 90, 100, no. 573 ; id 



in Gray'fi Zool. Misc. p. 86 (1844); Biipp. Syst. Uebers. p. li!6 
(1845: Lower E^'vpt in winter); Gray, Cat. Mainm. i^c. Nepal 



:^. BICVRVIBOSTRA. ti27 

f»rf», Hodft, p. 1.38 (1H4I(); Jl^trits. R^i Brit. IL ii. p. ±27, 
|>1. Uzzii. tig. 1 (1H4«1) : f/ray, r/^n. /?. iii. p. r>7» (1R17) ; i^/vM, 
Cat, h. Mtu, Am, St»c. p. lNV> (1K|9: Calcutta); Tkompn. /?. /ir/. 
ii. p. 2:20 il^^»): MaryilL Brit. B. IT. p. .*)(>( (iHTiO) : Reichentt. 
firatL Ubi Ix vi. KfT*. »K.-> 9^7 ( 1H51 ) ; ^rb. Ikutm, Fmflr, pi. ^\ A. 
fijT. 2 (l»C>L') ; S^t. F'ly. A'«ipr/, pi. 2oO (1H.M) ; ZirA/. Aow^ir/. 
^r. Mum, BenU. p. 93 (IHTkI) ; HengL Sii»t. Ufhrr$. p. <Wi (iKVi: 
Kordofaa and Ked S<>a); Bp. C, JL xUii. p. 421 (1^*16); Hartt, 
Om. W.-Afr, p. 2.V> (1*57: Congi)); JaiiA. et BartA.'LajHtmm. 
Rirk. Orm. p. 4H| (1859); rn<fr. /ftui, 1869, p. 79 (Tuforurt); 
/M/rni, /. r. p. :i.'>7 (K. AtlaA), p. IViHi (I>iHndeli); /'^*fry«, //i/ 



WMI, p. :M.') ( lliitrinto) ; LintUrm. Vog. Grierhml p. \m (184X1) ; 

, p. ;U3 (Pti 
.VA/. />*rr. SfderL'Vogftt, pi. 2.x fiffii. 10, 10a (IHIU): Hartt. 



Aariia. /Ai'j, 18>'0, p. H6 (Amov), 1861, p. ;m (Poiho Uivt*r) ; 



J./. O. IHOI, p. 271 ; SK-ink. IbiM, IMS, p. 406 (Apes Hill (Vvk, 
Fonm»M); Rad*U, RriM. Sibir^ logtin, p. 826 (186:{: Tarvi-iMir, 
Apnl): frVny, Ud Brit. B. p. 162 (1868); Wright, IMm, 18«U, 
p. 149 (Maltah Sta/Toni Allen, t.e. p. 241 (hlirrpt); Kirk, t. c. 
p. :»2 (ZamlK*«i) ; tfoaZr/, //. (ft. Brit. iv. pi. 52\ 1864) ; Cotirtt, 
tkPfr: CkriMtiania Omrgtu om. J-hmn. p. ia'> (1864); Srkl. 
Mum. Piiy«.//<u.Scol<)pAcem p. 10:) (1864) ; Jerd, B. Ind. iii. p. 707 
flMU); (iifft. /frtf,1865«p.61 (Pitt); .Vorf , <. c. p. 4.36 ; Lavorc/, 
/r. S. A fr. p. :^J8 ( 1 867 ) : Svink. Ibis, 1867, p. 400 ; Deffl. ft 6erhe, 
tPm. Btr. u. p. 243 (1867) ; Lockr, Er/U. Sn. Alg^r., Ois. iLp. 287 
<18<C); TriMr. Ibit, 18«)8, pp. 13.3,326 (PalmtiBi*); Smith, t. c. 
p. 4«V4 (Portu;ral) ; C%ipm. Trav. H. A/r. ii. App. p. 420 (|H4W) ; 
C'Meti, \onjes Fmftf, p. A7 (184t8) ; Borygr. Vogftf. Norddeutarhi . 
\^. 1 12 ( 18IKM ; Smnder. Sr. Fagt. pl.:<8. fi^. 1 (184;9) ; Dott^rt. Artf, 
.Siril. p. 197 (I •^9); Tyiyard, Ibis, 1^»6J), p. 76 (CtiWb**!^, 
brM^iiiiir; H<>p(*Uiwn): I>rn$te, Wtgetfc. Borkum, p. 1<V( (lH4i9); 
P%m$ck if llnrtt. l%wf. (Htafr. p. 7.V5 (1870); Stfi^ms. B. Xor/ulk, 
ii. p. 2:i7 ( 1 rt70 ) : Biters \ Burklry, Ibis, 1 K70, p. 3:i2 ( Mai^edonia ; 
Ka.«U*Ddji); Fritsrh, Viuj. Bur. Taf. :U. tig. 7 (1873); Grag, 
iiamJ'l. B. m. p. 47, n... H»2h:i (1871) ; Salr*id. Faun. Itat., tW. 
p. 2UI (1871); Swinh. P. 7s. S. \h7\. p. 4(V') (China Titfint in 
wint^n; draff, B. HW/ .Sr*,//. p.;i02 (1871) ; .Sail wAtji, /AiJ, 1^71, 
p :tp«7(S. Spain); IlnldMtr. P.Z.S. lH72.p.47r>((VvliHi) ; Hartinf/, 
ittimih. Brit. B. p. 46 (1^72) ; She/lrg, B. Eggftt,' y. 260 (1^72) ; 
fiumnt in An'ifrtut. //. Jhtm. ht. p. .314 (1872: Otjinibinr{ii»' ; 
<>ad"ij«m; \VaIHi»h liav ; SAiidwirh llarUmr; .\ntrra pMUi'i'ia;; 
ilrwji Orn. y.O.'Afr.'ii. pi. 1, p. 117.'i ( 1^*73 J; l\ihtwn, Finlawla 
F";/l. p. 246 (K.3); .Vivr/s. Turkftt. Jerofn. p. ««* ( 187:5 » ; 
Br'0»ke, IMm, 1h7:|. p. 3:W (Sardiuia): llages IJttvtt, t.r. p. 417 
(KathiawnrK Hnrnf, Str. F. i. pp. l:i3/24'< (1^73: Munch iir 
\jkV>') ; Adam,t. r. p .'K»7 iSnuihhur) ; Hartimf, IbiM, \^7\, p. 24**> ; 
AiiiAy. it. Sketl, p. I9it (1.^74): Adam, Str. F. ii. p. .3:{1» (1874: 
SainfihuF' ; JPrrMner, //. Bur \ii. p. .'*77, id. *V14 ( l**7.i) : /r/^, Oni. 
Sir. tiihr. p. U'A i H7.'i) ; Ihtnf. ^ Hnrvte Bntirn, Ibw, ]s7\ p. 4-'0 
f TraniivhaniA); Fulton, i>i» Betg. lu 161 (1h7.'i): ButUr, Str. F. 
i\ p. *|N Mh76: lkH*fla); Blan'f. Fatt. Persia, ii. p. 2h;i|h76: 
Shifaz l^r, Jun«); />fv-i«T. I'hi; lH76,p. ;t2*J; /"urs. Bull. Si^. 
Xf^. F^ner, i. p. 249 (1-^76). ii. p. l.Vt (1877: Pnlnud) : Finth , 
Ihu, 1H77, p. Till (Ukt* .Vln-Kul): Butler, Str. F. %. p. 2?l:« iIh77: 
liai«-rmt|; i^t%d if t>u»t. Om. Chine, p. 44U (1^70; Prjer. in 
B'wity'a Orn, -Vwr. iii. ti. K* ( H7h : S.K. .Monjr.dia. March; 
Yellow Uirer, bm<<linvr ; KokiKnur, .March); iiutne, Str. F. vii. 
p. «f7 (H78 : Judhpur), p. 4^9 (( alcutu^ ; Blakut. ^ i'rgtr, Ibis, 



328 CUAIUDRIID^. 

1878, p. 220 (Sn.aki, Tokio) ; Bogd. B, Cauc. p. 105 (1879); 
Finsch, Verhandl. z.-b. ges. Wieriy xxix. p. 251 (1879: Omsk); 
Butler^ Cat, B. Sind etc. p. 66 (1879: winter visitant) ; Hume, 
Str, F. viii. p. 113 (1879) ; Leffge, B. Ceylon, iii. p. 926 (1880) ; 
Danf, Ibis, 1880, p. 84 (Asia Minor) ; Bocage, Om, Angola, p. 469 
(1881 : Mossamedes) ; W. A. Forbes, P. Z. S, 1881, p. 644 (ana- 
tomy) ; Milne-Edwards ^ Grandidier, Hist. Nat. Madag., Ois. 
p. 628 (18S2) ; Batler, Feilden, ^ Reid, Zool. 1882, p. 425 (New- 
castle, S. A.) ; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. CoU. p. G04 (1882 : Smyrna) ; 
Blakiston ^ Fryer, B. Japan, p. Ill (1882) ; Simson, Ibis, 1882, 
p. 90 (Dacca) ; Seebohm, t. c. p. 222 (Astrachan) ; B. O. U. List 
Brit. B. p. 162 (1883) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1888, p. 31 (Caspian and 
Black Seas) ; Irby, t. c. p. 186 (Santander) ; Seebohm, t. c. p. 898 
(Dobrudscha) ; Saunders, ed. Yarrelts Brit. B. iii. p. 299 (1883) ; 
Blakist. Amended List B. Japan, p. 30 (1884: doabtfullj 
recorded); Tristr. Faun. ^ Flor. Palest, j^. 131 (1884: Sea 
of Galilee) ; Bogd. Consp. Av. Imp. Boss. ^. 79 (1884 : Black Sea ; 
Sea of Azof ; Aralo-Caspian region ; Russian Songaria ; Dauria) ; 
Badde, Orn. Cauc. pp. 44, 424 (1884) ; Mttrray, Vertebr. Faun. 
Sind, p. 268 (1884) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 673 
{l^M); Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) i. n. 221 (1884: Lake 
Oialalaka) ; Swinhoe «$* Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 134 (Gungra, Central 
India) ; Gigl Avif. Ital. p. 370 (1886) ; Salvad. Flenco Ucc. lial. 
p. 214 (1886); Sundev. Ibisj 1886, p. 466; Buckley ^ Harcie 
Brown, Vertebr. Faun. Sutherl. p. 216 (1887) ; Tait^ Ibis, 1887, 
p. 388 (Portugal) ; Beid, Str. F. x. p. 463 (1887 : Lucknow) ; 
Irby, Key List Brit. B. p. 46 (1888) ; Chapman, Ibis, 1888, 
p. 448 (Spain) ; Buckley 8f Harvie Brown, Vertebr. Faun. Outer 
Hebrides, p. 128 (1888) ; Reichen. Syst. Verz. Vog. Deutschl. p. 60 
(1889) ; Saunders, Man. Brit. B. p. 646 (1889) ; Gigl. Avif. 
Ital. Ist Resoc. p. 681 (1889), 2nd Resoc. p. 600 (1893), Srd Resoc. 
p. 616 (1891); Bru8i?ia, Motr. etc. (Orn. Croat), p. 88 (1890) : 
Li/ford, Col. Fig. Brit. B. pt. xiii. (1890) ; Buckley ^ Harvie 
Broicn, Vertebr. Faun. Orkney Isl. p. 206 (1891) ; Evans, Ibis, 
1891, D. 80 (incubation) ; Sharpe, t. c. p. 114 (Fao) ; Styan, t. c. 
pp. 830, 604 (Lower Yangtse) ; Frivaldsky, Av. Hung. p. 141 
(1891) ; Seebohm, Ibis, 1892, p. 24 (Heligoland) ; Sibree, t. c. 
p. 116 (Madagascar) ; De la Touche, t. c. p. 493 (Foochow ; 
Swatow) ; Hartert, t. c. p. 616 (E. Prussia) ; Chapm. Ibis, 18J^t 
p. 349 (W. Jutland) ; Irby, Om. Straits Gibr. 2nd ed. p. 274 
(1896). 

Scolopax avocetta, Scop. Ann. i. p. 92 (1760). 

Avocetta recurvirostra, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 21 (1783). 

Scooping Avoset, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 293 (1786). 

Avocetta europ«;a, Dumont, Diet. Sci. Kat. iii. p. 339 (1816). 

Recurvirostra tephroleuca, Vieill. Enr. Meth. i. p. 360 (1820: 
Senepl) ; Hartl. Orn. W.-Afr. p. 236 (ia57). 

Recurvirostra lissipes, Hrehm, l^og. Deutschl. p. 686 (1831). 

The Avocet, Yarreli, Brit. B. ii. p. 56.) (1843). 

Recurs'irostra avocetta fissipes, Iteichenb. Grail, tab. Ixvi. fig. 988 
(18ol). 

Recurvirostra helebi, A. E. Brehm, J.f. O. lsr)4, p. 84. 

Recurvirostra helevi, Brehmy J'ogelf. p. 826 (1865). 

Recurvirostra europaja, Afitifwn'j Cat. descr. Ucc. p. 110 (1864). 

Recurvirostra siueusis, Sirhi/itfe, Ihis^ 18()7, p. 401 (Anioy). 

Himantopus avocetta, Seehohniy Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 74 (1885) ; id. 
Ibis, 1880, p. 21^8; id. Geogr. Distr. Vharadr. p. 28<) (1888). 



30. RRcrKTiRoirrRv. r>2*J 

Adult maU. GoDonl colour ahore varied with black and white : tho 
upper part of the mantle and nrapulars black ; the rest of tlie l»ack, 
rump, and upper tail-covert» pure white, an also the outer scapulara, 
which form a white band on each side of the lateral black l>andH on tho 
back : small wiii^^-oovertH alon^; the carpal e<lf?o of the wing white, 
median corerts black, forming a broad band down the wing : l)astard- 
wing and greater coverts pure white : primary-coverts white with 
black tt]««, the inner ones pure white; outer primaries blackish with 
whito at the base, tht* inner ones pure whit« as well as the set'ond- 
aries, the innermost M*c<»iidaries blackish ; tail-feathers pale ashy 
grey, throuterm^tHt feathers whitish ; crown of head black, extending 
in a br>ad line to the hind-neck ; lores also blackish, and the feathera 
bt'low thf eye, sid»*.H of fae«» and ear-ci»verts, sides of n«^k, and entire 
under surface uf Ixxly, including the under wing-covcrtM, axillaries, 
and <|uill-lining, pun* white : ** bill black : feet and Uh*h pale blue: 
iri« finish brown " ( HuwaM Saundfrg), Total length 10*5 inches, 
culm«*n 3'«S, wing S-f), tail «i, tarsus *{. 

A'luU ffmttU, Similar to the male in plumage. Total length 
17 iuthes, culmen .'M5, win;; 0, tail ^.V), tarsus WW. 

In wiuti*r both tho old and young binls ap{)ear to have the white 
of the upper parta sullied with gri*y, and the black of the head is 
nMitini^d l<> the crown, not reaching beyond the nipt* : some spe- 
nmm*, probably young ouch, h-ivt* a gtxxl deal of bn>wn mixixl with 
tbt* black «>f the upp<T partM. The tail is light grey in winter, and 
lircvmr-* pure white in .huiiitikt. 

y<gtlnuf. Af»hv gr<-v, i»li;:htlv niottli^l with duskv bars : on the 
mhir-* of tht* mantU* two inconiplfte streaks of black ; a black streak 
on the middle of the rump and a black line extending along the sidtii 
cf the UmIv aiTovi the base of the r(M)t of the tail ; minor black 
markings art* M-en upon the head and ou the wings ; under surface 
of InhIv vcIlowi«ih whit«. 

li'ift. In suitabK* loi^alitieri throughout (Vntral and Southern 
Kur**;M*, Africa, and Tcmi>erate Asia, east to Mongolia in summer, 
and s^mth to the Indian IVnuiHula and ( cylon. Formerly breeding 
III tbe British Islands, but now only an occaMoual visitor. 

m 

IWham, Su.^-M'x. Sharpi* ('••II. 

N.irfnlk. (Hd Toll. 

S. VVnlf*. M'liiUi^^u ('till. 

rtir<i|M*. I*iirchii'^*d. 

JiitUiitl. Jtiiii- ('f ■ lirnzttn). llinu*' ( 'oil. 

/iivtli'r /^-i*, llullttml. SmKiu (t'Mluuin Coll. 

Il.iliiml. (i.MiM (*.*ll. 

Il..;isml (K ///.m/i. (i.miaCoIl. 
>•.* ill*.. M.n ir.i I li. S*iuniUr» i. Twi'.-ldale ( '.ill. 

.; Al/*'tia. St^vb-.liiu Coll. 

Alh«*M*. Consul M«Tlin'I*. '. 

f<\pt. .Mnnh I/;. /;. Sh,Ur\,). S.,hnhiij r*A\. 
i'ti\np Col'.fi^. Sir .\. Ssmtli ('. . 

JNiiiiani'Ltr.«l (*..!. \ipliT»^~»n, fl^i. 

( ■ 



m 


I'titn •!. 


i. 


\\ .t 


e 


\\ -t. 


./. 


*■ J»*\ •I. 


/ 


A1 •;. 


■# 


\) *li 


A, 


1 J 41 M. 


• 


I'il -k 


/ 


I fe«l •• 


M, 


, « * MltlU 




u A 1 -k. 


r 


K\ -I 


v 


r ' *#! -k 


» 


f Ji.t •! 


m 


\) -k 



330 CHAKADRIID^ 

V, AcL ak. Fao, Persian Gulf, Jan. 6. W.D. Camming, Eaq. 

[P.]' 

w. S ad. sk. Narkot, Sind, Jan. 18 ( W, T. Hume Coll. 

Blanfard), 

T. Ad. sk. Loodiana, Jan. Hume Coll. 

y. Ad. sk. Sind (Dr. Gould). India Museum, 

z. (S ad. sk. Munchur Lake, Jan. 27 {A. Hume Coll. 

O. JET.). 

a'. $ ad. sk. Sambhur, Jan. 14 (R. AT. Hume Coll. 

Adam). 

b\ c\ rf'. cf ? ad. Ahmedabad, April 19 (A. O. Hume ColL 

sk. H.). 

e'. $ juv. sk. Ajmere, Dec. 19 {A. 0. H.). Hume Coll. 

f-h'. (5 $ ad. sk. Delhi, Jan. to March {A. O. Hume Coll. 

H.). 

i'-m'. cT $ ad. sk. Gurgaon district, Jan. to Hume ColL 

March (^. O. /r.). 

n'~q, cT 9 ad. sk. Gur^jfaon district, Nov. to Hume Coll. 

March ( W, N. ChiU), 

r\ s', t'. Ad. sk. Etawah. Hume Coll. 

u'-x'. Ad. sk. Sohnpur. PinwiU Coll. 

y'. Ad. sk. Nepal. Hodgson Coll. 

z'. Ad. sk. Assam (McClelland). India Museum. 

a"t h". Ad. sk. Calcutta (Bhfth). India Museum. 

c"j d". d ? ad. Amoy, Feb. 6 (R. Swmhoe). Seebohm CoU. 

sk. (Types of R. stnensis.) 

e". Ad. sk. Fokien. Seeoohm CoU. 

/'. 5 ad. sk. Swatow {R. 8.). Seebohm Coll. 

ff", ? ad. sk. Tientsin, Dec. (R, S.). Seebohm Coll. 



2. Recnrvirostra americana. 

American Avoset, Pennant, Arct. Zool. ii. p. 502, pi. xxi. (1786) ; 
Lath. Gen. St/n. iii. pt. 1, p. 226, pi. xcii. (1785) ; ^utt. Man. Orn. 
ii. p. 76 (18^4;. 

Recurvirostra americana, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 603 (1788) ; WiUoHj 
Amer. Om. vii. p. 126, pi. 63. fig. 2 (1813) ; Leach, Zool. Mite. ii. 
p. 114, pi. 101 (1816) ; Vieia. N. Diet d'Hist. Nat. iii. p. 103 
(1816) ; Atidub. B. Amer. pi. cccxviii. (c. 1826) ; Stoains. Faun. Bar.- 
Amer., Birds, p. 375 (1831 : Saskatchewan, May) ; Audub. Om. 
Biogr. iv. p. 168 (1838) ; Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. 8f N. Amer. p. 54 
(1838) ; Audub. B. Ayner. 8vo, vi. p. 24, pi. 363 (1843) ; Giraud, 
B. Long M. p. 269 (1844) ; Gray, List Grail. Brit. Mus. p. 97 
(1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 676 (1847) ; Gosse, B. Jamaica, p. 389 
(1847); Rei€henb.GraU.tAhAx\i.^fr,99\ (1^51); Licht. Nomend. 
Av. Mm. Bvrol. p. 93 (1854 : Mexico) ; Bp. C. R. xliii. p. 421 
(1856) ; Baird, B. N. Amer. p. 703 (1H58) ; Henry, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Set. Phiiad. 1859, p. 108 (New Mexico) ; Xantus, t. c. p. 192 
(Fort Tejon, California) ; Breicer, Proc. Bast. Soc. N. H. vii. p. 308 
(1800 : Cuba) ; Gundl. J. f. O. 1802, p. m (Cuba) ; Albrecht, t. c. 
I). 200 (Jamaica) ; Bhkist. Ihi.x, 1803, p. 130 ( Saskatchev an 
rlaius ; Fort Carlton ; Mackenzie Hi\ er) ; March, Proc. Acad. 



I 




(S. Texas) ; Sa/n'/i, t. c. p. 198 (Cliiapam) ; Cuues, t. c. p. 263 ; id. 



Proe. Aead, Nat. Sci Pkiiad, 1806, p. 97 (Aiixona) ; id. Proc. 
Bo$i. Soe. N. H. xii. p. ll>4 (1H68 : S. Carolina) ; Steveimm, Ofui. 
Smrv. Terr. 1871, p. m\ (Nurth llatte Riyer); Oray, Hamd-i. B. 



iii. p. 47. DO. 10288 (1871); X//«i, Bull. Harr. Coll. it p. 857 

' ' p. 83 
(Fort Macon, N. CaroUna) : id. Kfy N. Amer. B. p. 247 (1872) ; 



III. p. • 
(1H71; 



Florida) : Cou^m, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. IlkHad. 1871, p. 83 



AO^, Bull. Harr. Co//, iii. p. ih (1872: Qi«at Salt Lake, 
brmlinfr): Aik^, Proc. Bott. Soc. N. H. xr. p. 209 (1872: 
Arkanaat KiTer) ; Sci ^ Sale. XomcmeL Av. Neotr. p. 144 (1873) ; 
Merriam, Oeol. Sure. Terr. vi. p. 701 (1873: Gnsat Salt I^e) ; 
Bidoic. iVor. Bott. Soc. N. H. xvi. p. 328 (1874: Lower Wabwih 
Valh^v); Oine*. //. AMfVjT, p. 4tW (1874) ; HaHing, Ibis, 1874. 
p. 2r>.i : Later. Mem. Bo*t. Sue. N. II. il p. 308 (1874 : Rio de 
r««huaiia: Mazatlaii); Allen, Proc. Bo$t. Soc. N, H. xvii. p. (i6 
(1874: YellowBtone) ; Ritlgw. Ann. Ljfc. N. Y. x. p. :J84 (1874: 
Iliinoiii): JiewJk. Hep. /a*oI. Rtpl. 100/A Merid. p. 448 (187o); 
(iundl. J. f. O. 187.% p. :»0 (Cuba) : id. Om. ("ubana, p. 178; 
JL^fytr. Rep. Survey 40tJk I\trallel, p. 605 (1877 : Carbon. Nevada; 
Salt Uke); Sennett, BuU. U.S GeoL Surv. iy. p. />4 (1^78: 
(■ai%«iit4}n Ray); Coues, t. c, p. tS3o (Milk River. bn»eding) ; 
Kumlien, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 15. p. 84 (1879: I.ake 
Ki*nn«Hlv) ; s¥aynard, B. East. N. Amer. p. 368 (1879); Ridifw. 
Pr^. L'.S Nat. Mus. iii. p. 201 (1880),iv.p. 219(1881); Brlding, 
I'rtK. (r,S. Nat. Mus. V. p. 351 (1882: Lower California) ; Omes, 
Ckrck'l. N. Amer. B. p. 99 (1882) ; id. Key N. Atner. B. 2nd ed. 
p. tU 1 ( 18H4) ; Bainl, Breicer, ^ Ridyw. Water-Birds N. Amer. 
I. p. ;M1 (18M); (hry. List B. West Ind p. 20 (1885); I)reu*, 
Auk, ii. p. 18 (1885: OiIorad«)) ; BeckM. i.e. p. 144 (Pueblo); 
AyersS. t. c p. 28i5 (S.R Dakota) ; £verm. op.clt. iii. p. 91 (188«: 
\ .-ntura Co.. California) ; .Sor*//, /. c. p. 38<J (8. Arizona) ; A. O. T'. 
Cketk-l. N. Amer. //. p. 14« ( 188<J) ; AAyr/, Auk, iv. p. 185 (1887 : 
\V. T.xa«) : Tottns. Prvc. r.S. Nat. Mus. x. pp. 1<W, 198 (1887: 
N. (California) ; BeckM. t. c. p. (142 (S.W. Texan), p. H51 (Corpus 
Chrirti lUv) ; Riifyw. Man. N. Amer. B. p. 14<» (1887) ; Jeffries, 
Auk, vi. p '22:i (lrv%)l : SanU Rarbara) : C\»ry, B. West /n//. p.232 
(l^^M; Thami»M. ;v>c. r.V. Nat. Mus. xiii. p. 497 (18110: Mani- 
toba ; Winnipt-g ; Siurin R. ; Plum Crwfk) ; Merriam, N. Amer. 
Faun. no. 3, p. 88 (IKK)). no. 5. p. 91 (lh9l : Idaho): Fisker, 
r,;.. cit. no. 7. p. 22 ( iKKi) ; Scott, Auk, ix. i». 12 ( l8i>2 : Jamaica ) ; 
Attwtit^, t. c. p. 2.'J2 (Shu Antonio) ; Antko9iy, t. r. p. l*A^) (S.W. 
NVw Mi-\i«-o) ; Cnry, Cat. B. West /w/ir«, p.* J«2 < lK»2 : (irHat*T 
and lA«M*r Antilles); Ihitvker, Auk, x. p. 272 \,WM: l^m^r 
Mand). 

K«*rur«ir<Mtra f>ocidt•ntali^ Vigors, Xtxtl. J^um. iv. p. :\^A\ (1^'Jlh 
San Fram-iiiro); Wagl. his, \K\\, p. 520; Vigorf, in Brrchrys 
r..y Bl^M*»m, p. 2K. pi. xii. ( Ik'MM; (iray ^^• .Mitvhetl, firn. B. iii. 
p. 5:tl. pi. l.V» (1M7) ; Rru'krnlt. (frail, tab. alxxi\iii. ti>r^. 2:J«U 
•/* <l^'»l| ; Bp.C R. xliii. u. 421 (l85«J). 

lliniantopii* anii'ri<*nna, SrtlK.Mm, Hist. Brit. B. iiL p. 75 (1^'>) ; id. 
0>*yr. Jhstr. CManulr. \i. 'J*M (l'^'^^). 

Admit malt in hreed i ntj-plu i,tatj/ . (icneral colour n)>ove bliM k and 
«hit«*, th** niautlf* and Hf:i|iul.irH hl.uk, tho upfKT nmntli* whit^* ; 
wiD9:-«ov«n« blark, tht* greiit<-r co\4TtH hnmdlv tip]M<l with whit<*, 
lormiri|r a winfc-lnind ; the* rovcrta iH*par»tcil from the black of the 
hmik b} a broa*! band of wbitc% mbich cH*(-upt«*H th<* outer i«rapularM 



SK. 


ttriing). 
X. Brownsv-ille, May {F. B. 




t-w. S lestiv. ; 


Salvin-Oodman ColL 


esk. 


Armitrong). 




y-b-. i ? aiSi 


tiv. Aransas Bay, Mnv, June 


S.»l«n-Godiu»n CoU. 


ek. 


{F. B. Armtlrong). 




c". $ hiem. ak. 


San Patricio, Dec. {F. B. 
Amutrimy). 


Sahln-Godman Coll. 


<f '. Ad. sk. 


Avocet Cftiiiu, UUh (C. «. 


Si.lv in-Godnifin GoU. 



3!^ Ri:i'ruviR(MTi{A. 333 

e , f\ y'. Ad. (*alifoniia. Sc€»b«»hni Coll. 

tk-rXw . ; A , I . 

Ad. hi«*ni. Ilk. 
k . Ad. »k. Ijipin/i, (^MliforiiiA, (Vt. 1 Salviu-(f(MliuaD Coll. 

/'. Ad. a*«tiv. sk. SadIa Otiz. (California. SAhin-(i«>dman Coll. 

J iiue !()(//. ir. i/.;. 

m\ ^ a-Miv. Ilk. M«*xico. S«»«»b.»hni Coll. 

N '- ,-:'* irstiv. ak. ZaA'at«<cas Au^r. ( H'. /?. 8alviu-(tudman Coll. 

/6rAarf/jtt;n). 

i' . .\d. i^k. 8. Mexico {Boucani). S^ilvin-ttodman C<dl. 

ff . 9 ', r". .\d. (*hia(vain, GuatouiaUy Jan. Sal\iii-(todman and 
hum. fk. (O. A'.). Twodldale ColU. 

3. £ecnnriro8tra noT9 holUndi». 

I%v(*un iroiitra novaD hollandiir, VieiU. \. Diet, ttllint. Sat. p. 103 
a^l«h ; tiray, /6m, iNfi. p. i>;<7 (New Zealand) ; liuiler, li, y'rw 
/^d. n. 201 (1873); Hurting, Ihis, 1h74. p. I'.W; Z^m/^t, /A A>ir 
Z«i/. 5ud «i. ii. f. IH), pi. xx\ii. tijr. 1 ( IhHH). 

lC(H*unirt»tra nibncollifi, Trmm. Man. (fOrn. ii. p. r>02 ( 1?*3(>) ; 
^•"«A#, //. Anstratia, vi. pi. 27 (1M2); Gray, List O rail. Hrit. 
Mm*, p. 1>7 (1^4) ; iW. Om. Ii. iii. p. 57<J (lK47) ; IMchrnh. r#y. 
SfuhM. p. -JU (KiO) ; !>/. frm//. tab. Ixii. Iijr». 1WS» jnX) ( iK')!) ; 
///.. (\ H. xliii. p. 421 (iN'V^i) ; *fA/. .Vm#. 7Viyji-//a#. Sct>lopar«'*, 
p. 1(>4 (l.wW) ; (iimhl, Handh.Ji. Autfr. ii. p. '24!» (IHC*)) ; f;niy, 
Hoiul-l. B. iii. p. 47, no. 102^7 (1^71); BatuMy, /Vor. /^mii. .S*^. 
\.S.H'. i. p. 217 (1^77: N.S. W.): id, P. X. S. 1877, p. iW 
1 •!«••) ; »</. /v«r. Liwi. .Vix*. A'. 6'. ir. ii. i>. 198 (1878), vii. p. 411 
tKN'^: Ijichlao di«tr, bn««*din^, Sept. l)tKr.) ; tV/. f/;>. «*/. (2) i. 
p. luni (1^87: iVrbv. N.W. Australia); AW/A, f. c, p. 117;J; 
Bamwy, Ttih. List Austr. B. p. 2<) (1888: Au^itralia ^Hncrally 
•-trrpt'Caii** York); •*/. /Vr^. lAnn. .Voc. S.S.W. (2) ii. p. 171 

I 1h»sH) ; Ai,r/A, A>*<4i ^ Eygs Austr. B. «. ;Wi> (l8.*<l). 
.•\%fH*fttA m>\n* bollandia', EUnian^ 2Umm. 1^01, p. 7470 (New 

/••aland) 
Hiiuantopuji notu* hollandias SerbttMm, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 75 

I I •*<»». 

lliinant'ppiu rubrics lUif, SrrffoMm, litis, 1^8(J, p. 22J>; id. Geiyr. Distr. 
t'Karadr. p. 2I»2 (1^^^). 

A'ivh. i'ivnvT.i\ Colour ^Imivc wbito, with a lonptudinal line of 
bLark down the i*ideto of the back, loruKnl by the (ica|ailiLni ; outer 
M*apular» white, forming a broaii bund which i«kirti« the black H<*a- 
l«uUrto . ^miftll win^^-covertu on the ed^e of the wiuf? white, the 
rrtuaind«*r of thi* U-i^mt wintc-covertH black, the greater Merit a whito, 
with more or Uwi bla^'k on the outer wcIm ; kiHtanl-winf^ puro 
wKitr ; primar) -« owrta blackish, white at the baM\ the inner oncM 
rrtir>l\ white; (|uilU blackish, |irim»rii*n white at the bone and 
Al'M.f? the inn«*r web, the inner primarii^a and iM'mndaries pure 
whit'-. tli«- innrriDOHt fM*c«»ndarieH black ; up|M*r tail-coverta and t4iil 
a«h% trrf), thi* outer feathen* white, shadetl with aHliy extt'niully ; 
K«afi ail mnnd briirht chestnut, extending roun«l half the neck 
afftd '«Mip%in(c the whole of th«* thn»at ; remainder of the under 
•urfacr, from the fore-neck downwards, [»ure white, including 



the black ftppearing oc 
tail-Cflverts. 

hah. Andes of Chili. 



the Bcapulars, sides of bodjr, and upper 



a, b. S &d. Hk. 
e. ? ftd. 8k. 

d. $ ad. et pull. Bk. 



Lake Huasco, Tsrapacfi, 

Jan.,Fei>.{A.AXane). 
SacAja, March 18 (A. 

Lueva Negra, THrapucH, 
Feb. y (SoA/ner). 



Berkeley Junes Coll. 
Berkeley James ColL 
Berkeley James CoU. 



4o. iBiDORHTHrnr*. 335 



Subfamily VII. IBIDORIIYNCHIN\E. 
40. IBIDORHTHCHUS. 



Type. 
Lhei 



Ibidtirhynrhufi, Vicont^ P. Z. S. 1M30, p. 174 I. stnitherAi. 

ri«irhyiichiij«, H'tJjfs. J. A. S. Heng. ir. p. 701 (1835) . . I. struthera. 
KAlcin^mtra, Urttriz. Turkrst. Jevotn. p. 140 (lb73) .... I. strutheni. 

H*tntje. Tho mountain streams of the Himalayan Itegion to 
C'« ntrai A»ia and eastwards to China. 

1. IbidorhTiichiiB stmthertL 

Ibidi«rhmchus stnitbcrHi, figort, P, Z. S. 1890, p. 174 (Himalaya 
Mt*.)'; Gould, CTat. H. Himal. MU, pi. Ixxix. {\f^2) ; Gray, Cat. 
Mamm. «Vr. Sepal pret. Hvdgt. d. 138 (1840); id. Gen, B,\\\. 
II. .VW (1847): Blyth, Cat, H, Mu». A*. Sue. p. lW> (184U: 
lihncan: Nepal): Jteivhenh. Grail. Ub. xrvi. ti^. 1044 (1850); 
Gimld, n, AbU, \\\. pi. 01 (I854t) ; Jerd, li, Ind. iii. p. (t86 (18(M) 
Gray, Harni-l. B, lii. p. 41. no. l0-.>38 (1^71); i^nh. P. Z. 8, 
1^71, p. 411 (mar IVkin) : lilam/.J. A,S. Beng. xl. p. 400 (1871), 
ili. p. 72 (1872: Sikbim): Bn»ok*, i.e. p. m (Canhmere) ; id. 
Sir. F. iii. p. 2.'>7 (1875: I>erali, nhaKirati ValU»v) ; Dresner, Ibis, 
1«»70, p. :njft (Turkwtaii) : Ikttid * (hut. Oi$, C*lW. p. 456, pi. 118 
«K7) ; Prjer. in Rowlry*i Orn. Mi$c. iii. p. 51 (18<8: Koko-nor 
Mu.. Nov. : Kan-nu Mt^..) ; Hmnu, Sir. F. viii. p. 112 (1879). xi. 
p. 323 (iMfv. : Manipur) ; Herhokm, Geagr, Distr, Charadr. p. 314 
(iKhh); id. IhiM, 18$U. p. 37M (W«iiti'm Sxvcbu»*n. 14,000 ft.); 
Bertz. ^ BiamcAi, Are* GaH-^u, p. 4 (1801) ; (hut, N. Arih. Mtu. 
<;{) vi. p. M> (18^»4: Tat»ien-lou). 

C'lurbrnchus ttropbiatus, Ilodgs. J. A. 8, Beng. It. p. 701 (1835) ; 
td. 'lenm. ined. in Bnt. Mu*., GraU. pis. 82, 82 a, W, App. pi. 40, 
D... 57rt; iii. in Grays Z-^A. Mix. p. m (1844). 

Ardra ?'. istcinh, Ibi*, INU, n. 344 (between Takoo & IVkin). 

Numeniun ttnitberti, ikhl. Mum, Pay-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 102 (\iM : 
Nf-pal). 

Kalrin^tra kaufmanni, Serertz. Turkest. Jerotn, pp. 00, 14G, pi. x. 
fijr*. 1.2(1h73). 

Kalcin«tim longipes, Severtz. Turktd. Jerotn, pp. 09, 147 (1873). 

A*luU. General colour above ashy fcrey, a little clearer fn^y on 
thtf wittic-ooTerta : baiitard-winfc blackish ; primary-coverts bluckinh ; 
qailU dusky frrey, blackish at the ends, the inner primaries with a 
round suIh terminal »pot of white, increasing in extent towards tho 
Witidari««, the outermost of which have white basen, forming a 
Ufjrr ming-|ifttch; n»mainder of secondaries ashy grey, with more 
«/r it-M white towards the base of the inner wttb ; innermost long 
•r«xfndari«« like thi* back ; lower back, rump, and up|)er tail- 
rr/vrrts rlcarer grey than tho mantle, the central coverts blackish 
with grt-y tifis.the others gn>y externally ; tail-feathers ashy brown, 
with vary Iwrs of dusky blarkinh, all but the c<*ntre feathers with 
4 Urgr Mark sfitH at the endii, the external one lNim*d with black 
aiid white on the outer Web only, and the bars on thi) inner web 



336 



CHAKADRIID^. 



very indistinct ; centre of crown black, ending in a point on the 
nape ; the forehead somewhat hoary, as also the fore part of the 
cheeks ; lores and remainder of sides of face, as well as the throat, 
black, which extends to below the eye and then in a diagonal 
direction across the face to the lower throat ; a white line skirting 
this black mask from the sides of the nape and joining on the 
throat ; ear-coverts and sides of neck, as well as the whole of the 
hind-neck and fore-neck, lavender-grey, everj-where separated by 
the line of white before mentioned ; across the chest a broad band 
of black, separated from the grey fore-neck by a line of white ; 
remainder of under surface of body pure white, including the under 
fail-coverts, under wing-coverts, and axillaries : " bill deep crimson ; 
feet blood-red; iris red" {T. C. Jerdon), Total length 13 inches, 
culmen 2*9, wing 9*2, tail 4*2, tarsus 1'85. 

Adult female. Similar to tlie male, but with the black of the face 
and the band on the chest rather browner. Total length 16 inches, 
culmen 3, wing 2*2, tail 4*5, tarsus 1'75. 

Young. Much more dingy than the adults in colour, but freckled 
with ochreous buff and dusky lines : the black of the face replaced 
with dusky and also on the crown ; the forehead, cheeks, and throat 
hoary ; the black band on the chest feebly developed, dusky blackish, 
obscured with whitish margins to the feathers. 

Hob. Himalayas from Cashmere to Assam. Central Asia from 
Turkestan to Tibet, and eastwards to Mongolia and Northern 
China. 



a, b. Ad. sk. 

c. Ad. sk. 

d. 2 acl* ^^' 



e-i. Ad. et juv. sk. 
ky I. Ad. sk. 

m. Ad. sk. 

n. Ad. sk. 
o-M. Ad. sk. 

V, (S juv. sk. 

w-z. Ad. sk. 
n. Ad. sk. 
b'-d'. Ad. sk. 
e . Ad. sk. 

f. Ad. sk. 

f/' y h" . cS J^d. sk. 



/'. 5 iiiiiAi- ^^• 



Gulcha, Pamir, May. 
Himalayas. 

Rembiara River, Cash- 
mere, June 12 ( W. 
E. Brooks). 

Nepal. 

Native Sikhiin, Dec., 
March (Z. Manddli). 

Native Sikhim, March 
(J. Biddtdph), 

Sikhim, Sept. 

Sikhim, Dec. to March 
(L. Mandelli). 

Sikhim (12,000ft.), Sept. 
14 (H. J. Elwes), 

Darjecling. 

T\hk,OcX.(L.MandeUi). 

Bliotan (Peniberton). 

Upper Assam (Chinese 
Iroutier). 

Saddya, Assam, Feb. 

Noa Dihing, Assani, Feb., 
March (//. JI. God- 
irin-Audt'H). 

IVkiii. 



St.GeorgeLittleda]e,£l8q. 

[P.]. 

India Museum. (Type 

of species.) 
Hume Coll. 



Hodgson Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Colonel Biddulph [C.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
India Museum. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Ciodwin-Austeu Cull. 



F. W. Styau, E^q. J\]. 



TWTAimii 



837 



Subfamily VIII. TOTANINiE. 



Kfjf to the Genera. 

nUl di«tiDrtlr Arrhinl. 
«'. Tamui trmti«ven«>Iv 9C.il«d find reticu- 
UumI bokiud 



41. Xl'Mb.nxus, p. 340. 




'■ 



F'^ot *A SmmtmtuM i*k^*puA, frum DAturt, to ibow tlie tcutAlUfion 



VOL. lilt. 



338 CHABADBUBJB. 

b\ Tarsus transyersely scutellated in front [p. 371. 

and behind 42. Mbsoscolopax, 

h» Bill straight or slifrhtlj upturned. 
c'. Bill long, the culmen exceeding the tail 
in length. 
a". Bill with the tip scarcely widened, 
with a slight upward tendency, 
but not pitted ; the groove at the 
base of tne under mandible not ex- 
tending beyond the half of the bill. 43. Limosa, p. 372. 
h". Bill widened at the tip, which is 
pitted ; the groove on the lower 

mandible extending nearly to the [p. 303. 

tip of the latter, which is also pitted. 44* Macbobhamfhub, 
cF, Bill moderate, not exceeding the tail 
in length, and generally exceeded by 
the latter. 
c". Culmen exceeding the length of the 
middle toe and claw. 
a'". Bill long and slender, straight 
and widened at the tip, which 
is pitted : outer and inner toes 
imited at the base to the middle 

one by a distinct membrane . . 45. MiCBOPAUkiCA, pi401. 
V", Bill straight, the tip of the upper 
mandible slightly decurvea at 
the tip. 
a^. Tarsus longer than middle toe 
and claw, 
a^. Inner and outer toes joined to 
the middle one at the base 

by a distinct web 46. Stuphbmia, p. 405. 

&*. Outer toe joined to the middle 

one by a distinct web at the 

base, the inner toe scarcely 

united to the middle one. 

a". Tarsus much longer than 

middle toe without claw, 

being more than one and 

a hiJf times as long as the 

toe 47. ToTANus, p. 409. 

C Tarsus much shorter and 
scarcely exceeding the 
length of the middle toe 

and claw 48. Helodromas, p. 457. 

b^. Tarsus about equal to the middle 
toe and claw, and not exceed- 
ing the latter ; bare part of 
tibia scarcely exceedinjr the 
length of the hind toe and claw, 
c'. Seoondnries falling far short 

of the primaries, by more [p. 449. 

than the length of the tarsus. 49. Hkteractitis, 
rf\ Secondaries equal to the 
})rimaries, the distance bt^- 
Iweeu tliem being much less 
than the length of the tarsus. 50. Tringoides, p. 456. 



TOTAVIVJL 339 

r"'. Bill with an upward curve, 

c*. Ikith iniHT and tmter tiM*« united 

at tho baM' lu th«* iiiidtlli» one 

hv a distinct membrane. 

f\ bill ulendfr; inner secondaries 

rather lunfr in cowparvon 

with the nrimariei*, and 

rraching to a(M»iit the fi»urth 

primarY 61. Tkrrki.%, p. 474. 

f\ Itill much utouter; inner f^ 
rondariea Rhorter and reach- 
inir to about the Mxth [p. 479. 

primary* 02. I*8KI'doglottih, 

J*. Inner tot* unitinl at the bane by 
a membrane to the middle toe, 
but th** outer tin* M^arrelv c«>n-> 
ntH-tf«l ; bill with a dwtinct 
upward tend«*iirv of the lower 
mandi)ile. rl^inp frt>m a ]Hiint 
a lit tit* bi>vond the ti^nninal 

half uf the latter 53. O LOTTUI, p. 4<?0. 

. nill <ih«*rt ; the tail exreedintf the 

rulm*-n in len^rth. 

W. Tantu!> \«'rv lui^r, fxcerdin^r the bill 

in N'mrth ; iht* ban* part «if the 

tibia e<{uul to about half the length 

of the tanui. 

cT '. Tuf]» liiiiir. the tar*u# nut tm-ire the 

h'n^h i»f the inner toe and rlaw. 

e* No ornamental hhield ; M-'Xee 

alike in »iiv ; tail nearU M|uare, 

the r*-ntr« feathern fxoeeding 

the KUter rertriivii by Ii*mi than 

thr l«*U)rth (if the hind Uh* and 

rlaw ; ffathi-rt on the an^rle of 

th** i-hin remrhin^ nuly to aUmt [p. 4!lO. 

th«* l**Vfl I if the fiiri'h'ead .... 54. Kuyacoi*UILI>, 
/*. A i-i-nnpirunujiphit'M of fratht-rit 
ill the male, whirh ia much 
lanrer than the female ; tail 

Ptr^nirly irraduatM 55. Pavo.ncklla, p. 4!ll). 

€ . Ti«i*« much "thortrr, the tamui 
t« ii*t< the Ifti^fth of the iiin«*r Uie 
and rlaw ; tail much vnuiuated, 
th*f outer f«*athfr« fallintr ahnrt 
I if th** midillt* <in**i« bv more than 
tlif Iv-n^rth of thf hind toe and 
rlaw ; ffathfnt uu thf an^ile of 
thr rhin pr«liirt-<l fiirwanU, far 
Ij>*vmi»i| the lint' iif thf fiiri'hffid ; 
a drrtral •wrUin^r nli^'htly indi- 

Oiled 5<(. lURfHAMI i, p -VKI. 



t«ii vporr* are itry i*li«fl> allit^i. tiitii-h mure wi than wuiild br at 
•wupjaiMl Dul itrtJLin lariidriitl^ a i-'iiK-billcd grnua akin tu 'Ir,myotdr^, 
^iie tttmdm^Uttiu la a •ab'load Urwualiauk. 

i2 



340 CHABADBnDA. 

t*\ Tarsus short, about equal to the cul- 
men in length; biu« part of the 
tibia nearly equalling tne tarsus in 
length ; bill flatten^ and some- 
what widened at the end ; feathers 
of the chin-angle nearly equal to 
the feathers on the edge of the 
forehead 67. Ebbunetes, p. 514. 

41. NUMENIUS. ^jp^ 

Numenius, BrisB, Om. t. p. 311 (1760) N. arquatos. 

Phaeopus, Cuvier, Bbgne An. i. p. 486 (1817) N. phs&opus. 

Cracticomis, Gray, Lid Gen, B, p. 88 (1841) N. arqoatus. 

Bange. Nearly cosmopolitan. 

Key to (he Species. 

a. Quills barred with whitish or rufous on the 
inner web. 
a'. Colour of crown of head similar to that of the 
back, not showing a mesial pale longitudinal 
band. (Cublews.) 
a". Axillaries pure white, or with traces of a 
few dusky lines ; lower back and rump 
white, either uniform or with longitudinal 
streaks and spots of black. 
a'". Size larger : culraen 4'75-6*l inches ; 
tarsus 2-9-3*2 inches ; rump white 
(juv. Tel hiem.)t or white spotted and 
streaked with blackish (ad. sestiv.) . . arquatuSf p. 341. 
Size smaller : cidmen less than 8 inches ; 
tarsus 2*4 inches ; lower back and rump 

always pure white temnrostris^ p. 348. 

b", Axillaries white, broadly and plentifully 
barred with blackish like the wing-coTerts; 
lower back and rump brown, not white, 
mottled with blackish like the mantle 

and upper back cyanopus, p. 360. 

c". Axillaries and under wing-corerts -vinous 
cinnamon, with a few narrow dusky bars; 
quills also vinous cinnamon below, barred 
with dusky ; lower back and rump dark 

like the upper back, not white lonyirostrisj p. 352. 

b'. A central lonjntudinal pale band down the 

crown, with the sides of the crown blackish 

brown, forming a broad band along each side 

of the latt»'r. (WniMnitELs.) 

d" . Lower back and rump pure white, or with 

8omf» central spots and streaks of dusky 

blaokish ; axillaries white or white barred ■ , ^^^ 

with brown U/'^o;>i/., p. 3;>.>. 

r". Lower back and rump like the upper back, ' ''^f^y^'^^^i P- ^'^ ■ 
not white. 

Upper tnil-coverts barred with buff and 
dark brown ; tail ashv brown with bars 



>i' 



ji' 



41. vuMBiict. 341 

of (Urk brown ; no pecialinritj of thigh- 

feaUivrs kudsomicusj p. 'OGI. 

^'\ rpper tail-covcru uuifonn cinnAmon- 

balT ; uil-ftrath^n ciniiAoion-bufr, 

hftnd^ with diL<«kv bniwn; shafbi of 

lhi|rh-f«Athert produced into hair-like 

brintlefl takitiemtit, p. 367. 

4. IniMr aapect of quilln uniform, without ban* or 
B«>trheii <« th« inner Wfb : aiillariefl rinnHmun- 
nifmd bam^ with bruwn; lower back and 
rnuip like the xwt of the back hortalU^ p. *^^, 

1. Humeniui arqomtni. 

The Curlew, A thin, Sai, Hist. U. i. p. 7o, pi. 71) (1738). 

U Couriv, Bru4, i>m. v. p. 311 (17ilO); DAubenL PL EtU. viiL 

pi. 318.' 
l^ Ourly de MadairaM*ar, Brig*, Orn, v. p. 321, pi. xxviii. (17(X)). 
Sr Jnpax anjuata, LtMm. Syst. SaL i. p. ^42 (1700: Kurope) ; dm, 

Sutt. yat. i. p. ♦'».>.", ( 17S^'J. 
S^•^ipax mada^raM'aheU4i]«, Limit. Sjftf. .V«/. i. p. 242 (1700: Mada- 

iraMTmr) : f^tn. .Hy«/. \at. i. p. tWV> (17^4). 
Tourlv d- MadaKiuTar, IrJulmt. Pi. KnL viii. pi. 1U8. 
1-^ r.'»urlis Buf. Jlitt. \at. Ois. viii. p. ll», pi. li. (17?<l). 
Ndiii^-uiun maila)ra;H:nricU^iii, ii^jtiJ. Tali. Pi.Jimi. p. ll: (178.*)); Lath, 

Ui. Orn. ii. p. 710 (17:*U); VietlL .V. DUt. dllut. Sat. viii. 

S. :W0 (1^17u tirny, Li^t finUi, Unt. Mm. p. JW [\HU) ; ///*. C. 
i. iliii. i». :iii7 { 1*-.>J t ; /;. \rirt. J6is, iJSti.^ p. 4o7 ( Mrta«4ra«car) ; 
.VA; ^ Poil Faun. Maiiu'j., Om. p. 1:W (1^1^); Sharf»e, P. Z. S. 
\r^f», p. .'i71 ; tirau, J/uwi-i. li. iii. ti. 4l*, no. 1()1'44 (1^71); 
Harii, I'mf. Mmlojf'. p.3l»:i ( 1«77 ) ; A*. AVir/. Tr, Sorf. JSuc, IrthJ), 
p. V^i (U''uni«)U ; .v>yi'hcllt^ ; K(jdhiruf«). 
Nam«-niue aroliatu^ Hutid. Tafil. li. />/. p. f/0 ( 1 7b3 ) ; Ixitk, Ind. 
t/rm, ii. j». 4 lu 1 17llO| ; PiiU. /oityr. H»*$*f^ijfUit . ii. p. 1*18 ( 1^1 1 ) ; 
lirtlL A. Ihcf. tflliAt. SfU. viii. p. 3<>4 (1^17): />wim. .V<ih. 
J'//ra. II. p. fXXJ « 1 -1*«M ; /^iiLr. />r#i. /V^/*-. pi. ;i«l»i 1 1^1'*> i ; H'rnter, 
Attm*^ limllif. |.l. .i < lMi'7 ) ; Brrhm, Votj. lUttt/uAl. p. fiOS ( iKil ) ; 
.'itrteU P. / .V. Ktii. p. lUl (Siuvnin); A'«iMm. !'«/. l^u/m-At, 
%ili. B 47-. Taf. lMO ilKJji;) ; //u«i^/. //. AW. iv. pi. i**.' ( KIT); 
lip f\jmt> LiAt li. llur. 4- A. Jwi^r p. 4J* ( ls:i.»<) ; <'/>•*/» (Prn. Hanly 
p 4^>l 4 l-vMli ; A>y«. 4^ ^^ffl. H'fH. AW. pp. lxx\iii. *.'<)7 (1*^10) ; 
Svr^m. IM Ihmtd. I'*y. /^maj. Merid. iii. p. L'»Vi (IMO); Srly*' 
I^j^j^. Fmnm li^y. p l.'K) i1H4l': tpriu^r and autumn ) ; *VcA/. 
Art^ CVi/. p. xr\ <1M4»; .l/uA/r. //rtVr. th-n. Urie<hemi. p. 110 
(1*^44); <fV«y. Ai«/ O'ni//. lirit. Mas. p. U:i < Ih44) ; //«ic/y«. /rvji. 
uir^. in lint. Mms., (irall. 7Wff, no. 014 : id. in (iray$ 'Atoi. Mist'. 
p -^ < 1-^14 K Itmp/h Syst. f/Wt^rs. \t. ll'i* (1h|/>: |^»w.-r hlfryptnnd 
.%bviMiJUUi Tiiafft, in wintiT); IhititM. Eytj$ Itrit. li. ii. p. 'J<t, 
pi lixix. iI«*^IOi; ft ray. Cuf. Mamm. Jf'- Srotit pren. Ht»iti$. 
p. l;f7 i lH4«;) ; yi. tUn.' ll. iii. p. .VJi» ( K|7) ; liiytk. Cat. li. Mu^, 
At «*•. p 'J»^ (lH|l»: CidruttHK IhomjtM. li. Ir^l. ii. u. M 
lK^»- fMid'*nt); llar.*Hiit, P. A. S. KM. p. 140 (.MaiUni) ; 
iUwrkfmk. (irali tab U&viii. H^r •*>.'<» ( K'lh : Mar^j. lirit. H. 
IV p. .43 tl*%Vi); Kjrrrh. l)nnm. FuyU, pi. xixiii <f. U|r. 4 
l\<rj\. 'StJU. IV S'^irri. p. •jril'-.'ill; lir^km, J.f. O. IkM, 

}». Hi ( Khart/mni » ; A«A/. A^mmW. Av. Mus. lieroi. p. Ul (l8M : 
itffMBjr ; Anbia; ; /!>>. C. A. zliii. p. 6V7 (18M) ; ^ni^. 



342 CHARADBUDJB. 

SysL Uebers. p. 62 (1866) ; Hartl. Om. W.-A/r. p. 232 (ia57 : 
Ashanti; Redoea; Dongola; Abyssinia; Mozambioue); Oriil,2jOol. 
Anteckn, pp. 11, 53 (1859 : Knysna) ; Jauh. et Barth.-Ltipomm. 
Rich. Om. p. 472 (1859) ; Taylor, Ibis, 1869, p. 63 (E^t) ; 
lAnderm. Vog. Griechenl. j. 147 (1860) : PoufuB, Ibis, 1860, p. 345 
(Corfu) ; Gum^, t. c. p. 218 (Natal) ; Schl. bier. Nederl. VogeUy 
pi. 22. fig. 8 (1861) ; F. ^ P. Godman, Ibis, 1861, p. 86 (Bodo, 
Norway) ; Irby, t. c. p. 2^ (Oudh) ; Cass. Proc. A<Md. Nat. Set. 
Philad. 1862, p. 321 (Liu Kiu) ; Swinhae, Ibis, 1863, p. 410 
(Formosa) ; Newton in Baring-Gauld's Iceland, p. 413 (1863 : 
lieykjavik, Sept.) ; Gray, List Brit. B. p. 153 (1863) ; CoUeU, 
Overs. Christ iania Oinegns omithol. Faun. p. 194 (1864) ; Adams. 
Ibis, 1864, p. 83 (Egypt) ; Wright, t. c. p. 144 (Malta, spring and 
autumn) ; Sperling, t. c. p. 287 ; Jerd. B. Ind. iii. p. 683 (1864) ; 
Nordm. J.f. O. 1864, p. 375 (Lapland) ; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bos, 
Scolopaces, p. 86, pt. (1864); Gigl. Ibis, 1865, p. 60 (Pisa); E. 
Newt. t. c. p. 150 (Rodriguez); More, t. c. p. 434; Sundev. 8v. 
Fogl. pi. 38. fig. 2 (I860) ; Godman, Ibis, 1866, p. 101 (Azores) ; 
Swinhoe, t. c. p. 137 (Formosa) ; Dohm, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 331 
(Princes Isl.) ; B. C Taylor, Ibis, 1807, p. 70 (F.gypt) ; E. A'ttcton, 
t. c. p. 346 (SeycheUes) ; Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 822 (1867) ; 
Degl. et Gerbe, Om. Eur. ii. 'p. 159 (1867) ; Loche, Expl. Set. 
AlgSr. Ois. ii. p. 331 (1867) ; Baird, Ibis, 1867, p. 282 (Ice- 
land) ; Swinhoe, t. c. p. 391 (Amoy) ; Sperling, Ibis, 1868, p. 292 
(Mozambique and Zanzibar) ; Tristr. t. c. p. 827 (Palestine) ; 
Beavan, t. c. p. 398 (Moulmein) ; Smith, t. c. p. 454 (Portugal) ; 
Dyb. 4* Parve^r, J. f. O. 1868, p. 837 (Darasun) ; ColleU, Narges 
Fugle, p. 67 (1868); Chapni. Trav. S. Afr. ii. p. 419 (18G8); 
Borggr. Vogelf. Norddeutschl. p. 121 (1869) ; Doderl. Avif. SidL 
p. 180 (1869) ; Gould, B. Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 48 (1869) : Drake, Ibis, 
1869, p. 164 (Marocco) ; Finsch ^ HaHl Vog. Od-Afr. p. 736 
(1870); Blanf. Geol. ^ Zool. Abyss, p. 432 (1870: coast in 
winter) ; Elwes 4* Buckley, Ibis, 1870, p. 331 (Macedonia) ; Stevens* 
B. Norf. ii. p. 194 (1870) ; Godman, Azores, p. 34 (1870) ; Fritsch, 
Vog. Eur. tab. 40. fig. 4 (1870) ; Salvad. Faun. Ital, Ucc.y. 233 
(1871) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 410 (China ; Formosa; lUinan, 
in winter) ; B. Gray, B. West Scotl. p. 287 (1871) ; Gray, Hand-L 
B. iii. p. 40, no. 10239 (1871); Saunders, Ibis, 1871, p. 389 
(Southern Spain) ; Gumey in Anderss. B. Dam. Ld. p. 299 (1872 : 
Damara and Great Namaqua Lands) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1872, p. 74 
(Nagua R., Fantee) ; G. C. Taylor, t. c. p. 232 (Ismid) ; Sheliey 4f 
Buckley, t. c. p. 290 (Gold Coa^t) ; Martiug, Handb. Brit. B. 
p. 53 (1872) ; HoJdsnr. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 474 (Ceylon) ; Feilden, 
Zool. 1872, p. 3248 (Faroes, autumn and winter) ; Shelley, B. 
Egypt, p. 243 (1872) ; Garrod, P. Z. S. 1873, pp. 34, 469, 641 ; 
Pabnin, Finlands Foglar, p. 118 (1873) ; Severtz. Turkest. Jevotn. 
p. 69 (1873: migrant); Dresser, B. Eur. viii. p. 243, pi. 578 
(1873); AMon ii{- Harric-BroicTij Ibis, 1873, p. /O (Archangel) ; 
Brooke, t. c. p. 340 (Sardinia, winter) ; Heugl. Oni. N.O.-Afr. ii. 
pt. 1, p. 1146 (1873) ; Antin. i^- Salvad. Viagg. Bogos, p. 145 
(1873: Maasaua, Dec): Ussher, Ihis^ 1874, p. 74 (Gold Coast); 
Buckley, t. c. p. 388 (Matabelc Country) ; Saxby, B. Shetl. p. 100 
(1874)"; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 332 ('1874); Hume, Str. F. iii. 
p. 182 (1875: Pegu); Irby, Om. Straits Gihr. p. 178 (1875); 
Fallon, Ois. Bely. p. 168 (1875 : migrant) ; Danf. 8^ Harvie-Brotm, 
Ibis, 1875, p. 424 (Transylvania) ; Barratt, Ibis, 1876, p. 213 
(Potchefstroom) ; Zhesser, t. c. p. 412 ; Blanf, East. Pers, ii. 



41. Muuwmvu 8i3 

p. 2m (1876) ; Fuuieh, Ibis, 1877, pp. 57, 62 (Obdowk) ; Ayret, 
t f. p. 360 (Truwvaml); Tacz. fiuU, .Voc. /AMtL Frnnct, ii. p. l/>8 
(1877: PoUnd); Reicken. J, f. O. 1877, p. 12 (I>>an>ro Coast); 



I 



Verkandl. x^-h. (ies. H'lVn, xxix. p. 249 (1879: Obdowk. 
Sept.); Ii*iQd. /y. Caw. p. 16»5 (1879); Bocagt^ Orn, Angvla, 
. 4<$1 (IHMl : Rio C:on)c«; Chinchonxo) ; JT. /I. Forbet, P. Z. S, 
881, p. 644 (aniit4)my): .Sfl/cm, CW. Strickl. OM. p. 616 (1882: 
Stuthampton ; Madras ; S. Africa) ; Butler, FkiltUn^ iSr Beid, Xooi. 
1882, p. 494 (i:m»r«ni H., lK.*c.): KeiJk4im, 16u, 1882, p. 16 (Malay 
iVointula): S^M^m, t. c. p. 224 ( .\iitrakhaii, mifrrant), p. <M2 
(Arcbangvl) ; id. Ibis, lHK:i, p. *2\) (Caiicaf«us, breeding on the 
St«pp(!«) ; /r6y, /. c. p. I8i> (Saotaoder, May, June, November); 
B.O. U, Lut' Brit. B. p. 179(1'^3); On'tt'ii, HandlK B. Brit. 
Bunm, ii. p. 412 (1888) ; Saiauirn, ed. YarrriCt Bnt. B. iii. \^, 4m» 
(lHH;i); Chapman, Ibis, 18*^1, p. 99 (S|min, thn>ughout the 
winter): Saundmt, t. e. p. .*tiM) (pTn»ntH*i*) ; Murray, Vertebr. 
Faun, Hind, p. 247 (1884); TriMtr.Faun. ^ FU»r, I'airst. p. 1:J4 
(lKK4); B'ti/d. Consp. Ac. Imp. Hum, p. Hi (1884); Badde, Om. 
Cawc, pp. 4?>, 4,Wi ( lHH4 : aKX) feet, bnHjdin»r) ; SKarpe, ed. LayanCt 
B. S, Afr. p. 692 (lh84) ; Vorderm. A'. T, Sederi. ImJ. xliv. p. 204 
(18^ : Java) ; /Mrudn. BuH. Mote. 1886, p^H28 (Plain of Tfikt-t) ; 
Ar^4m, nut. Brit. B. iii. p. 94 (1886); Bliitrbrad, Ibis, 1886, 
p. 43 (Cornea, winter) ; Duon, i. e. p. 86 (St. Kildai ; ^Sicinhoe ^ 
BameM, t. c. p. l.'U (Mhow l>i<)tr.) : Beid, t. c. p. 26.') (.Marocco, 
winter) ; fiigl A vif. Jtal. p. 407 ( \HiM\) ; Yrrbury, Ibis, 1886, p. 21 
(Aden); Shnrpr, t.e. p. 4)^(Fao, Julv t4» March); S*dv€td. Elenco 
fee. Bai.u JA* {\K^\); Seebohm, Ibis, 1sh7. i>. 182 (Liu Kiu 
laland* ) ; fait, t. e. p. 'M^\ ( Portujral, autumn and Hprinir ) ; liarvie^ 
Brotru^ Burkiey, I rrtebr. Faun. Sutheri., (W/A/i., «V H". Cromarty , 
p. 22tJ (IHO; Ii//. Vrrtebr. Faun. Outer Ilebr. p. 138 (18K8); 
6ee6ukm, Ueogr. iPiMr. Charadr. p. 322 (IH-^) ; Parker, Ibis, lK>8, 
p. 217 (anatomy) ; Seebi»km, t. e. pp. 2:i»{, 416 ; SkeUry, t. c. p. :)06 
U<Amu, Nov.); Ckafmtan, t. e. p. 446 (S|Mun. wint**r); Jrbu, Key 
Lui Brit. B. p. 49 (l^^s) ; K'^eniy, J.f. O. lKn8. p. 276 (Tuniu) ; 
Jimmmdera, Mam. Brit. B. p. t»l 1 ( 1hh9) ; Lil/ord, Ibit, 1hn$». p. 342 
(rYpru*) ; Beui'ken, Sytt. ViHf. Deutjuki. p. 4<j ( 1?<^9) ; (iiyi Acif. 
lui. Ut Bem^e. p. 621 ( 18MSM. 2/m^ Bthh^. p. tS6rt ( lf<lH)).3rJ Be$oe. 
p. 614 ilH5*h; Brusiaa, .\fotr. ete. {Om. (*n»at.) p. 92 (IHIH)); 
H'. FroHM, Ibis, 18JU, p. ^1 (incubation); Ltlfunt, (W. Fiy. Brit. 
B. pt, lix. (1»<»1) ; Moiiarditz, Frltiut. Autt. i'mjar. l'iH/e//.\i. 107 
O"^!); FnraUishf, At^» liufuf. p. 137 (IK*1); BeiM'r, Vt^els. 
Mum. Sarajrt^), p. 1 1\» ( lK»h ; (iatke, Vinfrltc. llety^A. p. 473 ( IKU ) ; 
Bmkley ^ iiarrir/iruwH, I'ertebr. Faun. Orkntyn, y. T2A (IHU) ; 
i%d. Ary^U \ Inner Urbr. p. lH4 (iKrJ); V„rderm. A'. T. Srderl. 
Imd. h. p.40»J (M*2: ('h.nb.»n): Fati^i df Stwier, Cat distr. Oit. 
Smuue, p 4<t <|K>2); Mat'pkrrii. Vertrbr. Faun. JsOkel. p. 40ll 
(l'**2»; Ihittker,Auk,'\\.\y:^**){\*<\r>: I^m;: Ul.) : Seeb^^km, Ibis, 
IKW, p 22 (ll**li/oland): Ilartert, t.c. y. 614 (Hn>t. PruAnia) ; 



Bmrme; /Aw, iHlKt.pp. 171, 1^1 (Ad**n); .yfeade- l\'abi>*, t.e. p. 205 
(Cananr Ulandii) ; luiiken. Jnkrb. Hambunj. H'iMMmtek. Anst. x. 

Ji. 7 {\'<f:\: ZannUr); id VtH/. I^eutiuk-Oft-A/r. p. 43(lh94); 
rhy, Orm. Str. (ithr. 2im1 e<l. p. 2^*0 ( IKC). 
Comm'JO (*arlew, iMtk Oen. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. 119 (17*^>); Yarrell, 

Brit. A. ii. p. 510(1M3k 
MadafMcar Curlew, AaM. Oen. St,n. iii. pt. 1, n. 119 (17k6). 
Naamioa najor, tiieftkens in SkaMp't den. 'AwU. xii pL 1, p. 96 

(IflOM); SUrpt.Ib^M, IAnO, p. 16H (Mimcat). 
XumoUm vifgaliM, CW. iU^ .iIumi. L p. 621 (1829: Cape). 



41. vvMKViui. 345 

Um inner ooet brown, the primaript notched or barred, on the inner 
web only, with tandj buff or whitish, the inner primaries being 
Urns marked on both webs, the secondaries distinctly barred with 
brown and white, both webs being deeply notched with ashy 
whitish, the innermost secondaries ashy brown with dusky brown 
cross Wri, the ct^ntre of the leuthers being also dunky brown ; lower 
back and rump pure white with black longitudinal six>ts or streaks, 
a little more distinct on the rump ; the upper tuil-coverta barred 
with black and white or with sagittate sub-tenniunl s{K>ts, the longer 
ones tinged with sandy buff and the brown bars often not coter- 
minous ; tail white or slightly tinged with sandy butf, or shaded with 
ashv brown and crossed with nine or ten rather broud bars of 
black i»h brown : head dark brown, the fc«ther« edgi*d with sandy 
buff, giving a streaked appt>arance ; the nock muru ashv, streaked 
with brown : ovtT the eye a white strcnk, narrowly lined with 
black ; sides of face and sides of neck, throat, and chest pale sandy 
buff stn»aked with blackinh brown, more narrowlv on the sides of 
the fact* : chin and upper throat white ; breast, aMomen, sides of 
body, thighs, and under tail-coverts white, streaked with dark 
brown on the breast, and ver\' narrowlv on the abdomen and under 
tail-cov«*rts : thighs unstreiike<i ; ttidcH of body with distinct bars or 
sagittJite markings of dark brown ; under wing-coverts and axillarics 
pure VI bite, ni(»ttl<Hl with blackish centrt*s to the feathers, the 
axillaries more or lei«s regularly burred with blackish or with a 
sub-t4*niiinal heart-shafK^d s|H>t ; lower prim ar}'-co verts and (|uilla 
below a«hy grt>y with white notches to the inner webs : ** bill 
ilr»hy bn>wn, !»ba(iin^ into dark brown towards the tip ; fe<>t dusky ; 
iris brown" {G. K. Sht/fft^), Total length 21 inches, culmeu 4*7o, 
winir 1 1, tail 4'2o. tarsus 'JiK 

Atiuli ffmnl/ in ftreedimj'idumatjf. Similar to the male, but 
larfTrr. and with a longiT bill. Total length 24 inches, culmen G'l, 
wihg lir, t:iil .'>'7. tamuH «i'2. 

AduUa in winter jiluunnjf. Very nimilar to the bree«ling-plumage, 
\nx\ f«aler, and much 1i*sh heavily strii>i*d, especially on the under 
Mirfact* of the lioiiy ; the black spotM and streaks on the rump 
scarrrly apparent, and con(x*aled by the white plumage : up|)er tail- 
covert* white, mith very few brown croi«s-bar« ; tail white, Imrred 
with brown : ** feet {lale leaden gn*y, claws blacki^h ; bill blackish 
bn^nn, !]r«h-cf>lour at the boM* of the lower mandlMe ** (J. O. Ilumr), 

There i» t-vitliMttly a Hprinf! ni<Kilt, but whether partial or entire I 
have D<'t U-en able to detenu ine. The breeding- pi urn age is gained 
h} a widening of the longitudinal crntntt to the fiuthen*, of which 
the pattern changes on i»ever:Ll {lortions of the bo<ly. Such parts us 
the rump and the alNiomen and under tail-cov(>rts have scarcely any 
riaiblff fttrraks, but theM* ap|M'ar with the Mumnter plumup*, and 
thrM* streaks are gained by a change of the feather. The nidea of 
the kiody change from a stn-aked to a barrf<l ap|M*aranre. thin being 
rffertrd by a prdiminar)- widening of the brown ct*ntres to the 
Ceatheff* which develop into bars without any direct moult. The 
ittornDosi •erondaries. at the autumn moult, se«*m to be entirely 
amfora, and th« ban make their appearance gradually. 



346 CHARADRIIDJB. 

Toung, Differs from the adult in being much more tawny, and, 
as Mr. Seebohm has pointed out, young birds may always be dis- 
tinguished from the old ones by the much lighter patterns of the 
notches and bars on the innermost secondaries, these markings being 
tawny buff, and the black centres to the feathers being much broader. 

I have united the Indian Curlew (Numeniut lineattu) with 
N. arquatus, because the only character for its separation is the 
white lower back, without streaks or spots. This is a sign of winter 
or young plumage in N. arquatus ; and many £astem birds are also 
found with black streaks and spots, for the simple reason that 
these are concealed at first under the white plumage, and are merely 
represented by shaft-lines. The latter, as the breeding-season ap- 
proaches, become wider and more distinct, and are often assumed 
quite early in the year. Thus a male shot by Colonel Irby in 
January is nearly in full breeding-plumage. 

On the whole the Eastern birds seem to have rather longer bills, 
but even these are approached by some European and African 
specimens, and the reason for the occurrence of long-billed examples 
in India and other parts of Southern Asia is, to a great extent, 
accounted for by the curious fact that they are nearly all old birds. 
As will be seen by the list of specimens given below, the immature 
birds from the Eastern part of the Curlew's range are exceedingly 
few in number. 

Bab. Europe generally, wintering in Africa, as far south as the Cape 
Colony and in Madagascar. In Asia it extends as far as Lake Baikal, 
and winters in the Indian Peninsula. Accidental in N. America. 

a. Juv. St. Bally nakuick, Ireland. C. Coningbam, Esq. 

b. (S ad. sk. Dunglow, Co. Donegal, Jan. Colonel Irby [P.], 

14. 

c. c? ad. sk. Orkney Islands, March 14 Seebohm Coll. 

{Dunn). 

d. Pull. St. Orkney Islands. Mr. Baker [CJ. 
e,f. Ad. St. Beauly Castle, N.B. I^ord Lovat [F.]. 
^, hy f. (5 ad. sk. Beauly Castle, N.B., May, Lord Lovat [P.j. 

June. 

A;. cJ ad. st. [group]. Beauly Castle, N.B., June. Lord Lovat [P.]. 

/. 2 ad. st. Cambridgejshire. Mr. J. Baker. 

m. cJ juv sk. Cookham, Berks, June (R. Tweeddale ColL 

B. S.). 

n. $ juv. sk. Eomney Marsh, Kent, Sept. Dr. R. B. Sharpe 

o, /?. $ ad. et juv. Pagham, Sussex. Dr. R. B. Sharpe 

St. [P.]. 

q. Juv.sk. Pagham, Sept Dr. R. B. Sharpe [P.]. 

'•• 6 juv. ; s. $ juv. Pagham, Aug. Shelley Coll. 
sk. 

t. r{ juv. sk. Pagham, Sept. (R. B. S.). Tweeddale Coll. 

u. § ad. sk. Pagham Harbour, Sept. 22 Seebohm Coll. 

(J. E. Harting). 

V. S ftd. sk. Devonshire. Montagu Coll. 

tCy X. 2 ad. sk. St. Bride's, S. Wales, Jan. 4. Hon. \V. Edwardes 

[P.]. 



41. vumariin. 347 

y. Ad. ak. IMis Nnrwar (F. />. Ood- SalTin-Oodinaii ColL 

'. a', (f «1. ; 6'. 2 Kiliki, Iliinfrmnr, Oct Hun^riaii NatiooAl 

mi. •k. {KtiHMzt). ' MuN«uin 'V.\ 

r. Ad. Hk. An'Aclion, Franoe, Not. 26. Seobohni Coll.' 

J'. .\d. nk. yihtiKt'o {(Mcrsr), S«»bi»hiii Toll. _ 

r'. Imu. m. Atbeofi. CodauI Merlin [P.j. 

t, 9 imm. ak. Obdonk, W. SiberU, Sept. Ginifn'. Soc. Bremen. 

(O. /VfiA'A). 

y*. / ad. A. M(«tip(ttamia (Cbmfiiaiicf<r India Muaeum. 

Jtmet ). 

A*. 9ad. »k. River Ti^^ (i\niinuindfr India MuMum. 

Jone»). 

r. k'. 9 ad. i«k. Fai>, IVrvian Gulf. W. I>. Cumminff, 

I . ; juT. nk. Mujicat. Culunvl Mill* ^P.J. 

M , N . Ad. ak. Favoom, K^n'pt, F«b. (O, 

>;. .v.). ' Shrilly Coll. 

<'•/''• d £ ad. ak. Znulla, .Vnneidf? Itav, Jan. W. T.'liUnford, Kitq. 

15. ' ■ ;(.. 

o. Jut. hk. Nairua Kiver, Fantee (//. Shellev Coll. 

T, V$Ker). 

\ ad. «k. Anibrii, An(r«>U« Dec. Mnnt«*in> r<ill. 

. i ad. i^k. Kio Ciiruca, ik'Ufruda (vln- 8hfllfy Coll. 

rAiVfa). 

i ad. A, Walfi^M-h liar (C. J. .'f itf/ira- Seebobm Coll. 

Km). 

. r J inim. *\k. Ihirbiui, Natal (Oordj^e), Shellfv Coll. 

I ml. -k. Nntal ( T. L. Ajfres). S«*«'bo(im Coll. 

i ju«. nk. INitchefrttnwni. F. A. lUrratl, Esq. 

'C ' 

. X inv. nt. Scmth Africa. Sir .\. Smith [C.]. 

A J. pk. South .\frira. J. <tt>u)d, Vm, 

•'iiiiin. ftk. Capf* Colony. Sfbohui (Vll. 

Ad. 'k. Af^'lianiNtaii {(iriffith), Indin Muf«um. 

f . At Hk. Sirtm Dintr.. Nov. Hum*' Coll. 

.'A . -'< arl. Hk. .MiMiltaii. iKv. (.-f. O. //.). Hume Coll. 

m . 4 ttd f>k. l{i\iT Jhi'lum, Nov. :!\^ {A. Hume Coll. 

O, U. J. 

* mI ; ./',;r. (Viiab Hiver, IW. (.i. Hume Coll. 
i ad -k. O. y/.). 

Ad .k. H%dniUd. .Snd. IW. S.-.'l>ohni ClI. 

- mA -k. Karai-hi. Deo. l.'»(.'f.O. //.). Hiim** Coll. 

.\d. Bk. Kathiawar. lA't. 1({. Col. HH\eK Ll«»vd 

f . « Ad. M juv. Sanibhur I«ake, Dec., March Hume Cull. 

•k kA.U. II.). 

t . ir . ^ ad. ffk. Sambhur Ijik**, Feb., lK*c. Hume(\jll. 

(//. .1/. Adam). 

r .V .%d. »k. Drhra DhiMMi. Hume C.iU. 

«.«' V >d. Bk. (lunraori l»i-tr, (k*t., I»oc. Hume (*.ill. 

{ W. .V. VhiU). 

r.r*. ^. /? ad. Allahal>ad, Feb. j:i (.'f. O. Hume(*oIl. 

•k //.I. 

^.r,f. Ad.ak. FUawah. Nor. Hum- Coll. 

V.'.\d.ak. KtA, I'utiala, Feb. 2«1 (^. Srebuhm UoU. 



348 



OHARAPRTIDJS. 



t*. Ad. ak. 
1(?, Ad. sk. 
/". $ ad. ek. 

m'. (^ ad. 8k. 

n», o\ $ ad. et <J 

juv. sk. 
i?'. $ juv. sk. 

^'. Ad. sk. 
r*. ? ad. sk. 

<*. (^ ad. sk. 

t^y M*. cJ ad. ; r*, w;*, 

j^*. $ ad. sk. 

«*, a*. (J $ ad. sk. 
**, c*. cJ $ imm. sk. 
(^^ (^ ad. sk. 

6^. (^ ad. sk. 

/», /. 2 ad. sk. 
h^, (S ad. sk. 

t^. $ ad. sk. 

A;\ $ ad. sk. 

/*. cJ ad.; m*,n*. J 

ad. sk. 
0^. $ ad. sk. 

P^i 9*' <S 2 ad. sk, 

r*. 2 ad. sk. 

«*, f*. Imm. sk. 

tt*. Ad. sk. 

V*, w*. Ad. et juv. sk. 

x*. 5 ad. sk. 

y*-*'. d ? ad. sk. 

c*. $ ad. sk. 
^, c*. cf 2 ad. sk. 
/'-«'. Ad. etjuv. sk. 
A', /^. Skeletons. 
m\ Bones of trunk. 



Oudh, Dec. Hume ColL 

Oudh. Pinwill CoU. 

ShahjehanpuTy Aug. 25 (A, Seeloohm ColL 

Anderson). 

Futtehgurh, Nov. 12 (A. Hume Coll. 

Anderson), 

Nep^. Hodgson Coll. 

(Tjpes of N. arqwUula.) 

Nepal Valley, Oct. 2 (/. Hume Coll. 

Sculii^), 

Darjeeling (Pearson), India Museum. 

Laccadive Islands, Feb. 18 Hume Coll. 

{A. O. jsr.). 

Calcutta {J. Biddulph). Tweeddale ColL 

Calcutta, Dec. to March Hume Coll. 

(A. O. JJ.). 
Aberdeen, S. Andamans (F. Hume Coll. 

A. de Roepstorff), 
Port Blair. Hume Coll. 

South Andaman, Aug., Sept. Hume Coll. 
Trinkut Isl., Nicobars, Feb. Tweeddale ColL 

7 (R. J. Wimberky). 
Eyasoo Creek, Burma, Oct. Tweeddale Coll. 

(R, O. W, -R.). 
Lower Pegu (E. W, Oates). Oates Coll. 
Eastern Grove, Burma, Feb. Hume ColL 

14 {J, Armstrong), 
Deserter's Creek, Burma, Hume ColL 

Jan. 3 («/". Armstrong), 
Sittang River, Tenasserim, Hume Coll. 

Feb. 14 ( TV. Davison). 
Tavoy River, May {W. Hume Coll. 

Davison). 
Amherst, Dec. 16 {W, Hume CoU. 

Davison). 
Mergui, Nov. ( W. Damson), Hume Coll. 
Tonka, Dec. 13 {J. Darling). Hume Coll. 
Penang (Dr. Cantor). India Museum. 

Malacca (Dr. Cantor). India Museum. 

Malacca {Dr. Maingay). Tweeddale Coll. 

Amoy, China, Dec. 26 (JR. Tweeddale Coll. 

Swinhoe). 
Amoy, Jan., Feb., Oct., Dec. 

(R. S.). 
Formosa, Feb. {R, S.), 

XT 1.; T__^-» 



Seebohm Coll. 



Naprasaki, Japan. 
Yokohama (if. Pryer), 
England. 
Nepal. 



Seebohm Coll. 
F. Ringer, Esq. [P.]. 
Seebohm CoU. 
Purchased. 
Hodgson CoU. 



2. Numenius tennirostris. 

Numenius tenuirostris, VieiU. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. viii. p. 302 
(1817); Roux, Orn. Prov. pi. 308 (1825); Bp. Ic<m. Faun. Ital, 
fasc. iii. tav. 42 (1833) ; Naum. Fog. Deutschl. viii. p. 527, Taf. 
218 (1836); Temm. Man. d'Orn. iv. p. 394 (1840); Werner, 
Atlas, pi. 409; Crespou, Orn. Gard, p. 407 (1840) ; Keys. ^ Bias. 



41. vrmonrs. 849 

Wirh. Eur. pp. IzxTiii. 78 (1840) ; Xordm. in Dimid, Toy. Rm; 
M^rid, iii. p. iW (1H40); Scfd, Ret. Cnt. p. xrv (1844) ; MuJUe, 



BfHr. (>m, (iriechenL p. 110 ( 1844) : Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 560, 

SI. cliii. (1847); Ucht. NnmencL Av. Mu9, lierot. p, 9\ (1864); 
fp. t\ R, xHii. p. m; (iMTi^)); Jaub, et Barth.-lMpomm, Rick, 
Om. p. »W (IfCJi) ; Sttlrin, t. r. ^. ^.W (Tunis) ; TriVr. /W#, IftlO, 
p. 80 (nif»kr«) ; J^>tn/», t. c. p Mo (Corfu, S*»pt.) ; Linderm, Vog, 
Griechml. p. 147 (1H«>0); SchL Mu*. PayB-Bas, lScoli»pikVii, p. 92 
(1'<H4) : Uriffht, Ihis, lH>4, p. XiTy (Malta) : Giyi IbU, 1865, p. 60 
(Pi-*) ; lirt^, B. I-Mr. iv. p. M. cum tab. (1867) ; /Vy/. /►f rrVrftc, 
(>rn. Eur. ii. p. IHO (lHi;7); Locke, Erpl. Sn\ AUf4r., (Hs, ii. 
p. :*:« (lKi*.7|; Smith, f. c. p. 4->4 (Portu^rtl); Bori^t/r. Vopcff. 
XnnidrHtf-kl. p. llM ri-^a*): />'W<r/. -4ri/. .Vici/. p. \H'J (1^4mi): 
-B'ir/'ji A- liitrK/fy, Ihin, 1M70, p. IWl ( DobiutWliH) ; Saundcru, Ibin, 
H71. p. .W^ (Si*in): .Vi//yi//. /flMH. //a/.. Trr. p. 224 (1871); 
^/r.iv. //rtW-/. //. iii. p. 4l>. no. 10-J41 (1871); Drewrr, B. Eur. 
riii/p. l>37, |.l. 577 (1^71 1 : Skcl/cy, B. Eifvpf. p. 245 (1872); 
Hrutjt. Or«. S.n.'Afr. ii. Abth. i. p. 1149 (iA,;{: North coi3*t of 
K/^pt); 7?r/>».Av. /Am. 1x78, p. :i40 (Sardiniii) ; Irby, (hm, Str. 
Gihr. p. 17il (1^75: i«priii;r uml autumn); Fnilon, OtM. Belff. 
p. 1»J7 (1''75j: J>an/. Jf- Jlarrn^Brovn, Ibis, 1h75. p. 424 (Traii- 
^vlvaniai: Setbokm, Ihis, 1>^2. p. 224 (Astrakhan, autumn); 
B'Mid. Omsp. Ar. Imp. Rom. p. Ki ll^M); Bcid, Ihis, IMK"*, 
p. i'.Vl (Mar»cco, winter) ; Zarudn. Bull. Mosc. iSK/j, p. :V.>s (Plain 
of T.ik.^1 : GiyL Arif. Itnl. p. 4<H (IH'^J); .Vn/»W. A'/rfir»> f'^r. Jtai. 
p 2.ll» «1»^^W; Trti/. /Au. K«<7. p. ;«»:i (Portujral); »S>i/«w/. 7/^, 
I'^'^X p. rWI ; .S>#^>Am, ^'^v/r. 2>iWr. Ckaradr. p. :i25 (iKHS); 
Lilf'>nl. UiM, 1KS». p. ;J42 (Vvpni'*); r/iy/- --in/, /te/. 1*/ Rcs'^. 
p. t;j:j i|KH«i , !>„,/ /e^*^. p. fWiii J lsjK>). ;W /efjJ*r. n. 514 (IHIU) ; 
J/*-in^ Jf iUithm. S^m^tu^i. Mu». Uein. y. .*J25 (IHOO); Gatkc, 
V'Mtrtw. I!rhf.»l. p. \:\\ ( iHiM ) : Serh>»km, Ibit, 1HJ>2. p. 22 (H.-litf.>- 
I^imI I : Fnttu \ Stwirr. ( li/. didr. Out. Suutse. p. 4<J ( lSi>2) ; Graaf, 
Jf.iM. \<K\, p. 1511 iS|ia«rii«lam. N. Holland, Dec.); Irby, Orn. Str. 
tiibr. 2ii<l .-l. p. 2110 \ \^\^'t). 
Nuriii-iiiii« iivn;<iMiir<i-, MuhU. liritr.OrH.Grieckcnl.'p, 14(1844): Grny, 
firm. If. ill. p. 'Vil* 1 1*»47) ; Lindcrnt. J»y. (irirckrnl. p. 147 (I'^MJ). 

A'IhU hi'tff IN hrffdiwi-p^Huiivje. SimiLir to S. arqutitus^ but 

■ill) ili<*tiri;;ui**hiil h\ it^ xumlU'r nize ; the lowtT hack and rump 
alm.)\ii ;iurf wliite, with iii> bluck h)M>tH or streiik.*4 ; the upp<T tail- 
«p»T«rt* Hifh l*»ii;ritudinal )»l.n'k rontn***, ver\' distinct; th«* t.iil 
a]fr.i\*i whitf. with no ,i«*hv or butt hhrnlo. and dintinrtlv barn**! 
»' r ^4 mith dirk brnfrn. A whit*» i»y«*bn»w in ^t*ncraJly vi'»iblr and 
tS«' n ijM- .iTid liiii'l-ni'rk an- al«M» nion* or b*r*H whitish, fnrniin;; in 
fc»rii»' •|M-ciriirni an iiidir.it ion «if a psil*' odlar. Tot.il Icn^^th 10 
inchf •. • ijlmi n 2'7'». «iiik' •*'7. tail .'J-.*i, tar<*u« 2*4. 

.17'*// r'ttmiU. SiiiiiUr to th«* nial*' and only hliifhtlv lann^r. Total 
lrn.*T*i 1»» in''hf«. ruhnrn 'A't. wiiii: 1»-S>, t.iil .*M», tarHun :;|. 

A*uU in u inter p/timti*fr. .^iiiiil:ir l'» tlir ftuninitT pluni:i::<\ hut 
rttK«r ni<»rt ■iridy ruftni^ in toin* and with fcwrr ntrr.ik'^ und ^p(»tA 
**f Kl I- k <'n t)H' niriip: tlit* under nurfart* b*nuntu'linrilly tttit-akcfi 
in! •ji^ttf-'i. )iut th«* Mrtakn niu<-h narn^wtT ami th** ^imtiM Irss 

Lrart ahalMil. 

I'.^Mii'/. Nmiiar t'* thf iiiint«T plunnu'r of thi' ndults, )>ut alwaya 
to hr di*tintfniBht-(l by the light Dot«-hi*a on Ihith wcti!* uf tb«* ianvr- 
BiMt •Moiidah«*t. 



350 GHABADEIIBiB. 

Hah. Countries of the Mediterranean^ ranging occasionally into 
Central Europe. 

a, b. Ad. sk. Rome {E, C, Taylor). Seebohm Coll. 

c. (S ad. sk. Sicily. Seebohm ColL 

d. c^ ad. sk. Sicily (Doderlein). Tweeddale ColL 

e. $ ad. sk. Sicily (Doderlein). Seebohm Coll. 
/. S ad. sk. Palermo. Tweeddale ColL 
g. (S ad. sk. Malta, April 9 (C. A. Tweeddale ColL 

Wright), 
h. $ juv. sk. Malta, Sept. (C. A. W.). Tweeddale ColL 

t, k. Ad. St Guelma, Algeria. Purdiased. 

/. $ ad. sk. El Djen, Tunis, Feb. 28 Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(O. ScUmn). 
m. Jjuv. sk. Asia Minor, Dec 17 (T. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Sobion). 
n. (S ad. sk. Ismid, Asia Minor, April 1 Seebohm ColL 

{T.Robion). 
0. J ad. sk. Egypt (Birkbeck). Seebohm Coll. 

3. NumeninB cyanopiu. 

Numenius cyanopus, Vieill N. Diet d'Hitt. Nat. viii. p. 306 (1817 : 
Australia) ; Orag, List OralL Brit Mus. p. 93 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. 
iii. p. 569 (1847) ; Bp. C. B. xliii. p. 697 (1866) ; Qmdd, Handb. 
B. Austr. ii. p. 277 (1866) ; Gray, Iland4. B. ui. p. 42, no. 10242 
(1871) ; Cab. ^ Beichen. J. /. O. 1876, p. 32/ ; BvUer, Trane. 
N. Z. Inst. ix. p. 333 (1877) ; Haast, t c. p. 427 (Kaiapoi Bay. 
April ; Ashley River, June) ; Skarpe, Jaum. Linn. Soc., ZooL 
xiii. p. 320 (1877 : Yule Isl., S.E. New Guinea) ; Bameag, P. Z. 8. 
1877, p. 339 (Queensland) ; id. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 8, W. i. p. 190 
(1877) ; CJast I* Ramsay j t c. p. 385 (Norman R.) ; Bamsag, op, 
cit ii. p 198 (1878), iii. p. 296 (1879: Port Moresby), iv. p. 101 
(1880 : S. Cape and Louisiades) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Oenov. xviiL 
p. 330 (1882) ; id. Om. Paptiasia etc. iii. p. 330 (1882) ; BlakieL 
Amended List B. Jap. p. 12 (1884: Yezo and Japan generally) ; 
Stejn. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 29, p. 317 (1885 : Kamtchatka) ; 
Oigl. ^ SalKod. P. Z. S. 1887, p. 588 (Corea, Aug., Oct.) ; Seebohm, 
Qeogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 326 (1888) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 468 
(Corea) ; Ramsay ^ Tab. List Austr. B. p. 20 (1888 : the whole of 
Australia except the N.W.) ; Everett^ Joum. Straits Branch As. 
Soc. 1889, p. 210 ; Seebohm, B. Japan. Emp. p. 315 (1890) ; Salcad. 
Agg. Orn. Papuasia etc. iii. p. 204 (1891) ; De la Towche, Ibis, 
1892, p. 501 (Foochow, Oct. ; Swatow, spring) ; Tacx. Mhn. Acad. 
Imp. St. Pitersb. (7) xxxix. p. 940 (1893). 
Numenius australis, Gouidj P. Z. S. 1837, p. 155; id. B. Austr. vi* 
pi. 42 (1848) ; Reichenb. Vog. Neuholl. p. 198, no. 532 (1860) 
iV. Grail, Novit. tab. xcvii. tig. 2824 (1851); Macgill. Narr. Vog 
Raitlesn. ii. p. 358 (1852: N.E. Coast Austr. and Torres Straits); 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 197 (N. Austr.) ; id. Cat. Mamm. ^' B. 
New Guin. p. 62 (1859); Schrenck, Reis. Amurl p. 426 (1859) ; 
SwM. Ibis, 1863, p. 79 (N. China); id. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 318 
(Pekiii, AufT.); Radde, Reis. Sibir., Vog. p. 338 (1863); Schl. 
Mus. Pags-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 90(1864 : Japan ; Amboina; Bouru ; 
Australia; Tasmania); Pelz. Reis. Novara, V(kj. p. 128 (1865: 
Australia) ; Salvad. Ucc. Bom. p. 3:33 (1874) ; Sicinh. Ibis, 1876, 
p. 834 (llakodadi) ; Blakist. ^ Prger, Ibis, 1878, p. 222 ; SAarpe, 
Ibis, 1879, p. 271 (Luiiibidan) ; Meyer, Verb. z.-b. Ges. Wten, 



41. vvmnvf. 351 

zzzi. f. 707 (1881: SumbA) ; Btakui, ^ Pryer, B. Jan, p. 115 

(1H82: Yeto; Eturop ; VokohAma) : Bogd. Chnsp, Ar, Imp. Bong, 

p^H2 (1H84 : IWriofr Inl ; KamtchAtka) ; Heebokm, Ibis, 1884, p. 34 ; 

Taez, BtUL Soc. Zooi. Franct, \^^t<fi, p. 475. 
NiUDeniuf major < n^ Steph,)^ Temm, ijr Sckl. Faun, Jap. p. 1 10, pi. 06 

(IHAO): BncKenh. GraU. yont. tob. Ivi. fifr. ^/KU (1K51); Sicmh. 

Ibis, 1861. p. 'MS (IVkin); iV/. P. Z. S. 1H63, p. :UH (S. China; 

FofUKMA, winter); id. Ibis, 1870, p. SM (Hakodadi) ; Blakist, ^ 

I'ryer, B, Jap. p. 115 ( 1882 : Ilik(idadi) ; Vordtrm. S. T, Nederi. 

Imd. xHt. p. *J04 (18^4 : Java), xliz. p. 41H ( 1889 : Sumatra). 
NumcniuB ruatratui*, Lickt., teste Bv. C. B. xliii. p. 597 (1856). 
Nunifniua aiulndaMianus, (iray^ P. Z. JS, i860, p. H64 (E. Gilolo); 

FinscA, yfu-(fuinra, p. l82 (\iMVi). 
Numt*nius nife(ict*ns, Oould, P. Z. *V. 1862, p. 28H (Formona): Swink, 

Ibis, 18«8, p. 410 ; id. P. Z. S. 18<W, p. 818 (N. Formosa, bnnsdinjr) ; 

ffViti/i/. /y. Afia, vii. pi. (W (18*V4); Gray, Hand-l. B. iii. p. 42, 

no. 10243 ( 1^71) ; Dresser, B. Eur. viii. p. 245 (1878). 
Numfmuit uhitienjus {nee Gm.), SwinJk. P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 410 

(iVkin; Formosa): Torr. /./. O. 1873, p. 104 (E. Siberia): id, 

BuU. Sue. ZapA. France, i. p. 254 (1876); Darid J^ Oust. Ois. 

rAiW, p. 458(1877). 

Adult female in fn^edifuj-plumage. Similar to X. anptntus and of 
the aame tiz^, but ditttn^uiHhed by the dark lower back and rump 
and the remilar barring; of the axillahea and under winf^-coverta. 
The i^nenil ap|>earance is more fulTous ; the under aurface ia tinged 
with rinnuit buff all over; the lower back and rump are sandy 
buff with blackish -brown centrea to the feathers, thus greatly 
rrMrmbling the rest of the bat'k ; the upper tail-coverts barred with 
blaekii»h brown and sandy buff or white : **' bill black, Hesh-coloured 
at the base of the lower mandible ; feet bluish grey ; iris dark 
brown** (A. Taczanowsli), Total length 24 inches, culmen 7*2, 
wing 12 5, tail 4*6, tarsus 3*46. 

Admit male. In this s|)ei*ieH the difference in size Itetweon the 
aexe* is not so apfurent as in some of the allied ones. Total length 
21 inches, culmen (S*8, wing 1 1 9, tail Ali, tarsus :V2. 

youmtj. Much more tawny than the ailults and having tawny-buff 
bars or notches on the innermost secondaries; the streaks on the 
nndiT surface Trr\' fine and narrow. 

Adults in winter plumaijt do not differ ver}* much from the 
•ummer plumage, but the under surface is much less diMinctly 
»trrsked ; the up|»er surface is very similar at l)oth time^ of year. 

Hab. breeds in Eastern Siberia, and winters a^ far south aa 
Australia. 

m. Ad. sk. l^PP**'' t ssuri, April 4 (Jan- Se«rbohm VnW. 

kuur$kft\. 

k, e. \d. sk. NagaMiki. Ja|>an. May. F. KingiT. E«*q. [1*.]. 

d,e,/. Inm. sk. Yokohama. Japan (//. Seebohm C«»ll. 

/Vyrr). 

«. '« juv. sk. IIakod«di. S-pt. 25 (//. (iould (oil. 

Hbitr/y). 
k, t. V ^- *^- NtVHM, rhilippine U\., Feb. E. L. .M<iseler, £aq. 

k, A4. sk. Ihunagucte, Feb. £. 1^ Moaeley, Esq. 



352 0HAJLA.DBIIDJ5. 

I, m. Ad. sk. Labuan, Nov., Dec. A. H. Ererett, Esq. 

[C.]. ^ 

ft, o. Ad. sk. Hftlmshera (A. R, Wallace). Tweeddale CoIL 

p, (S ad. sk. Yule Isl., S.E. New Guinea^ Tweeddale ColL 

Dec. (Dr, James), 
9. Ad. St. Australia. J. B. Jukes, Esq. [P.]. 

r. Ad. sk. Australia. Qould ColL 

8, $ ad. sk. Australia. Seebohm ColL 

t, u. Ad. sk. Port Essington. Capt. Chambers [P.]. 

(Type of A. ttustralasianus.) 
r. Ad. sk. Queensland. Salvin-Godman ColL 

w, X, Ad. st. New South Wales. Australian Museum 

[p.i 

y. Ad. sk. Victoria. Seebonm ColL 

z. Ad. sk. Lord Howe Island, Sept. 8 Qould Coll. 

(J, Macffillivray), 
a', 2 ftd* sk. Green Isl., D'Kntrecasteaux J. Gk>uld, Esq. 

Channel, Tasmania, Nov. 

8 {J, MacgiUivray). 

4. NmneninB longirostris. 

Scolopax arquata, var. ft Qm. Syst, Nat. i. p. 656 (1788). 

Numenius arquata, var. B, Lath. Ind. Om. li. p. 710 (1790). 

Numenius longirostris, WiUofiy Amer. Om. viii. p. 23, pi. 64. ^. 4 
(1814) ; Audub. B. Amer. pi. 231 (c. 1826) ; Swaine. Fenm. Bw*.- 
Amer., Birds, p. 376 (1831) ; Audvh. Om. Biogr. iiL p. 240 (1836) ; 
Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. ^ N. Amer. p. 49 (1838) ; Audub. Om. 
Biogr. v. p. 587 (1839) ; id. B. Amer. 8vo, vi. p. ^j pi. 856 
(1843); Vigorsy Voy. 'Blossom,' p. 28 (1839); Gray, List OraU. 
Brit. Mus. p. 94 (1844); Giraiid, B. Long Isl. p. 271 (1844); 
Denny, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 39 (Jamaica) ; Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 560 
(1847) ; Reichenb. Grail, tab. Ixxviii. fig. 644, ccclix. figs. 2816-16 
(1850) ; Lembeye, Av. CStba, p. 88 (1650) ; Licht. NomencL Av. 
Mus. Berol. p. 91 (1854); Bp. C. B. xliii. p. 597 (1856); Cass. 
U.S. Rvpl. Exp. p. 315 (1858: Columbia to California ; Oregon) ; 
id. in Bairds B. N. Amer. p. 743 (1858) ; Henry, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philad. 1859, p. 108 (New Mexico) ; Brewer, Proc. Bost. 
Sac. Nat. Hist vii. p. 308 (1860 : Cuba) ; G. C. Taylor, Hns, 1862, 
p. 129 (Florida) ; Boardm. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 129 
(1862: Maine, migraut) ; Blakist. Ibis, 1863, p. 134; March, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. 6ci. Phi/ad. 1864, p. 68 (Jamaica) ; Schl. Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 85 (1864 : Mexico ; Texas) ; Coues, Ibis, 
1865, p. 165 (Arizona) ; Salvin, t. c. p. 190 (Guatemala) ; Gundi. 
Repert Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i. p. 352 (1866); Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 40 (Matanioras, July, Aug. ; Galveston 1%\., May, June ; San 
Antonio, winter) ; Salvin, t. c. p. 197 (Dueiias) ; Coues, t. c. p. 269 
(Arizona) ; id. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. I'^OO, p. 90 (Fort 
Whipple) ; id. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. xii. p. 128 (1868: South 
Carolina); Brown, Ihis, 18(>8, p. 425 (Vancouver Isl.); Einsch, 
Abh. nat. Ver. Bremen^ ii. p. 363 (1870: Mazatlan) : Coues, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1871, p. 82 (N. Carolina) : Gray, Haud-l. 
B. iii. p. 42, no. 10247 (1871); Allen, Bidl Harv. Coll. C. Z. 
iii. p. 182 (1^72: Kansas); Coues, Key N. Amer. B. p. 2i»2 
(1872); S^l. ^' Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 146 (1873); Couefi. 
B. N.-Wcst, p. 0O8 (1H74); id. Amer. Nat. 1874, p. C>01 (I'pjR'r 
Missouri) ; Ixiicr. Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii. p. 309 (1874) ; Gundl. 



4]. NrMRMra. :i.>3 

J. f. O 1H7.7, p. S2^) (riiba); Hvn*A. liep. Z}»»L Erpl. MtUh 
Meryl p. 4M| (Ift?.',: St. ThBrN-*, U. ColonMli)); iMtcr. iMI, r.S. 
Sat. Mum. ir. p. -I*< (|S7U: TeluianteptK*, I>tfC.); ^Scnnett, HhU. 
C.S. fiet4. Sttrv. w. |». W ( l'*7>* : Hrowfisvillf) ; Ctm^*^ t. r. p. tU*^ 
(UaWiiU); lyitrr. PnH\ f'.S. Xttf. Mum. i. p. Ill7 (lx7S: St. 
Vin«*i»nt) ; Il*'Min*;, t. r. p. 141 ((*alif<triiia) ; Ixiwr. t. c. pn. 1.51, 
4SS ((fUiiiM.»uii.M ; Mittffntnl, //. /w*/. A'. Atner. p. .'fcH (lr<7S»); 
Ititfytr. /V««t'. / ..V Art/. -Vim. iii. p. 1*1 U < i-'^M ; -■!. iV A'. .Vr«r//iii, 
Unndh. Jatnai^a, p. 1 1(> (1*<*^1); Com^ji, l^hrtkrliM A. .Iwi^r. //. 
II. lOI (l?v*L*i; JMdimt^ Pntc. U.S, Sat. Mm. v. p. o4*> (18SJ: 
1 ^ > w»<r Cai i f> iriiia I ; liaini, lire n *•/•, ,.V liiflt/tc. H a tt-r- liinU A'. 
sinter, i. p. .'Ill (1**"»4» ; (\>uf*^ Krif S. Amrr. li. L^itl imI. p. VM 
^'^•^l); Cont, LiAt It. W'ett Ind. p>J7 (!»«*); Turner. /W. f-.S. 
Sat. MuA. viii. p. 1*4** (I'^'^o: l^iibrailor) ; Dretp^ Auk, ii. p. IS 
ll*^"^'!: (*i»l<ini(l<»l : htwr. f.c p. 27.'$ (L»iu I**!.); Atf^^nh. f.c. 
p 1*^» tUnk-.tn); .1. O. T. Check-l. S. Atner. Ii. p. 15S (iKSrt) ; 
Kierntan, .iuk, iii. p. U'J (l**'**^: Vfiitiini Co., ( -ahtnniiii) ; Seton, 
t *'. p. l.C» (MiiilitdlMl); St^ttt^ t.r. p. .'JHii (Tur-on, All/ iDu) ; 
Ftrrttri' I'rrez^ l*r't\ V.S. Sat. .Mma. \\. p. 171* (l*<Ni: StaU* ni' 
I*ii«1.Uj ; Lhifd. Auk. w. p. 1h;(|?sk7: WVsteni 1V\h^) ; (orjt, 
/ . p :*.-'•»; r"U'n*. yV.M. /*..S'. A'//. J/m«. X. p. ll«» (1S«'7 : TpUiT 
.Si<'rAinfiit(» \'ttll«'y. ('Hliftirinu) ; lietkh. t. v. p. t^'C (lit'xnr ( o., 
T»»\iw»'. p *••'».■< (Shii Aittoiiio) ; Mern'/l. Ayk, v. p. I |.'i (1 >*<*<: 
F'-rt Klitiuathi ; 'Sre/^tii„t, (ii'"*/r. />»Vr. Chartulr. p. .$1*7 (IH*^'^); 
.Vn//. .-ImX. m. p. l.'*- (!-**'.♦: TnrjMUl Stiriiik'^l; Utivin. Ihin, iH*^*.*, 
p. 17'.» M'i»/ii!ii«-l M.I: ('**ry. li. llrt^t Iwi. p. :>4l (IKhjM; 
I'Aniti/t^'jn, /Vi/T. f'.S. ,\af. .Ma*, xiii. i>. 7AVi (IMN): ManitolNi) ; 
irarrc/i. A'. Pmu^ttl'. p. '.*•*> (l**H*h. Sirrriam, S. Amrr. Faun. 
n.i .'i. p. i»i» ( 1>*:»1 . Miih .1 ; Srvtf, Auk, ix. p. 14 i 1h«»j : Jmimi/n), 
p lMi* tr;iliM».»4ih.it«'h.«* K»'ji'»Fi) ; Atttr^itrtft. r. p.iTJL* (Shu Antttnio); 
M'lrLiy, t. r. p. .'i-VJ ( M:i»'it«*hilM«tt») ; J^trr. t. t\ p. .V>-| (<tmv*i« 
ll«rUMir. \VH.-hiu;rt.'ii) ; Aittftii'itt, t. r. p. .Htfc) (Nfw Mf\ico) ; Cori^, 
f'nt. Ii H'rjit Intl. p. t»| J 1 •*'.»-•: (inatrr aiiil Ix>a!»er Autilloji) ; 
iPutrJttr, Auk, \. p. liT'J i l-^i'-t: bm^' Nl.». 

Nnrufiiiii* iiifUii«>pu*«, IVri// A. Out.ti'JJi't. Sat. viii. p. .*JIH» |1H17: 
N AiU'rirAi 

l><rc-l'ill*^l Curl.'w, Suttall, .\fau. Oni. ii. p. J»4 jlXW). 

Nuniftiiu* <H*riilfiit«liK. H*i-i»/A. Prar. At-iul. Sat. .Sti VhiUid. \f\i'2. 
p l'»4 I Ki» <iran(l>-, N«*w >!• \ioii). 

Num-iiiu^ iNiiiiir::iii»i l<)ii;riM.<*tri% Cffuef, l*rtM\ A*tad. Sat. Sti. 
I'ku.ui l^^U.p J.U'» (Lil.M.i..r). 

A full tntiU in '«r<#./in7-i>/»«iii/i//r. (iriicriil t'olour ah<»v«» hrowii 

«anc>i Mitli rul«>u«, nil tin* f«*.ith«'r^ M.irki<'h limwii in the ci-ntn*, 

r» 4.* i.t \ iiiA h.irr* •! uitli riiiii.iiiiitii-rut'Mit^ ; l<»ucr b.ick. rump, .iiiii 

a;<^r Liil-riivtTfi* hlk«* thf n-at nf tht« luirk ; 1«"*mt and lunliaii win;;- 

rt/v.^.* iiWi' tlir lii'k, ilir jjri-alrr •»i'ri«- li.irntl with bl:icki»h linrwii 

^Cmi ' .r.riiruMti . pntn ir\ -i''i\«it!^ ti) i> ki-h bmuii tipjMHi with pnU* 

•'.•'*•- an. "r. . pnni irit* hltt< ki<»h hr«»wn, thf hhiilt of th«» tirnt piir«* 

«r.:*«.tr,« •!»iit««if 1,1 th«* i»tli*T (luill- i iiiiMrnoii-iutoiiH, uith Mhic'i 

" . #.*r !*.*■ i'.:»r primirw"* .iff Ki'».i'll\ luit irnvul.irly harriMl ; Uu* 

•*▼•*« d If !•« i -ttri.ifti<iii, r«u'uliiK ^.irri I uitli iiu*«k\ hf«»»»ii: tli»- 

.•■•■nil *r M'f ••ii>l inr<i Ilk*' till* h:i< k, .iii'l riinrf a-hy hruwn itiKt<M«l 

.' r-i!"'i» . t.tt! nun i*ij'iiiriit<iiiH, pl'iiI irl\ li-iirfHl jup.^, uith tluhkv 

• • '••.. !'.•• Sir* Ih'iii;: i in«* or t» ti i:i IiTjiIi- i : hcul aii*l ii4-< k puU* 

' r.fiin. •:! rwi-i-j*. loti^itii'liiially ^^tn iki-<l i^ith hr«iiin, tintrrn trrowlv 



954 CHARADRIIBiB. 

on the latter ; lores whitish, extending above the eye and forming 
a faint eyebrow; sides of face and ear-coverts mfescent, with 
narrow lines of dusky brown ; upper throat whitish ; remainder of 
under surface vinous cinnamon, paler on the abdomen, the feathers 
with more or less distiact margins of isabelline white ; lower throat, 
fore -neck, and chest with narrow blackish longitudinal centres, as 
on the sides of the neck ; sides of the body with a few narrow bars 
of dusky brown ; axillaries and under wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous, 
with dusky-brown bars on the primary-coverts, and to a less extent 
on the lower greater coverts : ** bill black, becoming dull light lilao- 
brown on the basal half of the mandible ; feet grey ; iris brown " 
(i2. Ridgway). Total length 18*5 inches, oulmen 5*3, wing 10*5, 
tail 4, tarsus 3*2. 

Adult female in summer phumage. Similar to the male, but larger. 
Total length 21 inches, culmen 7*3, wing 11, tail 3*8, tarsus 3*4. 

Nestling, Buffy yellow, deeper above, tinged with sulphur-yellow 
below ; upper parts coarsely and irregularly marbled with black : 
" bill straight^ about 1*4 inch long *' (B, Ridgway). 

Adult in winter plumage. Differs from the summer plumage 
chiefly in its uniform under surface, the streaks on the throat and 
chest not being developed, and the flanks not barred. 

Young birds may be distinguished from the old ones by the broad 
white bands on the innermost secondaries, the contrast between 
the black and light markings on the upper surface being more 
marked than in the adult birds. The throat and chest are plenti- 
fully striped with brownish black, the sides of the body having 
numerous bars of dusky brown, these being also developed on the 
axillaries and under wing-coverts, where, however, they are 
generally incomplete. 

Hob, Temperate North America, in winter south to Central 
America, as far as Guatemala. Cuba ; Jamaica. 

a. Ad. sk. North America. J. J. Audubon [P.], 

by c. Ad. sk. 49th ParaUel, June {G. N. Amer. Boundary 

Dawson). Comm. [P.]. 

d.e. S 2 ^' sk. Powder River, Montaoa. E. S. Cameron, Esq. 

[PA ^ 

/i9' S 2 i^^' sk. British Columbia. J.TC.Xiord,E8q.[C.]. 

A. Ad. sk. Iowa, May. Seebohm ColL 

t. 2 ad. sk. Lyons Falls, N. Y., Jan. 10 Salvin-Godman Coll. 

{A . J. Davan : Hensh. Coll. ) . 

k. cJ ad. sk. Texas {A. L. Heerman). Salvin-Godman ColL 

/, m, n. Ad. et San Antonio, Texas, Oct. Salvin-Godman ColL 

juT. sk. {H. E. Dresser). 

0-8. (S ad. ; t-w. Corpus Christi, Texas, Oct., Salvin-Godman Coll. 

2 ad. sk. Nov. {F. B. Armstrong). 

J-, y. 2 ad. sk. San Patricio, Texas, Dec. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

(F. B.A.). 

z. 2 ad. sk. California. Capt. Kellett and 

Lieut. Wood. 

a. S ad. sk. California Seebohm Coll. 

//. S i'lv. sk. San Diego, California, D(^r. Salvin-Godman Coll 

14 (//. W.Heni^hau'). 



41. jtmsKirs. 356 

r\ cf ad. iJl Fort Crook. N. California, Salfin.(2<K!maii(Wl. 

June {J. F^Uner), 
d. d •d- tk. Citj of M<*xic(>. S«*ebohm Coll. 

''. 9 Ad. ^k. Kio (iuerrert), (^hihimhua, 8alvin-(.io<lniaii Coll. 

Jan. 3 (ir. IJiHffi). 
f. 9 «<i. ik. San Hlaj^ T**piix /April 2H SalTin-(Sodman (\>11. 

( H'. //. RtcAartiittm). 
0\k\ rT juT. et Zacatc^aii, Aug. {W, B. Salvin-^todmanCoU. 

9 ad. Ilk. Rirknrdium ). 

f*. k\ r. Ad %)l. Coiutn«*l I>Uand {d. F. daw Salvin-Oodman Coll. 

w'. .\d. tk. Ihienas, CtuaU^mala (O. fcS.). 8alvin-<^»dmanC<>ll. 



5. Nameniai phaopiu. 

The Whimbrel or lieMer Curlew, Ed^eardJi, Gleanim^i Sat. Hist. ii. 

p. -JIM, pi. »>7 (17«)). 
!-«• IVtii Courlv ou \e Corlieu, Brut. Om. v. p. 317, pi. xxTii. fig. 1 

Scoitipax phipopun, Liiiii. Sy»t, Sat, i. p. 243 (1706) ; Gm, Sjfit, Sat. 

i. p. rt.'i* (17h8). 
1^ (Wlieu. irAuhmt. Ii, RU, viii. pi. m± 
ijt (*ourlM>u ou IVtit Cuurlin, Buf. Hist. Sat. Ow. viii. p, 27, pi. iii. 

Whimbrtrl, luitM. den. Sffn. iii. pt. 1. p. 123 (17H6) ; Yarr. Brit. B. 
ii. p. r)ltj I lM4;i). 

Nuni«*niu.4 ph»t)pui«, 7«/r/A. Gm. Sun, Suppl. i. p. 2Ul (17H7); id, 
Inti. (Pm. ii. p. 711 (17lH)); Paiias, /^^wr. B^ttsti-Anat. ii. p. If5» 
pt. (iHll); VieiU, S. Ihct. ffllist. Sat. viii. p. :«W (1H17); 
/Vmrn. Man. tfOm. ii. p. Vi}4 (lHi»<)); /^omj-, Ont. Prov. pi. :107 
(Nj.^il; llWn^r, Atlas, (,'raiUs, pi. (i (iMiC) ; />*». Tral/^ rfOm. 
p. TiiVi dKU); //ri-Am. T.v I^»tt4cht. p. fUl (IKU); Mhutr. 
Cai. Bait. CtfMr. p. .V) iK'iJ: Oucanu*); .Vowm. IV l)eti/»chL 
lui. p. .»«. pi. 217 a<V\) ; r/.Hi/f/. //. AW. iv. pi. iWW (lKi7); 
//;i Comp. IJnt //. AW. ^ S. Amrr. p. 4i» (18.JH); (Vr«;>. f>rw. 
r;ar^, p. 40»5 ( lK4i)) ; Krt/M ^ lila*. Wtrh. Eur. p. Ixxviii ( IMO) ; 
Wrhb ^ Berth. (}m. Ctnuir. p. 37 (1^4<»); Svrdm. in iMmvf. 
I'liV- Bhm. .\ttriti. iii. p. 2»V> (1840); Sflif^-lAtngt-h. Faun. lifty. 
p. l3l «1»*42); Sckl. Bev. Oit. p. xrv (IM4) ; .I/mA/^ /yri/r. Om. 
tin^hml. !». no (1*^4); ^Voy, Ai*«/ frVa//. //n/. .»/iij. p. 94 
I lM4i ; //<«ljf«. /cfiw. ineti. in Brit. Mua., (iraU. pi. M). no. «U«J; 
iJ in Gray'$ /juJ. .l/ijr. p. HiJ (lH44); Buf>p. Si/at. t'rbert. p. 12.'» 
ilMo: l.4»wrr F^'Ut, in winter); tiray. Cat. Mamm. etr. SffHil 
pr^. ii'mi^. p. lie MH4r,): JIncit*. >>/i //nV. //. ii. p. 2h7, 
pi. Ixiix. ti^. 2 (1H4*J); (rraif, den. B. iu. p. ."i^UJ (1^7); //MA. 
Cat B.Mut. A».S»)C. p. 2f>< (iHlil: CalnilU) ; BeichnU,. tirall. 
UU IxxTiii. ti»rii. .^I') 41 (Ih.'jO): 71^/>m/iii. B. Irri. ii. p. IW 
iIVjOi; MatjpU. Brit. //. iv. p. 25;^ (1H.V2); A>^r6. /Mnm. Fuyle, 
pi xniii.il. ri»r. r> (iKVJi; &A/. Tcy. AW^r/. pi. 24H (InVI); 
/..«rAr Sumenri. Ar. Mum. lirnA. p. 1»1 <lK'>4 : Kumpt* ; .\bvivtinia ; 
Arabia) ; Hruyl. Syst. f'rttera. p. t'i2 < l^Trft : lianki of thoNile, in 
wintrri; Hartt. Om W'-.^/r. p. 2:J2 (^",7 : (ianibia; A^haIllw ; 
MiiiaiubiqiM*) ; Jauh. ri liarth.-I^jmimm. Bich. Orn. p. 473 ( KAi) ; 
Undrrm. I'y. (iri^heni. p. 1 4(; (IrMili); PuMrya, Ifns, 1-^X». p. .*U4 
t<*«*rfu k Kpiruii. tpHnic »i autuniu) ; Hrinkardt, Jfn*, W>l.p. 10 
MfrrpfilandK /". 9 P- d*tdman, t. c p. H7 (HmIo. brt^ling); 
lr^,t e. p. 240 (Oudb); A*. Seuion, t. c. p. 27(1 ( Miiuntiuii) ; 
fkkl Ih^ Sedert. Vwf^lt, pi. 22. Hg*. % 1»a ( l^U ) ; ^faii!/ AW^i 

2 A 2 



3*56 CHAKADRIID^. 

8ur risle lUunimiy p. 163 (1862); NewUm m Baring-GankTs 
Iceland, p. 413 (1863 : April to Sept.) ; Oray, List Brit, B. p. 164 
(1863) ; koch^E. Neiat. Ibis, 1863, p. 171 (Madagascar) ; E, Newt, 
t. c. p. 457 ; Schl. Mus, Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 94, pt. (1864) ; 
Jerd. B. Ind. iii. p. 684 ( 1864) ; Wright, Ibis, 1864, p. 145 (Malta) ; 
Gigl. Ibis, 1865, p. 60 (Pisa) ; Gumey, t. c. p. 272 (Natal) ; Mnre, 
t. c. p. 434; Godman, Ibis, 1866, pp. 101, 107 (Azores); Schl. 
P. Z, S. 1866, p. 426 (Madagascar) ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 168 
(Calcutta) ; Baird, t. c. p. 282 (Iceland & Greeuland) ; E. Newton, 
t c. pp. 346, 359 (Seychelles) ; Degl. 8f Gerbe, Om. Eur. ii. p. lt$2 
(1867) ; Loche, Expl. Sci. Alger., Ois. ii. p. 333 (1867) ; Layard, 
B. S. Afr. p. 322 (1867 : Waltisch Bay ; Cajpe Town) ; Grandid. 
Bev. et Mag. de Zool. 1868, p. 4 ; Chapm. Trav. S. Afr. ii. App. 
p. 419 (1868) ; Schl. ^ Poll Faune Madag., Ois. p. 183 (1808); 
Tristr. Ibis, 1808, p. 327 (Palestine) ; Smith, t. c. p. 454 (Por- 
tugal) ; Borggr. logelf. Norddetttschl. p. 120 (1869); Doderl. 
Avif. Sicil. p. 181 (1869) ; Droste, Vogelw. Borkum, p. 249 (1869) ; 
Drake, IbiSj 1869, p. 154 (Marocco) ; Godman, Azores, pp. 34, 41 
(1870 : Madeira & Canaries) ; Friisch, Vog. Eur. tab. 40. fig. 2 
(1870) ; Stevens. B. Norf. ii. p. 199 (1870) ; Finsch 4* Hartl. JUg, 
Ost-Afr. p. 739 (1870); Saload. Faun. Ital., Ucc. p. 226 (1871); 
Gould, B. Gt. Brit. iv. pi. 49 (1871); R. Grau,B. West Sootl 
p. 288 (1871); Saunders, Ibis, 1871, p. 389 (S. Spain); Gray, 
Hand-l. B. iii. p. 42, no. 10249 (1871) ; Harting, Handb. Brit. B. 
p. 53 (1872); Sundev. Sn, Fogl. pi. xxxviii. fig. 3 (1856-72); 
Sharpe, Ibis, 1872, p. 74 (Nagua R., Gold Coast) ; G. C. Taylor, 
t. c. p. 232 (Constantinople) ; Shelley ^ Buckley, <.c. p. 290 (Gold 
Coast) ; Gumey in Anderss. B. Dam. Ld. p. 300 (1872 : rare in 
Daniara & Great Namaqua Lands) ; Shelley, B. Egypty p. 244 
(1872) ; Feilden, ZooL 1872, p. 3248 (Fieroe IsL, Apnl to Sept); 
Holdsw. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 474 (Ceylon) ; Paltn^, Finlands Foglar, 
n. 122 (1873) ; Heugl. Orn. N.O.-Afr. ii. pt. 1, p. 1150 (1873: 
Lower EmtP^ ; Khartoum ; Abyssinia ; coast of Arabia) ; Antin. 
^Salvad. Viagg. Bogos^ p. 145 (1873 : Rhas-Gherar, Dec.) ; Brooke, 
Ibis, 1873, p. 340 (Sardinia) ; Hayes Lloyd, t. c. p. 417 (Kathia- 
war) ; Dresser, B. Eur. viii. p. 227, pi. 570 (1873) ; Ussher, Ibis, 
1874, p. 74 (Gold Coast) ; Durnf. t c. p. 399 (N. Frisian Isl.) ; 
Svnnhoe, Ibis, 1875, p. 132 (Chefoo, May) ; Danf. 6r H.-Broum, t. e. 
p. 424 (Transylvania) ; Irby,Om. Straits Gibr.p. 178 (1875) ; Fallon, 
Ois. Be/g. p. 107 (1875 : spring & autumn) ; Sharpe ^Bouvier, Bull. 
Soc. Zool. France, i. p. 53 (1870: Chinchonxo, March); Butler, 
Str. F. iv. p. 10 (1870 : Sind) ; Hutne, t. c. p. 404 (Laccadives) ; 
Blafif. East. Persia, ii. p. 280 (1870) : Seebohm ^ H.-Brown, Ibis, 
1870, p. 311 (Ust Zvlma, Mav) ; Tacz. BuU. Soc. Zool. France, ii. 
p. 157 (1877: Poland); Ayres, Ibis, 1877, p. aOO (Transvaal, 
Nov.) ; BartL Vog. Madag. p. 322 (1877) ; Butler, Str. F. v. 
p. 233 (1877: Deesa); Hume, t. c. p. 329 (Sind): Oust. BulL 
^c. Philomath. 1878, p. 185 (Seychelles) ; Sharpe, Report Trans. 
Venus E.rjkHl. p. 402 (1878: Kodrigruez) ; Butler, Str. F. vii. 
p. 187 (1878 : Karachi Harbour) ; Hume, t. c. p. 487 (CalciittA) ; 
Ai/res, Ibis, 1878, p. 301 (Transvaal) ; Boyd. B. Cane. p. !."><) 
(1871)) ; Hume, Str. F. viii. p. 112 (1879) ; Butler, Cat. U. Sind, 
etc. p. 02 (1879: cold weather visitant); id. Cat. B. S. Bomb. 
Pres. p. 70 (1880: winter); Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 910 (1880): 
Vidal, Str. F. ix. p. 85 (1880 : *S. Konkan) ; Butler, t. c. p. 429 
(Deccan i'v: S. Mahriitta Countrv) ; IUdgic. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. iii. 
p. 230 ( 1^80 : (Greenland) ; AV/V>, Sfr. F. x. p. 70 (1.881 : Lucknow) ; 



41. !IU1IE5II'M. :i.*)7 

liiMoye, Orn. Anyu/a, p. 4Gl* (IN^I : R Zairt' A: Cuiieii**); 6W/W/, 

.\"ri/r0 FwjU, j». lOl ( IhSh ; (iWnry, Jbi/t, 1>ML>, p. 7"# (Moinbu.-'*) ; 

.Vr/«'/Aiii, /. f. p. 21*4 (AMrKkhiinK p. .*W2 (Ari*hanjr»'l) ; Milnr- 

KiitrartU ,V Grandiiiter^ IIiAt. Sat. .ifadaf/., Oi». p. tJiM (Ifs**J); 

i'-ck*^ 'AfU. l.HM.', p. 4(>^(Spil^b«•IV«n, Jillv) ; <M/rii. JIamih, H, 

linrm. it p, 411 k\^<\, pt.) ; //. O. T. 7,iW AViV. />'. p. 179 

(l"^^i) ; limtth, Huuyh yutrf^W. ( lv»l ^7) ; SiiM/uinj*^ ed. YarrflCt 

lirit. It. iii. p. "i07 iJNKj); Strli^hm, Ibi\ In-CJ, p. Il» (('auCJl>U»*) ; 

/r/y, /. r. p. l-*?*! (S.iiitaiidfr) ; TrUtr. Faun. A* Fior. Paieft. 

p. KU (W'*4: scan'o winu-r NiMUuit); CAajtmany Ibi*, iKS-i, 

p. 11M<'«»«-1 «»f Tortu^nil); Radth, Ont. Caur. p. 4.'> (1H.K4 : 

I'llli-, bri^Miiu up totWlUt) ft. ». p. 4«i«'> (Ij^'ukoraii) ; Murray^ Vert*'hr, 

Ftiun. Sind, p. lM7 ( l^s4) ; ShnqK^ eti. Lat/ard'n li. S. A/r. p. (KJ3 

ll***^!!; .Srt^M>htn, Ilit4. Jfnt. />. iii. p. lU) (Ivm); jiunm. Ibis, 

l^*^'t, p. ^'> jSi. KildaJ ; Fijuht-r, J./. O. Is-C), p. Hi'i (Ziiiizil>ar; 

Iaiiiii) ; liuttik. SUv* Lryil. MuJt. IfVio, p. :i4«'{ (Lib* ria) ; Hartrrty 

J.f. O. 1^•M;, p. \A^^ (|^»- Ir*l. ; Tuinb<» A: Cji-Mitt); Stiat'i. Kienw 

r'tr. Ittd. p. 'J'.Vt {\>^\)i Situfnirrt, 1\ Z. S. \>^>i\ p. ;$.*$($ (IH-jM 

dan in. ('IjHproH ^innip); Yrrhury^ lbi»^ iSHi, p. iM (Adfn); 

Shttr^tr, t. r. p. 4i»L* I K».». July lo Slan-ll) ; W//. .-Iri/. //a/, p. 4l)l» 

( l-^-^l » : /'ill/. /Ai*. i*^^^7. p. .'ftKt 1 Pfrlupil) ; Uutyw. Slati. S. Amer, 

It. p. 171 < 1***''7» ; Iltirrir Uniim vV liucklfy^l'rrttbr. Faun. Sutkrri., 

/V/i/Am. a* (Vtwmrfy, p. 'J'2'i (l.*^**7); itd. I'ni^r. Faun, (hdtr 

ll'^hr. p. l;i7 ll-^NH)"; Shrliry, !bi», 1•N^^^. p. ;U>I» (Liimu); i'hajh- 

mm, t. c. p. 4lo c Spain. Sfpl.) ; M ihwlUhranU \ iht*t. S. Arch, 

Mu*. I'Ji x. JiuIL p. '2f^'* [I'^f^*^: Colli. »ro I>l.i; .S/Wim, f/r»<j/r, 

Jfi^tr. i'haradr. p. :il'*^ ll"^*^**); liuitik. St>t*s Lnjd. Mu*. l4w, 

p Itrj I J link K J. l*v*H, I.. l.;7 ; lUicIu-n. Syjif. I'rrz. I'f-j. l)rut$chl. 

p. I»i. I-»«»i ; tiudUm Ih.", I'-v.i.p. -Jl.'M Kukliu. CvpriH) ; Litf'ord, 

r '- p. :il-* n'\jrii*l: Satuulrr*, Man. lirit. li. y. r.|;{ (!*%•**.»); 

Jlnttr i>j, J f. (t l**"^'.*, p. !.*/<» iTn. Ill -o I ; I'hamlttHatn^ Auk, \\. 

y -17 tl-'<»: .\r-uk, S. (ipi-nlandj ; (iiyl. Arif. Ital. \ft UeMoc. 

p. Id il--i»i, L'm/ AV.'.^. p. r-V; ilsjuh. lird JitnOi. p. :>1| (IM»1) ; 

ih/..tti- fittinf, Vh», 1 •*!«>. p. 44l* (.MaiU'ira); (iraham. It. f.na \ 

.»/.-./. p. L'.:7 (ls*<'i; /-V/MiAAAi/. jr** //ii//«/. p. l;;-- «1S»I); 

y/. ■. 1./'. /;. fir- till. p. Iti iiv.»h; ^r.</Ar-, y,»jtlir. Hthjui. y. 470 

il**! . li'trit*' /ifftrH A liuiklry, I rrttbr. Fttun. .J /»/»// A' Jnntn' 

ll'^'r ,.. is; il»*:'J): SrJ'.km/lbis, 1k»*J, p. 1»l' (n.li-«»liilHi) ; 

Sif.r.t. t r. y \\'t iSintiixa.i-r.iT) ; Jirml'iU, (. r. p. i.'L*:» |( tiiinhin) ; 

llartrit, t. » p. .M4 j K. J*iu-»iai ; Fa tin \ Stwh r, Cti'. tit tr. Om. 

Sui^r, y. 4>* ilS»*J;; IrliQ, K' i/ Li-^t lint, li, '2\A •»!. p. ol 

.l-'-'-'.. li'trniM, Ihim, I >»•.':;. lip. 171, 1>1 (Atltii): Mf'id.'li'ai'ittf 

t r J -.'^i.', ,r.i[,an M.I. 1', trs-.n \ lii'hnU, 1!,:*, I-IM. p. I'.'J.'* 

\.'- i*A\, hp .-iiivi; Ck'ijntntn, f.r. p. :t47 ( W'fi^t Jlltlalldl; lOichrn. 

I ., /#r<,.'.. A-0«r.jf>. p. IJ i I'^'M : Iji^t Af'-iraii cna^t in \iiiit»r); 

it '.'4. nru .V ,ijn /fiAr. 'JikI .«I p. L".'! { \y^'Xt\. 

.N'*hj' »"i- iiiHi»»r, Ixtuh, Si;*t. (a!. Mamm. Aic-. lirit. Muj*, p. 'A'J 
, I -|». l»i\ • ^lijp I. 

rj .• i '*- p- , '»•. *''ii /»';/'i' I'* i. p. I"*'* ( I'*I7 I. 

Tf J j .- .'*.,-ir:». /':rwii.iy. /'A./.^*. /.»-»/ ii. p. l'*4 1 !*•:.*-'>. 

* 1*1 .1 ■ p»i« -ii'j ..ilu* (ri/i Isiiin. I, •'^ttjJitiiA IN tSiutir M tim. X'-J. \\\. 

y >.. pi .*» ' I •*-.';». 

Nu;i^i'l<i< i*iiiii'lii ii«, liffhrn, /''.#/ IfrufM-M. p. (iIO ( 1**<*I )- 

Nunt": lu* tiiflnii**rtiyii< hu*. /»'/«. < '. li. iliii. p. 1<>J1 il'^Vl: (iri'vn- 

UtA . ^r»ry, Hatld-l. li. ill. p. Ilf. Il«». Ut'.^O il»^7li. 
Ni»:i.. niu. h»«iUlii-. ///ir//. ihn, llr*t-A/r. j». l';U il'M7: S|. 

lb"U*Mi. finiy, Itaml-i li iii. p. ll', lit*. K^J'l (1^71). 



41. HrMRXIUIi. 



359 



flanks almust m plentifully cleTolo|)ed m in the adulU; the bars 
on the ssillaries are often ver}* incomplete, and are, in rare in- 
■tanix.«, «*ntirDlj abnont. 

iLth, Europe generally, extending to Iceland and (rrcenland, and 
ranging eastwards an far an the Indian Peninsula in winter, and 
eren to the Burmese c«>untne!i and the Malayan Peninsula, where 
its range coalesces with that of N, var\e*jatu$. Winters also in 
Africa. 



m. Ad. %\l, 
h. r' sd. tk. 
r. Ad. ftk. 

d. 9 ad. ; #. (f 
ja«. *k. 

/. i^ a.1. tk. 

e. Inm. sk. 
k. Juv. tk. 

If A- 't' 2 sd. ; /, m. 

i jur. kk. 
a. o. / 2 ad. St. 

/. S jUT. ftk. 

f. Ad. St. 

r, B, Ad. et juT. »k. 
f, ■ r. .\d. et ju%'. 
r, w. \d. et juv. sL 
y. {^ ad. tk. 

I V ad. ik. 

fl i ad. tk. 
A*. PulL tk. 
e .\d. St. 
/ \l tk. 

# / ad. ak. 
r Inm. tk. 

m 

/. / JUT. ak. 

A . .\d sL 
r. Ad sk. 

k. Ad tk. 

/. (f imm. ak. 

h'. Inim. ik. 
« Ad.»k 

• d ad. sk. 
/ A4.sk. 



(ireenland. 

Ffl»roe Islandti, June. 

lale of iirain, N.U., Aufr> 

(iJ. G. IV. RX 
Spurn Point, Lincolnshire, 

Sept. 
Spurn Point, i)ex. \ . 
Welln, Norfolk, Sept. 1. 
Aldeburgb, Suffolk. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Twevddale Coll. 



K. J. (*aU»n Haigh, 

J.l oraisauz,l*JMi.' P.]. 
Colon.»l Feilden [\\\ 
Theodore Fiaher, 
¥j^. : P.]. 
Komney Martih, Kent, May, Dr. U.ll Sharped P.]. 

Aug., Sept. {R, H. S,), 
Patrhain Harhour, Suasex^ 

May. 
Paghani liar hour, Sept. 10 

{J, K, //.). 
Hay ling leJand. 



J. K. Ilarting, Esq. 
Seehohui Coll. 



Poole llarbouri Dorset (..i. 

rrMi Hut/ei). 
m»vonahire. 



T. W. Tyndale, Esq. 

[P.l 
Seebolim Coll. 



Monta^ Coll. 
(Ty|«s of X. minor of Lea'*h.) 
Torquay. C. (^nningham, Esq. 

Kid.., Norway, May 27 {P. Sa1vin-(iodman Coll. 

l<«jdn, J mil* (//. 6*. I. 

Molde, NopK-av, May 31. 

Swioden, J uly 111 

lleli)r*>laiki. 

Ilavm, FraD(*e, April 27 Seebohm ColL 

Malaira. S|Niin, July •'U 

Man»<T<i. 
Madeira, Sept. K). 



S«*hohm (oil. 

Setibtthm (\ill. 

IIarihttC«»ll. 

H. Hatke, Km^. [P.]. 



Tweeddale Coll. 



Seebohm Coll. 

W. K. ( Vilvie (irant, 

y-^ [PO 
CfovfmorlC4*ndaU P.l. 



Svntyambia. ^. 

Anci*bra Uiver, Oold Coast. Sir F. Hurton \ CapL 

(\uifnin '■ P. '. 



N a«| lui Ki V vr , Fantee 

Waltiaih lUiv, SepL IM 
if\ J, AnirraitoH), 

Traiiavaal. 

.Madatfajrar. 

N . K. Mailsgafar. 

Uftal t^nuini island {Sir 
J. Kirk). 



Sei'bohui C«'li. 

Seebohm Cull. 

(Suriicv r«»||. 
Mr. (inrrard C.\ 
S«rbiibui Coll. 
Sevbohm Cull. 



360 CHABADRlIDuS. 

q'. (S ad. sk. Rodriguez {H. H. Slater), Tranait of Venus Exp. 

r'. Ad. sk. Zanzibar (Sir J. Kirk), Seebohm Coll. 

i^. Ad. sk. Zanzibar (K C. Buxton). Seebohm CoU. 

t'. Juv. ek. Mombasa. Rev.A.H.Buxtonrp.]. 

u', Q ad. sk. Manda Island, Feb. 14. F. J. Jackson, Esq. 

[P.]- 

v', 2 ^* sk* Massowa, Red Sea, Aug. Tweeddale Coll. 

24 ( W. Jesse), 

v/f x\ y'. Ad. sk. Fao, Persian Gulf. W.D.Cuminlng,Esq. 

Lr^.j. 

z', a'\ 2 ad- sk. Karachi, Aug., Oct. {E. Hume ColL 

A, Butler). 

A", c". Ad. et imui. Karachi, Dec. (Capl. Hume ColL 

sk. Bishop), 

d". Imm. sk. Ghizni, ISind {Dr, H. India Museom. 

Goulds, 

e", (S ad. sk. Find Dadan Khan, Oct. 22. Hume Coll. 

f. Ad. sk. Balacherry, Kathiawar, Colonel Hayes Uoyd 

Oct. 22. [P.]. 

g'\ h"f i". Imm. sk. Bombay Harbour, Nov. Hume Coll. 

k", S ad. sk. Etawah, Aug. 20. Hume ColL 

/". Imm. sk. Chinghut, Oudh. Hume Coll. 

m". Imm. sk. Nepal. Hodgson Coll. 

n", o". $ ad. cJ imm. Madras, Sept. Hume CoU. 

sk. 

p", $ ad. sk. Laccadive Islands, Feb. 16. Hume ColL 

q". Ad. sk. S. Andamans, Jan. 3 (R, Tweeddale ColL 

G, W, R.), 

r". 2 ad. sk. S. Andamans, Sept. {R, J. Hume Coll 

Wimberley). 

s". (S ad. sk. Corbvn's Cove, Andamans, Hume Coll. 

Oct.\%F.A.deRoepstorff). 

t". 2 acL Fk. Port Blair, March 10 (R. Tweeddale Coll. 

J, Wimberley). 

n". (S ad. sk. Viper Isl., Andamans, Dec. Hume Coll. 

(W. Davison), 

v". 2 ad. sk. Dungleaf Creek, Anda^ Hume Coll. 

mans,Jan.3( W.Davison), 

w". 2 ad. sk. Trinkut Island, Nicobars, Tweeddale ColL 

Jan.31 (R.J. Wimfjerley), 

x". (S ad. pk. Camorta, Nicobars, Feb. 13 Hume Coll. 

( W. Davison), 

y". (S ad. sk. Elephant Point, Burma, Hume Coll. 

Dec. :29 {J. Armstrong), 

z". (S imm. sk. Lower Pegu, Sept. 18. Oates Coll. 

a^. 2 ad. sk. Sittaug River, Feb. 4 Hume Coll. 

( W. Dmnson). 

^^ c^« 6 2 ftd- sk. Tbatone Creek, Dec. ( W. Hume Coll. 

rf^, e^. (S 2 ad. 8k. Amherst, Jan. ( H'.7^fli?/#o??). Ilurae Coll. 

f^j if. (5 ad. sk. Mergiii, Nov., Dec. ( W. Hume Coll. 

Davhon). 

}{". (S\ i^,k'^,l\ 2 Klan<r, Malay Peninsula, Hume ColL 

ad. sk. Dec.toF(^h.{W.Davis(m). 

7n\ ??\ J ad. ; o"*. Pulo Non^^si\, Singapore Hume Coll. 

$ ad. sk. (1J\ Davison). 

;/', 7'. ^Skeleton. l^ujrland. Purchased. 

/•'. l)<»nrs (>[" iiuiik. N«pal. Ilodjrson Coll. 

N . SKiill. Jji-land. VarrelUVIl. 



41. ;criiB!iirH. .'itil 

SuUp. a. Namenins ▼ariagatnt. 

I^*(*cmiii> tju-heto dv YIA*^ dv hu^^nn, S<tnn, J'ttjf. X. Guin. p. 80, 

j.l. 4^* (177«*»». 
I.iiXMiimi, rurl«*w. Lath. f/V«. Syn. iii. pt. 1, p. VJ'J (17^5). 
Tantnlu* ^arirpitiiN .Vi*-;;. /V/. /V'/r et Faun. Inmhr. ii. p. 9:2 (17H$; 

ri .Siiii/f. t. 

S*iili'|iui liUMii it'll "i?*, (im. St/nf. Xaf. i. p. tWV^i (l7K"»i. 

Nuiitfiiiiiii Iiizi>ni*-ii«i;>, Lttfh. Ittfi. (Prn. 11. p. 711 <17iK)); (iray^fitn. 
//.hi. p. :>«?•» (I'-D; //;/. (*. A', xliii. p. .VC (1>.VJ); Martens, 
J.f. O. isi-rfj.j,. i»s : f/rriy, llnml-l. ii. iii. p. 4l\ ill UL^'C (1*^71) ; 
Strinh. 1*. /, .V 1-71, p. 410 ^Fll^Ul•^a ; S. Chiim cimHt) ; ljt*j^e^ 
IS. Cryl^m. p. iUl ^I^^^<)). 

Nuiiiviiius pha-npiiH (wit /,.), /Vi//. /^HHjr. Iii*^t^Atin(. ii. p. Itttl 

tl'*ll,pl.»; iLrAf. Tr. Linn. Stn. x'iii. p. li»l (ImM); S. .\fuU. 

I'rrh. LiFi//- fn 'Vulkmk. p. Li* (iNtti-Jl); Hart I. J.f. O. lK>4, 

p. 1«»7; Strhih. P. /. S, iML't, p. :U7; Rntldr, Kei*. Sittir.^ Vity. 

p. :U0 (iMui: (Vntml Irkiit Ki\tri; .SA/. Mua. Pat/tflia*, SimIih 

iwuv, p. \K\ (INU, pt.) ; /Airr/. /». /. X. lM»7, p. KU (iVK-w W. ; 

Slali'totju* li«l. ); I*/. vV /■VfMrA. /*. /. .V. iSi'tf*, pp. h, IIM (IVlvw 

l«Uiitlf*); I>yft. li" Vwvrs, J.f. O. l«M*iH, 11. ;W17 (Diira^un, ran-); 

FiHMh A- //«i*W. IV OjtM/r. I), 7:5'.» < 1^70, pt.); .SinViA. P. /. 6*. 

1-71. p. 410 (IVkiii til Shsn^niii in Hint«*r); Ilartl. ^ FinscM, 

r.A.S. 1>71», p. Itlti (lap: IVh'w M.); U'aUI. Tr. Z. S. viii. 

p. iH; {1h7:»: |V»iis!.nin. S. rfliU-.«; TomlAn:\ N. CVlrbi***): id. 

Mm. l-r:J. p. 'il7 (S. .\iiiliiiii»ii-i : Drrfit'r, Ii. Eur. viii. p. l*4o 

ll>7:i. pi.) ; Tnrz. J.f. O. Is;.:, p, lu'{ (K. SiU ria) : *Vii/iyi//. Trt*. 

/♦'•.m. p. :m{:» (1*'7J) : Ilumv, Sir. F. ii. p. L*1»7 (1-74 : AmUiuAiiM 

ar a Nic.»Ur-» ; ll'aA/. /V. /. -V i\. p. L»:JL» ( l-r"; : Ciiio M.. IW.) ; 

/iii*r-A. J*»urn. Mha. (iinhjfr. 1I« ft ■■». p. •*►•*> ( l-7"il; i{*uirnb Iiri.'*t, 

uatir ti^tirinkh. l». >* tI-7">»; Anwtt'.wi, Str. F. \\. p. IM] ( 1>*7<»: 

Kaiik'"*-" Ii) : ffti*:. Hull. »^^. /*-./. Fntnrf, i. p. i*.'4 ^1^7«»); 

Ihitul .V ^>ii*/. ^/m. CAinr, p. |.'i7 (1-77): Ttrrrdd. /*. /. iV 1-77, 

p. .Vi<> (' '« l»«i ; MtilHliiKi) : Ilunir \ Ihii'tAnn, Str. F. \i. p. 4ti() 

il-7-: T«niu«MTiii» I ; )iUtki*t. \ Vryrr, /Am, 1-7-. p. -1'.'*. ( I'l/o ; 

'l«ki'; Vokiil.iiiiiA) : liiiM/tl: .Mnhtu. Arch. pp. l.*7'», ;Jl'4. o7.*t, 4ti7, 

.'••;; I l**7"»i ; .\t»yer, Pnn, 1^7'.». p. 1 IJ 1 Mi*tiu>l«t, Mari'h ; M« iiiidii- 

1.1:1. Apr.!.. F'tufJt, /'. /. .V !--<». p .',7r. y\\ X M.) ; lutffht. 

Vy ' I'h.tl.t'.ijfr,' ii. />'ii./>. p l!.*'. I 1--1 » ; Fin^th, Jfn.*, \r\*^\, 

\\ 1^7. li'.i (Tku-liiii'. 11"mP. n.ip. 1 ; AVMi/m. /Am. l'***^. p. 17 

< "-: pT'*!"-''*. N"%.». thlf**. IhitniK. Ii. lint. Ilunn. \\. p. (11, pt. 

il-'sli; It.idtrtn. A. /'. S*dtil. Itid. xliii. p. 1P.»(1— ^t: Jii\a), 

\li\ p. JOI (l-.-li, iii\. p. Il«i(l— 1»: .-iuiualni) ; \et»tdiin, Ii. 

J'tfmiu. F.ntp. p. .'ibi ( I-*.*l . 

NdiifMu- lilnrapi.lw-. I'uilh't^ A'. />/«/. S liitt. S'tt. \iii. p. i!<Kl 

jI-17.. 
NiijMriH;* iirop^/ittii**, (iuutd. /*. /. .V l'*4'», p. 177>: (irny^ LiU 

i,ir.U lint .Stu* p ;»l (1-4J: I'l.rl i:*i.ili-t..:i i ; id. tint! Ii. iii. 

p .V.'t .1-17.; ti..utd, li.Au'tr. \\ pi. \:\ (1»^|H); Man/ill. AWr. 

ly ' iCtitti^'uukf,' II p. :u> (I -.'>:! t; //;.. r. /;. xli'ii. p. iVi7 

'1 ■■'**• . >*/ J'urti. I.inn .^if. li. p. 17<» (1 -•'>-»: tiray, I*. X. »S. 
!•*.>. pp. 1--^. ll»7 ( .Vrii I -I mill* I ; W. (V|/. //. .\,tr tniinea. p. iM^ 
il-.V*,. i/. /• /. .V lH*,l, u 4:W (NfW (iiiiiital; Strink. Iliis^ 
l*^*'.. p J'lii (l..riiiM<n. liall. /'. /. .V IrMWl. p .V, (lUMini); 
Hini.A r f p. ill 7; /'iM^^A, Sru-tiuintu, p. 1 " J (Iih'!,**); titmld, 
II *»d/i li AutJr ii p l!?'.' • l-«i*n ; li"^rtd». iiti^ nutir /sttui*0i»fteteiL 

P V*, (lw;7i. Mtinr, A'f'* •^•< . A/«ii Ii*,rd*tiu.i , xx\ii. p. rt;?M 
■ l-:n N.i» riil..l..rii««»; Ihind, A' .^f.A. .I/m- \ii. AW/, p. Il» 



362 CHARADBUDiB. 

(1871 : Pekin) ; Dre99er, B. Eur. viii. p. 246 (1873) ; Sharpe, Ibit^ 
1876, p. 62 (Bruit, Nov.) ; Cdb, ^ Meichen. J.f. O, 1876, p. 827; 
Salvad, Aim, Mus. Qenoc, ix. pp. 48 (Yule IbL), 63 (1876: 
Sanghir), x. p. 164 (1877 : Sorong) ; Scl P, Z. ^5. 1877, pp. 118, 
(Duke of York Isl.), 667 (Admiralty Isl.) ; Matters, Proe, Lum. 
Soc. N. S, W. i. p. 61 (1877 : Cape Grenville ; Cape York ; Sue Id. ; 
Bet Isl. ; Long Isl. ; Damley Isl.) ; Sharpe, Joum. Lmn. Soc, ziii. 
p. 604 (1877) ; Castebutu ^ Ramsay, Proc, Lmn. Soc, N. S. W. L 
p. 386 (Gulf of Carpentaria) ; Ramsay, t. c, p. 394 (1877 : Pt. 
Moresby), ii. p. 198 (1878), lii. p. 296 (1879), iv. p. 101 (1880) ; 
Rosenb, Malay, Arch, pp. 373, 390 (1879) ; Salvad, P, Z, 8. 1878, 

g?. 90 (Ki Isl.), 100 (Aru Isl.) ; Finseh, P. Z, & 1879, p. 14 (New 
ritain) ; Sharpe, t, c, p. ^1 (Kina Banua Itiver)^ ; Sd, t. c, p. 447 
(Duke of York Isl.) ; Salvad, Ann, Mus, Oenav, xiv. p. 667 (1879 : 



Great Ki Island) ; D' Albert. NuovarOumea, pp. 682, 686 (1880) ; 
Sd, Voy, * ChaUmger,' ii. Birds, p. 33 (1881 : Admiralty Isl.) ; 
Salvad, t, c. pp. 73, 83 (Ki Isl.); Meyer, Verh, s.-6. Ges, Wien, 
1881, p. 767 (Sumba) ; Finseh, Vog, SUdsee, p. 22 (18ft4 : New 
Britain), p. 39 (Torres Straits) ; Meyer, Sirz, Abhandl, Ges. * Isis,' 
Dresden, 1884, Abth. i. p. 66 (Siao) ; Pleske, BuU, Acad. St, PS- 
tersb, xxix. p. 673 (1884 : Temate) ; Bogd. Consp, Av. Imp, Ross. 
i. p. 84 (1884) ; Guillem, P, Z S, 1886, p. 676 (Obi Major) ; Ram- 
say, Tab, List Austr. B, p. 20 (1888) ; North, Proc, Linn. Soc. 
N.S. W. (2) iii. p. 1778 (1888 : Cumberland, N. S. W.) ; Etheridge, 
Lord Howe Isl, p. 17 (1889). 

Numenius tahitensis (nee Gm.), Cassm in Perry^s Exped, Japan, ii. 
p. 228, pi. 6 (1866). 

Numenius minor (nee Leach), Rosenb, Nat. Tydschr. Nederl. Ind. 
XXV. p. 266 (1863) ; id, J.f, 0, 1864, p. 137. 

Numemus sp., Rosenb, Reis naar Zuidoospereil, p. 82 (1867 : Kf 
Islands). 

Numenius variegatus, Salvad. Ann, Mus. Genov. xviii. p. 330 (1882); 
id, Om. Papuasia etc, iii. p. 332 (1882) ; Sd. P. Z. S. 1883, pp. 62, 
200 (Larut, Timorlaut) ; BUikist. Amended List B, Japan, p. 12 
(1884) ; Forbes, P, Z. S. 1884, p. 433 (Timor Laut) ; id. Naturalises 
Wand, East. Arch. p. 367 (1886) ; Nehrk. J. f. O. 1886, p. 36 
(Waigiou) ; Grant, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 201 (Aola, Guadalcanar) ; 
Blasius, Omis, 1888, p. 629 (Sanghir) ; Everett, Joum. Straits 
Branch As. Soc. 1889, p. 209 ; Salvad. Agg. Om. Papuasia etc. 
iii. p. 204 (1891) ; Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus, xiv. p. 204 (1892 : 
Sumba) ; Meyer ^ Wiglesw, J.f. O. 1894, p. 262 (Talaut Isl.). 

Numenius melanorhynchus (nee JSp.), Tacz. Bull. Soc. Zool, Fr. viii. 
p. 340 (1883 : Kamtchatka) ; Dyb. f Tacz. op. cit, ix. p. 146 (1884). 

Numenius phaeopus variejratus, Stefneger, Bull. U.S. Nat, Mus, 
no. 29, p. 138 (1886 : Bering Isl.), p. 317 (Kamtchatka) ; See- 
bohm. Mist. Br. B. iii. p. 101 (1886) ; id. Geogr. Distr. Charadr, 
p. 330 (1880) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 467 (Chimulpo, Oorea, 
May) ; Seebohm, B. Japan. Einp. p. 317 (1890) ; Nicholski, Faune 
Saghalien, p. 267 (teste Tacz.) ; Tacz. Mhn. Acad. Imp. Sci 
St. PHersb. (7) xxxLx. p. 943 (1893). 

Adult male. Similar to N. iiihcBopus, but with the lower back and 
rumj) very thickly mottled with bars and spots of brown, and the 
axillaries with broader and more numerous bands of brown : ** bill 
blackish, dark brown at the base of the lower mandible ; feet dark 
lead-colour ; claws black ; iris very dark brown " (L. Taczanowski). 
Total length 15 inches, culmen 3, wing 8*8, tail 3*8, tarsus 2*15, 



41. ycMEirirs. 



:M3 



The female and joun^t i^ well an the winter plumage, are exactly 
atmilar to those of X pfuropuM, The differences between tbit race 
and the Whimbrel of Europe are not lo strongly pronounced in all 
raifi as to render the determination of specimens always a matter 
of certainty. 8omc of the l^ilippinc specimenH, for instance, are 
wry difficult to seiwrato from Euroftean examples, and many others 
also appear to be intermediate between the two forms. 

Hah, Replaces S, jthtro^mM in Eastern Siberia and the Jaiianese 
Islands, extending in winter to the Malay Archipelago and Aus- 
timlia. 



«. (f ad. sk. 

6. d sd. Pk. 
r. Ad. »k. 
d, t. .\d. ihk. 
/. 9 ad. Ilk. 
y. (^ sd. *k. 
A, L 1mm. sk. 

k. Imm. sk. 
/. 9 ad. sk. 

81. c'ad. ; W.0.9 

ad. lik. 
^9- cf 9 sd. »k. 

r. Ad. *k. 

«. 9 •*!• "k. 

f. 9 sd. »k. 

M, r. J V sd. »k. 

». Ad. ftk. 

X. 9 j**^'- *k. 

f. \i\. ik. 
s, s'. .\d. ftk. 

*'. (f sd. Ilk. 
r". Ad. >k. 
^. .\d. pk 
r ? sd. tk. 
/'. Ad. •V 
f\ k. Ad.ak. 
i.k- ff 9sd.»k 
/ .%d. ak. 
■i'.ii'. o . A4.*k. 
^•f'. Ail. sk. 
r Ad. tk. 
9* 9 imm. ak. 
/ <f sd sk. 
«'. (f ad. sh. 



Ilskodsdi, Jspan, May 24 

(/f/kiAriWoff). 
Nsinuski, Msv 1. 
Yokuhsma, .Nfay *22 (iVnor). 
Ydkohsros (//.iVyw). 
Shanghai, Msv. 
Sbsoghai, .May {R, S^rinMor). 
FurmoMs, Stipt, Oct. [R. 

6*annAfir). 
Hurms ( n*»Hjfhtun ). 
Tsvov, Tenaaserim, April 39, 

< ?f'. 7>ari*/n). 
Sslsngure, Nov. ti) Feb. ( W. 

Ihiviattn). 
l*uli) Nnng»a, Singapore, Nuv. 

( W. Ikirittm). 
Msnils, Philippines {Maif-* 

lami Heritii). 
Cujo \A,, rhilippines, Nov. 

{A. li. Mfyer). 
N««)rn>* W., Feb. 
CVbu. 

Malsniiis. 

llarsm Ki\er, Sarawnk. 

IVirne*!. 

M fiisdi ■• ( Vli-b%«. 

Ssnghir, Nov. 1*7. 
SuU Ulsndii. 

loirut, Tenirober NI.. Si*pt. <l. 
lUhiisLerst.l. /^ WaUarr). 
Munitsi. 

M « ir itai , Sr pt ( lirrnstriM ) . 

IViuru. 

( ersni. 

(Vram [A. li. HaiUtre), 

.Mvml. 

My Mil, Feb. lit {Jtotenbery). 

Aru Nlstidii. 

.\ru Nland^. 



8t»ebohm CoU. 

F. Ringer, I':sq. 'l\\. 
SeebohmColl. 
Seebohm ( *olL 
J. Webb, R<i. [1».]. 
Seelxihm l*oll. 
Sei^bohm Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 
llume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddsle Coll. 

K. M. Moselev, Em. 
Voy. H.M.S.'*Chal. 

leiigiT.' 
V..y. H.M.S. •Chal- 

lt*ii;:er.' 
ChHrlt*A IIoM*, Ehii. 
P' 

a • • 

Tw«*e4ldHle ( *oU. 

Stffbtthin & Twe<'d- 
dsle t.VilU. 

S*«*bohiii Coll. 

WsllaivtNill. 

Wsllm-.- Coll. 

Ihp. H.n. Furb.« C.;. 

Twi'tMlJslf (Vill. 

\Vallsr.*(*oll. 

Si*t*bohm C*oll. 

\Vsllsr.*(\.ll. 

Wallso. Coll. 

TweMldsle l\t\\, 

\Vsllsc«- Cill 

S«*<*biihm(oll. 

Wsllsr.* ( *oll. 

V.iy. II.M.S. • Chal- 
lenger.' 



364 



CHARADRIID^. 



v'. 9 ad. sk. 

w. 2 ad. sk. 
x'. Ad. sk. 
y\ Ad. sk. 
z'. $ ad. 8k. 

a'\ b". Ad. 8k. 
c\d'\e'\ Ad. sk. 
/". Juv. sk. 
y", h". Ad. et 

juv. St. 
»". Ad. St. 
k", c^ imm. sk. 

t'. cJ ad. sk. 

m", w". Skidls. 



Ko Doulan. 

New Guinea (S. Miiller). 
Duke of York Island. 
New Britain {G, Brown), 
Admiralty Islands. 

Australia. 
Queensland. 
Port Essinj^n. 
Port Essing^on. 

New South Wales. 
Ansevata, New Caledonia, 

Sept. 21 (H, L. Layard), 
Lord Howe Island (J» Mao- 

gitlivray). 
N. Australia. 



Voy. H.M.S. ' Chal- 
lenger.* 

Seebohm Coll. 

Rev. G. Brown [C.]. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Vov. H.M.S.*Chal- 
lenger.' 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Gould Coll. 

Capt. Chambers [